nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒09‒19
twelve papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Justifications of repression in autocracies: An empirical analysis of the Maghreb, 2000-2010 By Josua, Maria
  2. School Integration of Syrian Refugee Children in Turkey By Murat Kirdar; İsmet Koç; Meltem DayıoÄŸlu
  3. Public and dynamic action of cooperatives in Morocco By Khalid Didi; Hicham Attouch
  4. The evolution of new forms of work in Moroccan companies following the application of the new labor code, statistical analysis of trends between 2009 and 2015 By Younes El Ansari
  5. Egypt: Impacts of the Ukraine and global crises on poverty and food security By Diao, Xinshen; Abdelradi, Fadi; Abay, Kibrom A.; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Raouf, Mariam; Thurlow, James
  6. National elections, sub-national growth: the politics of Turkey's provincial economic dynamics under AKP rule By Luca, Davide
  7. Liquidity and credit problems and the effect on the soundness of Tunisian groups (GDA ) By Neily, Oussama; Neily, Mohamed
  8. Practitioner Note 4: Inclusive social protection for forcibly displaced populations By Lucas Sato
  9. Practitioner Note 4: Inclusive social protection for forcibly displaced populations By Lucas Sato
  10. The Impact of the Public Education Expenditures on Regional Development in Turkey: Evidence from Static and Dynamic Panel Data By Köktaş, A. Murat; Apaydın, Şükrü; Pirçekli, Koray
  12. Intuition and Managerial Decision-making in the Algerian SME: Cases of SMEs in the Wilaya of Bejaia By Abderrezak Souilah; Mustapha Meziani

  1. By: Josua, Maria
    Abstract: Previous studies on the justification of repression have analysed large-scale protests, about which autocratic officials communicate to avoid backlash effects. However, we know much less about how everyday repression against dissidents and ordinary citizens is communicated and justified under authoritarianism. This paper is the first to systematically investigate how officials in autocracies justify, conceal, or deny different forms of repression employed by different state institutions. It studies the communication of repression in two North African autocracies, drawing on the novel Justifications of Repressive Incidents in Morocco and Tunisia Dataset. The dataset contains 439 events between 2000-2010 and disaggregates the various dimensions of repression and its communication. The empirical analysis shows that the chosen forms of repression influence patterns of communication and justification. Studying the communication of repression helps us better understand the nexus of authoritarian legitimation and political violence in the Middle East and North Africa region and beyond.
    Keywords: North Africa,Maghreb,repression,legitimation,communication,justification,dataset
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Murat Kirdar (Murat Güray Kırdar); İsmet Koç (İsmet Koç); Meltem DayıoÄŸlu (Meltem DayıoÄŸlu)
    Abstract: Although school integration of the children of economic migrants in developed countries is well-studied in the literature, little evidence based on large-scale representative data exists on the school integration of refugee children—many of whom live in low- or middle-income countries. This study focuses on Syrian refugee children in Turkey and examines the underlying causes of native– refugee differences in school enrolment. For this purpose, we use the 2018 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, which includes a representative sample of Syrian refugee households. Accounting for a rich set of socioeconomic variables, we find that the native–refugee gap in school enrolment drops by half for boys and two-thirds for girls, but the gap persists for both genders. When we restrict the sample to refugees who arrived in Turkey at or before age 8 and account for socioeconomic differences, the native–refugee gap completely vanishes for both boys and girls, indicating that school integration of refugee children in Turkey has been possible conditional on their age at arrival. We also find that the timing of boys’ school dropouts coincides with their entry into the labor market, whereas girls’ dropouts mostly occur before marriage age. Finally, we reveal important differences between natives and refugees, as well as early and late arrivers among refugees, in never starting school, grade progression and repetition, dropping out, and grade for age.
    Keywords: refugees; education; school enrollment; integration; child labor; marriage; Turkey
    JEL: F22 I21 I28
    Date: 2022–08
  3. By: Khalid Didi (Université Mohammed V); Hicham Attouch (Université Mohammed V)
    Abstract: In Morocco, the state public action has long been a lever for the promotion of cooperative entrepreneurship and the creation of conducive environment to the development of the Moroccan cooperative sector. As a result, several support and accompaniment measures have been taken by the public authorities to boost the dynamics of this sector. This research work consists of analyzing the impact of state public action on the dynamics of cooperatives in Morocco. Our methodology is based on the mapping of the various programs and sector strategies that have greatly contributed to the dynamics of the cooperative sector. The results of this analysis have enabled to demonstrate the importance of supporting the State in revitalizing cooperatives, by giving it not only demographic performance, but also an entrepreneurial and participatory dynamic in development. On the other hand, several shortcomings have been identified which negatively impact the performance of cooperatives, in particular: the lack of convergence between the various public programs and the limitations of the financial and technical resources dedicated to the proximity support of cooperatives.
    Abstract: Au Maroc, l'action publique de l'État a constitué depuis longtemps un levier pour la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat coopératif et la création d'un environnement propice au développement du secteur coopératif marocain. De ce fait, plusieurs mesures d'appui et d'accompagnement ont été prises par les pouvoirs publics pour booster la dynamique de ce secteur. Ce travail de recherche consiste à analyser l'impact de l'action publique de l'État sur la dynamique des coopératives au Maroc. Notre méthodologie s'est basée sur la cartographie des différents programmes et stratégies sectoriels ayant fortement contribué à la dynamique du secteur coopératif. Les résultats de cette analyse a permis de démontrer l'importance de l'accompagnant de l'Etat dans la redynamisation des coopératives, en lui donnant non seulement une performance démographique, mais aussi une dynamique entrepreneuriale et participative au développement. En revanche plusieurs insuffisances ont été identifiées impactent négativement la performance des coopératives, notamment : le manque de convergence entre les différents programmes publics et les limites des moyens financiers et techniques dédiés à l'appui de proximité des coopératives.
    Keywords: Public action,Cooperative,Social Entrepreneurship,Human Development,Action publique,Coopérative,Entrepreneurial social,Développement humain
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Younes El Ansari (Université Mohammed V)
    Abstract: "عقب إصدار المدونة الجديدية للشغل بالمغرب قي سنة 2003، كان من المنتظر تطور الاشكال الجديدية للتعاقد من أجل العمل و التي أسس لها الاطار المرجعي الجديد حيث كان من المنتظر ان تتطور نسبة اللجوء الى عقود الشغل المحددة المدة و التشغيل المؤقت بشكل يحد من اللجوء الى النمط الكلاسيكي للتعاقد و هو العقد الغير المحدد المدة. لقد حلل خبراء علم الاجتماع هاته الظاهرة في دول الشمال و التي تتسم بتطور شكل جديدي من العلاقات التعاقدية في المقاولات و التي يصعب توصيفها بأنها علاقة شغل كلاسيكية بالرغم من ان الاجراء المعنيين بها يعتبرون من الاكثر مردودية و هو ما دفع الاخبراء الى توصيف هته العلاقات الشغلية ب ""المواضع الرمادية للتشغيل"". يتجه هذا العمل للوقوف على تطور طبيعة العلاقات الشغلية بالمقاولة المغربية بين فترة 2009 و 2015 ويخلص في الاخير الى انه ، على عكس المنتظر، تم ترسيخ العقد الغير محدد المدة كالالية الاساسية للتعاقد في المقاولات المغربية في هذه الفترة."
    Abstract: In 2003, a new labour law was promulgated in Morocco, new forms of labour relations were to emerge, resulting in atypical forms of contractualisation to the detriment of the traditional permanent contract (CDI). The emergence of these atypical forms of work, at the frontier of the informal, is what the sociologists of the organizations described as the «grey zone of employment» where workers are highly active despite the fact that their contract managers refer instead to a fixed-term contract. This article analyzes the dynamics of labour relations that have recomposed themselves in a period between two moments 2009 and 2015. the study shows that the new forms of work in Morocco have not experienced the expected evolution notably the Fixed-Term Contracts or the contracts of employment in the form of temporary. On the contrary, we are left with a pattern of consolidation of the Indefinite contract as the predominant form of contractualization.
    Abstract: Depuis la promulgation en 2003 du nouveau code du travail au Maroc, de nouvelles formes de relations de travail devaient émerger engendrant ainsi des formes atypiques de contractualisation au détriment du traditionnel contrat à durée indéterminée (CDI). L'émergence de ces formes atypiques de travail, à la frontière de l'informel, constituent ce que les sociologues des organisations qualifiaient de « zone grise d'emploi » où des travailleurs sont fortement actifs malgré que leurs cadres de contractualisation renvoient plutôt vers un contrat de type à durée déterminée. Cet article met la lumière sur les dynamiques des relations de travail qui se sont recomposées dans une période située entre deux moments phares 2009 et 2015. l'étude montre que les nouvelles formes de travail au Maroc n'ont pas connu le développement attendu notamment en ce qui concerne le développement des CDD ou des contrats de travail sous la forme d'intérim comme ce qui s'est passé dans les pays de Nord. Au contraire, on se retrouve avec un schéma de consolidation de la CDI comme forme prédominante de contractualisation.
    Keywords: labor code,labor relations,gray area of employment,fixed-term contract,indeterminate contract,acting,code de travail,relations de travail,Zone grise d’emploi,CDD,CDI,Interim
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Diao, Xinshen; Abdelradi, Fadi; Abay, Kibrom A.; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Pauw, Karl; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Raouf, Mariam; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Global food, fuel, and fertilizer prices have witnessed rapid and significant increase in recent months, driven largely by the fallout from the ongoing war in Ukraine and associated sanctions im-posed on Russia. Other factors, including governments’ responses and export bans, have also con-tributed to rising prices (Laborde and Mamun 2022). Palm oil and wheat prices increased by 56 and 100 percent in real terms, respectively, between June 2021 and April 2022, with most of the in-crease occurring since February 2022.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, poverty, food security, armed conflicts, crises, prices, shock, agrifood systems, equality, diet
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Luca, Davide
    Abstract: Despite a large body of work on the impacts of institutions on subnational growth and development, economic geographers have, in the last decades, frequently overlooked the role of politics and, in particular, that of national political economies. Drawing on the political science literature, the article argues that studying national political dynamics is still key to understand the cumulative process of uneven regional development. Using data from Turkey over the period 2004-2016, the article shows how national electoral politics and government actions have significantly affected provincial growth patterns. The impact is substantive and increases in election years. Results also suggest that the central government may have influenced sub-national growth trajectories in different ways, including boosting the construction sector and expanding public employment.
    Keywords: distributive politics; electoral politics; politics of development; regional economic growth; Turkey
    JEL: D72 H73 O18 R11
    Date: 2022–07–01
  7. By: Neily, Oussama; Neily, Mohamed
    Abstract: Many failures in water distribution groups (GDA) have been induced. We will try through this research to explore the main sources of groups fragility. We will use as a sample, 10 commercial groups operating in The Tunisian territory. Our research covers a 10-year study period from 2011-2021. It discusses the relationship between liquidity risk and credit risk as well as the implications for the strength of GDA groups during the same period. Most academic research validates that credit risk and liquidity risk do not have a contemporary or temporally significant reciprocal relationship economically and the idea of the relationship between the two risk categories is positive and can amplify other risk categories.
    Keywords: GDA, drinking water distribution, liquidity and credit problems, solidity, Tunisian groups.
    JEL: G2 G20 G23
    Date: 2022–08
  8. By: Lucas Sato (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: disaster risk management; COVID-19; social protection; MENA
    Date: 2022–06
  9. By: Lucas Sato (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: disaster risk management; COVID-19; social protection; MENA
    Date: 2022–06
  10. By: Köktaş, A. Murat; Apaydın, Şükrü; Pirçekli, Koray
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze the impact of public education expenditures on regional economic development in Turkey. For this purpose, we test the hypothesis that there is a strong relationship between education expenditures and economic growth/development using static and dynamic panel data (system GMM) methods. In the analysis, we use annual data on central government education expenditures and regional GDP per capita data for the period 2004– 2019 for 81 provinces at NUTS-III level. The findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between central government education expenditures and regional development. In other words, regional development accelerates if education expenditures increase. However, the magnitude of the effect is not as strong as is expressed in the hypothesis: a ten percent increase in education spending only increases economic development by 1.1 percent.
    Keywords: Public education expenditures, Regional development, Static panel data, Dynamic panel data.
    JEL: E62 O1 R1 R13 R58
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Naima Benkhider (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa]); Mustapha Meziani (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa])
    Abstract: This paper aims to examine the linkage between company size, strategic alignment, employee training, and technological infrastructure within Algerian firms. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed. A descriptive method and multiple regression were used to analyze and interpret the results. Results show that in the Algerian firms, the technological infrastructure is determined by the company size. Strategic alignment and employee training explain the technological infrastructure availability, but they have no critical significance than company size factors.
    Keywords: technological infrastructure,company size,strategic alignment,employee training
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Abderrezak Souilah (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa]); Mustapha Meziani (Université Abderrahmane Mira [Béjaïa])
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree and motivations of using intuition, compared to formal analysis, in the managerial decisions of the managers of 23 SMEs in the wilaya of Bejaia. This issue will be addressed in two stages. First, we will present a brief review of the literature on intuition and managerial decision-making.Then, we will use a questionnaire as a data collection tool in the practical part. At the end of this study, it was found that the managers of the SMEs surveyed frequently use their intuition in managerial decision-making.
    Abstract: L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer le degré et motivations d'utilisation de l'intuition, par rapport à l'analyse formelle, dans les décisions managériales des dirigeants de 23 PME au niveau de la wilaya de Bejaia. Cette problématique sera abordée en deux temps. D'abord, nous présenterons une brève revue de littérature sur l'intuition et la prise de décision managériale. Ensuite, nous ferons recours dans la partie pratique à un questionnaire comme outil de collecte de données. Au terme de cette étude, il s'est avéré que les dirigeants des PME enquêtées utilisent fréquemment leur intuition dans la prise de décision managériale.
    Keywords: managerial decision,manager,emotion,experience,Intuition,décision managériale,dirigeant,émotion,expérience,PME
    Date: 2021

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