nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒08‒29
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Promoting Green Entrepreneurship in Morocco as a Roadmap to Sustainable Development: A literature Review By Mohamed Elmoukhtar; Fatima Touhami; Othmane Taouabit; Imane Mouhtat
  2. The use of online payment in Morocco during COVID19: An analysis of the TAM model by logistic regression By Nisrine Essanoussi; Zineb Bennis Nechba
  3. Growth intention of Moroccan SMEs in a crisis context By Kenza Morabbi; Said Ouhadi
  4. Impact of COVID19 on the performance of VSEs in the FezMeknes region: A comparative study using the Wilcoxon test of signed ranks By Nisrine Essanoussi
  5. A Cointegration-based cartel screen for detecting collusion By Kurdoglu, Berkay; Yucel, Eray
  6. Jordan: 2022 Article IV Consultation and Fourth Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, Request for Augmentation and Rephasing of Access, and Modification of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement; and Statement by the Executive Director for Jordan By International Monetary Fund
  7. Jordan: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund

  1. By: Mohamed Elmoukhtar (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane); Fatima Touhami (Laboratoire de recherche multidisciplinaire en économie et gestion, USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane); Othmane Taouabit (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane); Imane Mouhtat (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane)
    Abstract: Over the last twenty years, and since the United Nations World Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), the theme of the green economy and its impact on sustainable development has prompted many researchers to reflect in depth on the global movement towards a more equitable and sustainable economy, towards a "green economy", generating a total commitment across the world. Morocco, like several other governments, has often given great importance in its stimulus programmes to green entrepreneurs, through the granting of research credits to stimulate innovation, or loan guarantees, or tax breaks or incentives for business creation. The choice of this theme fits perfectly into the current context of our country, marked by the debates on the new development model. Today, Morocco is charting its path towards development by putting in place very ambitious strategies characterised by the adoption of new educational, social, economic and financial programmes. Green entrepreneurship is therefore an asset to accompany the country in its economic, technological and environmental transition. It constitutes a new economic and development dynamic in full evolution in a context of awareness of global environmental issues. Can we therefore consider the promotion of green entrepreneurship in Morocco as an asset for a sustainable territorial development of the country? The aim of our study is to analyse the contribution of green entrepreneurship to the development of the country using the SWOT analytical tool and to draw some conclusions and recommendations.
    Keywords: Green economy,green entrepreneurship,sustainable development,literature review. JEL Classification: Q56 Paper type: Theoretical Research
    Date: 2022–06–06
  2. By: Nisrine Essanoussi (E.N.C.G - Ecole nationale de commerce et de gestion - USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah); Zineb Bennis Nechba (USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah)
    Abstract: Online payment represents one of the innovative ways of technology allowing consumers to benefit from financial services to pay for their purchases in less time and often with lower costs. This method of payment, which is carried out through digitalized applications, was implemented in response to the requirements and expectations of the modern consumer. In Morocco, banks have followed this evolution and are constantly developing their online payment services. Our work, which is based on the technology acceptance model, uses a questionnaire survey, administered online, on the acceptance of online payment by the effective customers of Moroccan banks. We study the following variables: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, security, privacy and use of the payment during the COVID 19. We use IBM® SPSS® 21 software and a logistic regression model to test our research hypotheses and answer our problem. Over a period of May 2020 to March 2021, our data collection resulted in 267 responses. After eliminating individuals who never opted for online payment, as well as responses with missing values, we retained a total of 201 valid and accepted questionnaires. Our study indicated that the context of the health crisis has reconciled many Moroccan consumers with online payment. Nevertheless, it should also be noted that the majority of consumers for whom the frequency of online payment increased during the health crisis and lockdown period already had a good acceptance of online payment.
    Abstract: Le paiement en ligne représente l'un des moyens innovants de la technologie permettant aux consommateurs de bénéficier des services financiers pour régler leurs achats en moins de temps et souvent avec des coûts plus bas. Ce mode de paiement qui s'effectue à travers des applications digitalisées a été mis en place en réponse aux exigences et attentes du consommateur moderne. Au Maroc, les banques ont abouti à cette évolution et ne cessent de développer leurs prestations du paiement en ligne. Notre travail, qui s'appuie sur le modèle d'acceptation de la technologie, fait recours à une enquête par questionnaire, administré en ligne, et portant sur l'acceptation du paiement en ligne par la clientèle effective des banques marocaines. Nous étudions, dans ce sens, les variables suivantes : l'utilité perçue, la facilité d'utilisation perçue, la sécurité, la confidentialité ainsi que l'utilisation du paiement lors de la COVID 19. Nous utilisons le logiciel IBM® SPSS® 21 et empruntons un modèle de régression logistique, afin de tester nos hypothèses de recherche et de répondre à notre problématique. Sur une période allant de Mai 2020 à Mars 2021, notre collecte des données a abouti à 267 réponses. Après avoir éliminé les individus n'ayant jamais opté pour le paiement en ligne, ainsi que les réponses avec des valeurs manquantes, nous avons retenu un total de 201 questionnaires valides et acceptés. Notre étude a indiqué que le contexte de la crise sanitaire a réconcilié d'innombrables consommateurs marocains avec le paiement en ligne. Néanmoins, il convient de souligner également que la majorité des consommateurs pour lesquels la fréquence du paiement en ligne a augmenté, pendant la période de la crise sanitaire et du confinement, avait déjà une bonne acceptabilité du paiement en ligne.
    Keywords: TAM,e-payment,Moroccan consumers,COVID 19,logistic regression,e-paiement,consommateurs marocains,régression logistique
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Kenza Morabbi (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Said Ouhadi (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: SMEs are the cornerstone of the Moroccan economy. They recruit, invest, and contribute strongly to economic growth. Indeed, the latter remains dependent on their growth and development. Nevertheless, contrary to what many people think, growth is not a common goal among SME managers. Some want to grow their businesses, while others are satisfied with the status quo. This research develops an in-depth analysis of the growth intention of Moroccan SMEs, while taking into account the crisis context in which it was conducted. In this sense, the study has two objectives: to understand through the eyes and perceptions of managers the impact that the crisis may have had on their business, and to understand their intention to grow during this context. After a literature review highlighting the role of the manager within the SME, and the results of the work on growth intention, we conducted, through a qualitative approach, four interviews with four Moroccan SME managers, located in Marrakech. The interviews, conducted between month 3 and month 4 of 2022, were transcribed according to the sociological method, and then analyzed by hand, through a horizontal and vertical analysis. Following this analysis, the results generated demonstrate that growth is a polyphonic concept, and that the intention to grow is protean: four modalities of the intention to grow have emerged. Strong growth intention, moderate growth intention, pending growth intention, and no growth intention. The results of this research contribute to the understanding of the perceptions of SME managers, which in return, would allow public authorities to put in place more adapted and therefore more useful support mechanisms in order to encourage them to grow.
    Abstract: Les PME constituent la pierre angulaire de l'économie marocaine. Elles recrutent, et investissent, et contribuent fortement dans la croissance économique. En effet, ce dernier reste tributaire de leur croissance et développement. Néanmoins, contrairement à ce que pensent beaucoup de gens, la croissance n'est pas une finalité commune entre dirigeants des PME. Certains désirent développer leurs entreprises, en revanche, d'autres sont satisfaits du statu quo. Cette recherche développe une analyse en profondeur de l'intention de croissance des PME marocaines, tout en prenant en compte le contexte de crise où elle a été menée. Dans ce sens, l'étude présente un double objectif : Comprendre à travers l'œil et perception des dirigeants l'impact qu'a pu avoir la crise sur leur activité, et appréhender leur intention de croissance durant ce contexte. Après une revue de littérature mettant la lumière sur le rôle du dirigeant au sein de la PME, ainsi que sur les résultats des travaux portant sur l'intention de croissance, nous avons mené, à travers une approche qualitative, quatre entretiens auprès de quatre dirigeants de PME marocaines, situées à Marrakech. Les entretiens conduits entre le mois 3 et le mois 4 de l'année 2022, ont été retranscrits selon la méthode sociologique, puis analysée à la main, à travers une analyse horizontale et verticale. À la suite de cette analyse, les résultats générés démontrent que la croissance est un concept polyphonique, et que l'intention de croissance est protéiforme : quatre modalités de l'intention de croissance ont émergé. L'intention de croissance forte, l'intention de croissance modérée, l'intention de croissance en suspens, et l'intention de non-croissance. Les résultats de cette recherche contribuent dans la compréhension des perceptions des dirigeants des PME, ce qui par conséquent, permettrait aux pouvoirs publics de mettre en place des dispositifs d'appui plus adaptés et donc plus utiles, afin de les encourager à se développer.
    Keywords: SME,crisis,growth intention,PME,crise,intention de croissance
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Nisrine Essanoussi (E.N.C.G - Ecole nationale de commerce et de gestion - USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah)
    Abstract: This paper focused on a sample of 67 Moroccan VSEs operating in the region of Fez-Meknes. It provided some answers to the question of the impact of COVID19 on the performance of VSEs. In order to theoretically support the concept of performance and to measure it, we borrow the theoretical model of Morin, Savoie and Beaudin (1994), according to which performance results from four dimensions (sustainability, economic efficiency, value of human resources, legitimacy with external groups). A literature review on the VSE shows that it was already a fragile company struggling to survive in pre-crisis times. This financial, economic, social and organizational fragility weighs heavily on the performance and competitiveness of VSEs. In order to provide elements of quantitative answers to our problem, we used the non-parametric test Wilcoxon signed ranks. The comparison of performance KPI's before and after the crisis reveals that the effect of the health crisis is heterogeneous by sector. For VSEs operating in the construction, industry and service sectors, performance has deteriorated markedly in times of crisis. For these sectors, turnover and the budget allocated to investment have fallen, recourse to financing has increased, activity has been reduced, the supply chain has been disrupted, lead times payment has been slowed, staff turnover has increased. On the other hand, the commercial sector has shown resilience in the face of COVID19.
    Abstract: Le présent papier a porté sur un échantillon de 67 TPE marocaines opérant dans la région Fès- Meknès. Il a permis d'apporter des éléments de réponses à la question de l'impact de la COVID19 sur la performance des TPE. Afin d'étayer théoriquement le concept de la performance et de le mesurer, nous empruntons le modèle théorique de Morin, Savoie et Beaudin (1994), selon lequel la performance résulte de quatre dimensions (pérennité, efficience économique, valeur des ressources humaines, légitimité auprès des groupes externes). Une revue de littérature portant sur la TPE montre que, celle-ci, était déjà une entreprise fragile qui peignait à survivre en temps pré-crise. Cette fragilité financière, économique, sociale et organisationnelle pèse lourdement sur la performance et la compétitivité des TPE. Afin d'apporter des éléments de réponses quantitatives à notre problématique, nous avons utilisé le test non paramétrique de comparaison des échantillons appariés de Wilcoxon des rangs signés. La comparaison des KPI's de la performance avant et après la crise laisse dévoiler que l'effet de la crise sanitaire est hétérogène par secteur. Pour les TPE opérant dans les secteurs de la construction, de l'industrie et des services, la performance s'estnettement détériorée en temps de crise. Pour ces secteurs, le Chiffre d'affaires et le budget alloué à l'in vestissement ont connu une baisse, le recours au financement s'est amplifié, l'activité a été réduite, la chaine d'approvisionnement a été perturbée, les délais de paiement ont été ralentis, le taux de roulement du personnel a connu une augmentation. En revanche, le secteur commercial s'est montré résilient face à la COVID19.
    Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic,performance,Very Small Businesses,Pandémie Covid-19,Très Petite Entreprise,Performance
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Kurdoglu, Berkay; Yucel, Eray
    Abstract: In this article, we propose a new empirical screen for detecting cartels, using the cointegration as our basis of modeling. The proposed screen is capable of identifying potential cartel behavior, indicating the strength of price adjustment among firms, and providing a basis for assessing structural change. The screen is applied to the Turkish cement market for an initial demonstration of use; we obtain promising results.
    Keywords: Antitrust; Cartel; Detection; Empirical screen
    JEL: D43 L41
    Date: 2022–07–26
  6. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The economy started to recover in 2021—with growth, fiscal performance, and the current account outperforming program expectations. Inflation remained subdued in 2021, but has picked up in recent months. Growth is expected to strengthen to 2.4 percent in 2022, but is being marked down by 0.3 ppts. from the third review, reflecting global economic headwinds, including tighter financial conditions and spillovers from the war in Ukraine. Although Jordan’s wheat reserves provide assurance on near-term food security, persistently high food and fuel prices pose a major near-term policy challenge, especially given high unemployment (23 percent) and limited fiscal space. The current account deficit is projected to widen to 6.7 percent of GDP in 2022, as a larger fuel import bill dominates strong tourism receipts and robust exports.
    Date: 2022–07–18
  7. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Date: 2022–07–18

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