nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Toward Understanding Financial Diplomacy: The Case of Morocco By Fadoua Joudar; Brahim Dinar
  2. The economic impacts of digitalization through an extended input-output model: theory and application to Tunisia By Gebs, Mehdi; Nabi, Mahmoud Sami
  3. With or without him? Experimental evidence on gender-sensitive cash grants and trainings in Tunisia By Jules Gazeaud; Nausheen Khan; Eric Mvukiyehe; Olivier Sterck
  4. An overview on the Algerian National Innovation System in the Digital Era By Dehimat Amina; Amina Baroudi Dehimat
  5. "The Effect of Ownership Structure on the Nonperforming Loans in Iraqi Banks " By Abdullah Mohammed Sadaa
  6. Estimation de l’IPC par les modèles non paramétriques : cas de l’Algérie By Bourioune, Tahar; Chiad, Faycal
  7. Profil entrepreneurial et capacités d'innovation des dirigeants des PME exportatrices en Algérie By Mohamed Kadi; Foued Cheriet

  1. By: Fadoua Joudar (Université Hassan 1er [Settat]); Brahim Dinar (Université Hassan 1er [Settat])
    Abstract: Due to an economic context characterized by globalization, marked by fierce competition and by the opening of markets at the international level, several opportunities and large-scale challenges arise because of this new international context. This set of circumstances has drawn increasing attention to the role of financial diplomacy in promoting savings. Generally confused with economic diplomacy, financial diplomacy represents a particular aspect of diplomacy, however it remains very little treated in research works. Aware of the importance of financial diplomacy in the insertion of its financial system at the level of international finance, Morocco has deployed remarkable efforts in this direction. Indeed, the interest given to financial diplomacy by Morocco is not new, it dates back to its independence. The structural adjustment program initiated in Morocco in 1983; was the beginning of strengthening the assistance and support relations of the IMF and the World Bank. These relations explain Morocco's interest in its financial diplomacy. Due to the lack of research work dealing with this issue, this article attempts to answer the following question: What are the illustrations and actors of financial diplomacy in Morocco to ensure its insertion in the international economy? To answer this question, this article examines the importance of Morocco's financial diplomacy in international financial relations, through an identification of diplomatic actors as well as its contribution to Morocco's debt situation.
    Keywords: Financial Diplomacy,International Monetary Fund,World Bank
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Gebs, Mehdi; Nabi, Mahmoud Sami
    Abstract: The paper contributes to the existing literature related to the economics of technology adoption. It focuses on the impacts of digitalization on the economic growth through various channels, mainly via investment and total factor productivity. Firstly, we begin by extending the Input-Output (IO) model of Kratena (2019) to enable the simulations of the macroeconomic impacts of digitalization. Secondly, we apply the model to the Tunisian Economy. It is found that the three main priority sectors to digitalize in Tunisia are the public administration, the education, and the construction sectors. Their full digitalization costs 1.8% of the GDP over 2021-2026 and leads to the same gain in terms of GDP growth, and to the creation of about 23 000 jobs per year over the same period. Besides, from 2027 and beyond and under the (restrictive) assumption of no extensive growth of the digitalized sectors, the productivity gains leads to 0.4% additional GDP growth and to the destruction of jobs equivalent to 0.64% of the active population, yearly.
    Keywords: Digitalization; economic growth; employment; Tunisia.
    JEL: O33 R15
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: Jules Gazeaud; Nausheen Khan; Eric Mvukiyehe; Olivier Sterck
    Abstract: Is it possible to stimulate women’s employment by relaxing their financial and human capital constraints? Does involving husbands help or hinder the effort? To examine these questions, we randomly allocated cash grants and financial training to 1,000 poor women in Tunisia. To encourage gender dialogue, a random subset of women could invite their male partner to the training. The cash grants and financial training positively impacted women’s income generating activities, but only for women who had to attend the training alone, suggesting that gender dialogue backfired. The program also reinforced traditional gender roles: it stimulated employment of other household members as well as investments in small-scale agriculture and livestock farming—two activities traditionally undertaken by women at home. Impacts on household living standards are overwhelmingly positive.
    Keywords: Cash Transfers, Financial Training, Gender Roles, Employment
    JEL: J16 L25 L26 O12
    Date: 2022–01–20
  4. By: Dehimat Amina (ESC - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d'Alger); Amina Baroudi Dehimat (ESC - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d'Alger)
    Abstract: The Algerian National Innovation System (NIS) is being discussed, its structure, key actors, role and the main challenges it is experiencing before and in the context of digital transformation. We intend to reveal the major characteristics of Algeria's NIS, as well as the impact of digital technologies on its performance, in order to highlight the challenges confronting it and the efforts required to overcome them. The Algerian NIS remains in its early stages and will need additional efforts from all its actors.
    Keywords: Industry 4.0,Digital Transformation,Innovation
    Date: 2022–06–04
  5. By: Abdullah Mohammed Sadaa (PhD Student at Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Yuvaraj Ganesan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Senior Lecturer at Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Chu Ei Yet Author-3-Workplace-Name: Senior Lecturer at Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between ownership structure (state ownership, foreign ownership, institutional ownership, and management ownership) and nonperforming loans in the Iraqi banking industry. Methodology – Based on quantitative research, the study adopted an archival research strategy using documents (annual reports) as a source of data. In addition, 31 banks working in Iraq were selected based on panel data with a time frame specified for 2011-2020, with 310 observations. Findings – The study found that three types of ownership foreign, institutional, and managerial, are associated with NPLs negatively, but government ownership is linked to NPLs positively because government-owned banks might have a hard time resisting government interference, which leads to higher risk-taking. Novelty – research conducted on the relationship between ownership structure and non-performing loans mainly has focused on developed nations, and there has been little research on the subject in developing countries. There is a need for research centering on developing nations since studies on this topic in developed economies do not adequately explain the relationship between ownership structure and non-performing loans in these countries. As a result, the present research focuses primarily on Iraq, where a significant credit risk characterizes the banking system compared to other Middle Eastern developing nations. Furthermore, the material on ownership structure is not found in Iraq. Type of Paper - Review"
    Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Non-performing loans, Iraqi banking industry
    JEL: C21 G32 H81 Z33
    Date: 2022–07–30
  6. By: Bourioune, Tahar; Chiad, Faycal
    Abstract: This work focuses on the estimation of the relative consumer price index in June 2022 in Algeria by different non-parametric models. The purpose of this work is to compare these different models from a performance point of view. The results reveal that the GRNN and RBFN models perform better.
    Keywords: IPC, GRNN, RBFN
    JEL: C13 E31 P44
    Date: 2022–06
  7. By: Mohamed Kadi (Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour le Développement - Partenaires INRAE); Foued Cheriet (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This article analyses the importance of the entrepreneurial and innovative dimension of the exporting companies' managers. Three main results were achieved, by using a survey of 43 Algerian exporting SMEs and basing it on multivariate analysis (ACP). The first one, high levels of innovation, particularly in production and marketing processes. The second one, the entrepreneurial dimensions of the exporting manager relate to his economic risk management of the targeted countries, his research, and the seizure of international business opportunities. Finally, for the Algerian exporting manager, the capacity for innovation is more appreciated in terms of the result of improving the quality of products destined for export.
    Abstract: Cet article analyse la place qu'occupe la dimension entrepreneuriale et d'innovation des dirigeants d'entreprises exportatrices. En utilisant une enquête auprès de 43 PME exportatrices algériennes et on nous basant sur une analyse multivariée (ACP), trois résultats principaux ont été obtenus : d'abord, des niveaux élevés d'innovation notamment en matière de procédés de production et de commercialisation. Ensuite, les dimensions entrepreneuriales du dirigeant exportateur portent sur sa gestion du risque économique des pays ciblés et sa recherche et saisie d'opportunités commerciales internationales. Enfin, pour le dirigeant exportateur algérien, la capacité d'innovation s'apprécie davantage en termes de résultat d'amélioration de la qualité des produits destinés à l'export.
    Keywords: entrepreneursip profile,Algerian enterprise,manager,profil entrepreneurial,entreprise algérienne,dirigeant,Algérie
    Date: 2022

This nep-ara issue is ©2022 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.