nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒07‒18
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Impact of Exchange Rates, the COVID-19 Pandemic, and the Ukraine War on the Turkish Economy By Willem THORBECKE; Ahmet SENGONUL
  2. Causality between Domestic Investment and Economic Growth in Arab Countries By Bakari, Sayef; El Weriemmi, Malek
  3. How Do Gender Norms Shape Education and Domestic Work Outcomes? The Case of Syrian Refugee Adolescents in Jordan By Caroline Krafft; Ragui Assaad; Isabel Pastoor
  4. Systems of innovation, diversification, and the R&D trap: a case study of Kuwait By Arman, Husam; Iammarino, Simona; Ibarra-Olivo, J. Eduardo; Lee, Neil
  5. Power-sharing versus Power-grabbing in the Aftermath of Civil War: Evidence from Public Opinion in Mosul, Iraq By Sam Whitt; Jonathan Hall; Jacob Aronson; Vera Mironova; Paul Huth; James Igoe Walsh
  6. Conflict exposure and health: Evidence from the Gaza Strip By Michele Di Maio; Valerio Leone Sciabolazza
  7. Zusammenarbeit in der Lieferkette der Automobilindustrie in Marokko : Theoretischer Rahmen By Sara Boukaidi Laghzaoui; Khalid Benmlih
  8. (Wieder-)Annäherungen in Nahost: Eine konfliktträchtige neue regionale Ordnung gewinnt Kontur By Asseburg, Muriel; Henkel, Sarah Ch.
  9. Perkembangan Pengelolaan Wakaf di Mesir dan Arab Saudi By , Riskayanti
  10. Die "Takfiristen": Eine salafistisch-jihadistische Teilströmung gewinnt an Bedeutung By Steinberg, Guido

  1. By: Willem THORBECKE; Ahmet SENGONUL
    Abstract: The Turkish lira depreciated by 200% against the U.S. dollar and the euro between 2012 and 2022. We investigate how depreciations affect Turkish imports, exports, and stock prices. We find that depreciations cause large decreases in imports but do not stimulate exports. We also find that they decrease stock prices for most sectors of the Turkish economy. In spite of the weak currency, economic growth in Turkey has remained resilient during the COVID-19 pandemic and the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine war. A stronger lira can strengthen this resilience by increasing the purchasing power of Turkish residents and the profitability of Turkish firms.
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Bakari, Sayef; El Weriemmi, Malek
    Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to examine the nexus between domestic investment and economic growth in Arab countries. To attempt our goal, we used annual data for the period 1990 – 2020 and Vector Error Correction Model. Empirical analysis indicates that there is no relationship between domestic investment and economic growth in the long run. However, we find a bidirectional causality between domestic investment and economic growth in the short run. These results provide evidence that domestic investment is necessary in Arab countries’ economy and is presented as an engine of growth since they cause economic growth in the short term. But they are not carried out and treated with a solid and fair manner, which offer new insights into Arabe countries’ investment policy for promoting economic growth.
    Keywords: Domestic Investment, Economic Growth, VECM, Arab Countries
    JEL: E2 O11 O20 O47
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Caroline Krafft (Department of Economics and Political Science, St. Catherine University); Ragui Assaad (Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota); Isabel Pastoor (Department of Economics and Political Science, St. Catherine University)
    Abstract: Forced displacement has disrupted Syrian refugees' lives and exposed them to new communities and norms. This paper assesses how gender norms shape the lives of Syrian refugee adolescent girls in Jordan, using nationally representative data. Factor analysis is used to summarize a variety of beliefs and behavioral aspects of norms: gender role attitudes, justification of domestic violence, decision making, and mobility. The paper compares these outcomes by sex, nationality, and for adolescents versus adults. It complements the data on individual beliefs and behaviors with family and community beliefs and behaviors as proxies for others' expectations and behaviors. The paper then examines how own, family, and community gender norms relate to two key adolescent outcomes: domestic work and enrollment in school. The findings show that while gender role attitudes are similar across generations and nationalities, Syrian adolescent girls are particularly restricted in their mobility. Nonetheless, they have similar educational outcomes as boys and, after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status, as Jordanian girls. While gender inequality in domestic work is substantial, higher levels of own and mother's decision making predict lower domestic workloads, illustrating the linkages between different dimensions of gender norms and social and economic outcomes.
    Keywords: Gender norms, Refugees, Education, Care work, Syrians, Jordan
    JEL: J16 J22 I24 F22 F51
    Date: 2021–12
  4. By: Arman, Husam; Iammarino, Simona; Ibarra-Olivo, J. Eduardo; Lee, Neil
    Abstract: The relationship between R&D investment and economic development is well established. Yet at a global scale, the resource rich countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are consistent outliers in this relationship, combining rich-world national incomes with R&D expenditure of developing countries. This paper uses a case study on Kuwait to illustrate a particular form of developmental trap, a version of the resource curse which makes it irrational for private business firms to invest in R&D and innovation. Based on an analysis of the literature and secondary data, focus groups, and an original survey of large manufacturing firms, we argue that a narrow focus on R&D-led diversification of economic activity ignores the systemic problems faced by Kuwait, and particularly the unsuitable supply of skills and capabilities provided by the national education and training system.
    Keywords: R&D; innovation systems; diversifiication; resource curse; Kuwait; Kuwait Programme Academic Collaboration Grant from the LSE’s Middle East Centre
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–04–01
  5. By: Sam Whitt (High Point University); Jonathan Hall (Uppsala University); Jacob Aronson (University of Maryland); Vera Mironova (Harvard University); Paul Huth (University of Maryland); James Igoe Walsh (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)
    Abstract: Power-sharing is a widely recognized strategy for reaching durable settlements to civil wars with center-periphery and identity-based cleavages. However, in practice, power-sharing arrangements are often violated when one side exploits windows of opportunity for power-grabs. We examine public support for power-sharing versus power-grabbing in the context of sectarian and center-peripheral power struggles over control of local policing in Mosul, Iraq. In a survey experiment conducted with over 1000 respondents in both Mosul and Baghdad, we explore whether individuals believe that security in Mosul, in the aftermath of Islamic State (ISIS) occupation, is enhanced or reduced under varying power-sharing versus power-grabbing treatments. With respect to policing, we find that both Iraqi Sunnis in Mosul and Shia in Baghdad regard one-sided power-grabs as security-enhancing and opposing-side power-grabs as security reducing relative to joint power-sharing. Overall, our results underscore the challenges of finding common ground on power-sharing mechanisms for peacebuilding after insurgent violence.
    Date: 2021–10
  6. By: Michele Di Maio (Department of Economics and Law, Sapienza University of Rome); Valerio Leone Sciabolazza (Department of Business and Economic Studies, University of Naples Parthenope)
    Abstract: Using individual-level longitudinal data and geo-localized information on conflict-related violent events, we study the impact of conflict on health in the Gaza Strip. Results show that individuals living in localities exposed to more conflict events have a higher probability of suffering from a physical impairment and a chronic disease. The effect is larger for men and older individuals. Two mechanisms contribute to explain why living in conflict-affected area increases the incidence of physical impairment: conflict increases the difficulty to reach health facilities and it decreases individual income. The conflict-induced increase in the probability of having high blood pressure is instead consistent with the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) due to the exposure to conflict-related violent events.
    Keywords: Gaza Strip, conflict, violence, health, household income, health facilities
    JEL: C81 C83 C93 O10
    Date: 2020–11
  7. By: Sara Boukaidi Laghzaoui (FSJES-Fès - Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales de Fès); Khalid Benmlih (FSJES-Fès - Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales de Fès)
    Abstract: Die Komplexität der Märkte, das wettbewerbsorientierte wirtschaftliche Umfeld und die Entwicklung neuer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien zwingen die Unternehmen zunehmend dazu, einen kooperativen Ansatz zur Verbesserung ihrer Leistung zu verfolgen. Insbesondere Industrieunternehmen sehen sich gezwungen, immer solidere Beziehungen zu knüpfen, um das Verhalten und die ordnungsgemäße Verwaltung der Lieferkette positiv zu beeinflussen. Die Forschung im Bereich des Supply Chain Management, insbesondere im Industriesektor, konzentriert sich nicht mehr auf die kurzfristigen Ziele der Flussoptimierung, die dem technischen Ansatz vorbehalten sind. Der marokkanische Automobilsektor hat in den letzten Jahren spektakuläre Fortschritte gemacht, so dass Marokko seit der ersten Hälfte des Jahres 2021 der zweitgrößte Exporteur nach Europa ist, was die Bedeutung der Untersuchung der Zusammenarbeit in den Lieferketten in diesem vielversprechenden Sektor unterstreicht. Das Hauptziel besteht darin, eine Synthese früherer Arbeiten über die Zusammenarbeit in Lieferketten zu erstellen, die verschiedenen Konzepte zu klären und bereits bewährte theoretische Beziehungen in einem allgemeinen Rahmen zu analysieren, um zu versuchen, sie auf den Sektor der Automobilindustrie in Marokko anzuwenden. Auf diese Weise wird es möglich sein, die Rolle der Zusammenarbeit in der Lieferkette im marokkanischen Automobilsektor zu analysieren, um die Instrumente, Kompetenzen und den Kontext hervorzuheben, die die Schaffung eines effizienten Netzwerks in einer solchen Lieferkette ermöglichen.
    Abstract: The complexity of markets, the competitive economic environment and the development of new information and communication technologies are increasingly pushing organizations to adopt a collaborative approach to improve their performance. Industrial companies in particular have found themselves obliged to forge increasingly solid relationships in order to positively influence the conduct and proper management of the supply chain. Supply Chain Management research, especially in the industrial sector, is no longer focused on the short-term flow optimization objectives that are the prerogative of the engineering approach. It is more oriented towards the importance of adequately implementing collaborative approaches in the companies' supply chains.The automotive sector in Morocco has experienced in recentyears spectacular progress, making Morocco the second-largest exporter to Europe since the first half of 2021, hence the importance of the study of collaboration in supply chains in this promising sector.This work is a study of the theoretical framework of collaboration in the supply chain, especially in the automotive industry in Morocco. The main objective is to make a synthesis of previous works dealing with collaboration in supply chains, to clarify the various concepts and to analyze already proven theoretical relationships, in a general framework, in order to try to apply them to the automotive industry sector in Morocco. This will allow us to analyze the role of collaboration in the supply chain within the Moroccan automotive sector in order to highlight the tools, skills and context that allow the creation of an efficient network in such a supply chain.
    Abstract: La complexité des marchés, l'environnement économique concurrentiel et le développement des nouvelles technologies en information et en communication poussent les organisations de plus en plus à adopter une approche collaborative pour améliorer leur performance. Les entreprises industrielles en particulier se sont trouvées obligées de tisser des relations de plus en plus solides afin d'agir positivement sur la conduite et la bonne gestion de la chaine logistique. La recherche en Supply Chain Management, notamment dans le secteur industriel, n'est plus centrée sur les objectifs d'optimisation des flux à court terme constituants l'apanage de l'approche ingénierie. Elle s'oriente davantage vers l'importance d'instaurer adéquatement les approches collaboratives dans les chaines logistiques des entreprises. Le secteur automobile au Maroc a connu ces dernières années un progrès spectaculaire, faisant du Maroc le deuxième exportateur vers l'Europe depuis le premier semestre de l'année 2021, d'où l'importance de l'étude de la collaboration dans les chaines logistiques dans ce secteur prometteur. Le présent travail se veut une étude du cadre théorique de la collaboration dans la chaine logistique, notamment dans l'industrie automobile au Maroc. L'objectif principal étant de faire une synthèse des travaux antérieurs traitant la collaboration dans les chaines logistiques, de clarifier les divers concepts et d'analyser des relations théoriques déjà prouvées, dans un cadre général, pour tenter de les appliquer au secteur de l'industrie automobile au Maroc. Ceci nous permettra d'analyser le rôle de la collaboration dans la chaine logistique au sein du secteur automobile marocain pour mettre en évidence les outils, les compétences et le contexte permettant la création d'un réseau efficace dans une telle chaîne logistique.
    Date: 2022–01–31
  8. By: Asseburg, Muriel; Henkel, Sarah Ch.
    Abstract: 2020/21 unterzeichnete Israel Abkommen mit vier arabischen Staaten, die international als Durchbruch gefeiert wurden. Von der Öffentlichkeit weitgehend unbemerkt vollzieht sich unterdessen seit 2018 eine Wiederannäherung arabischer Staaten an Syrien. Schließlich beendeten mit dem Treffen des Golfkooperationsrates (GKR) im saudischen Al-Ula im Januar 2021 Ägypten, Bahrain, Saudi-Arabien und die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate (VAE) ihren Boykott Katars. Veränderte Lagebeurteilungen und das Konvergieren von Interessen haben die (Wieder-)Annäherungen ermöglicht. Damit bewegt sich die Region aber nicht auf Frieden und Stabilität zu; langanhaltende Konflikte werden nicht beigelegt, Bedrohungsperzeptionen dritter Akteure verstärkt. Deutschland und seine Partner in der EU sollten sich nicht von lokalen und regionalen Konfliktparteien vereinnahmen lassen, sondern Ansätze regionaler Konfliktbearbeitung unterstützen.
    Date: 2021
  9. By: , Riskayanti
    Abstract: Negara Saudi dan mesir dalam hal ini bisa dijadikan salah satu model percontohan dalam hal pengelolaan wakaf yang produktif, contoh kongkrit dari hal itu adalah pembangunan sarana-sarana umum disekitar dua masjid suci (masjidi al-Haram dan masjid Nabawi), dan bagi Negara mesir adalah pembangunan sarana pendidikan tertua dunia Islam yaitu Universitas al- Azhar yang dibangun dari produktifitas Wakaf. dapat kita lihat bahwa negara- negara lain baik negara muslim maupun sekuler telah berhasil mengelola wakaf dengan profesional. Pengelolaan wakaf tersebut berdampak positif terhadap kemaslahatan masyarakatnya.
    Date: 2022–05–18
  10. By: Steinberg, Guido
    Abstract: Die 'Takfiristen' sind eine stark sektenartige Strömung des Jihadismus, deren Anhänger glauben, dass fast alle Muslime außer ihnen selbst ungläubig sind. Aufgrund ihrer geringen Zahl hatten viele von ihnen die Hoffnung aufgegeben, einen erfolgreichen 'Jihad' gegen die Feinde des Islam führen zu können. Dies änderte sich mit der Ausrufung des Islamischen Staates (IS) im Juni 2014, als viele Takfiristen aus Europa, den Kaukasusländern, Saudi-Arabien und Nordafrika nach Syrien und in den Irak zogen und sich dem IS anschlossen - während andere diesen Schritt ablehnten, auf den bewaffneten Kampf verzichteten und in ihren Heimatländern blieben. Seitdem stellt sich die Frage nach der Gefährlichkeit der Takfiristen erneut. Der Anschlag in Wien am 2. November 2020 hat der Debatte neue Nahrung verschafft, denn der Attentäter verkehrte vor seinem Ausreiseversuch nach Syrien im Jahr 2018 in einer takfiristischen Moschee in der österreichischen Hauptstadt. Er ist das jüngste Beispiel dafür, dass die Takfiristen ein integraler Bestandteil der jihadistischen Bewegung sind und eine teils unterschätzte Gefahr darstellen.
    Date: 2021

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