nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒06‒13
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Istanbul Canal or New Bosphorus By Arestakes Simavoryan
  2. Proposed reforms of the social protection systems of Morocco and Tunisia in light of the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis By João Pedro Dytz
  3. Income Shocks, Bride Price and Child Marriage in Turkey By Chort, Isabelle; Hotte, Rozenn; Marazyan, Karine
  4. Role of Energy Efficiency in Designing Carbon-neutral Residential Communities: Case Study of Saudi Arabia By Moncef Krarti; Mohammad Aldubyan
  5. Impact of Stay Home Living on Energy Demand of Residential Buildings Case Study of Saudi Arabia By Mohammad Aldubyan; Moncef Krarti
  6. The Effect of Higher Education on Women's Obesity and Smoking: Evidence from College Openings in Turkey By Baltagi, Badi H.; Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso; Karatas, Haci M.
  7. Cross-seasonal Fuel Savings from Load Shifting in the Saudi Industrial Sector By Salaheddine Soummane; Amro Elshurafa; Hatem Al Atawi; Frank Felder
  8. Achieving Renewable Energy Targets Without Compromising the Power Sector’s Reliability By Nezar Alhaidari; Amro Elshurafa; Frank Felder
  9. The Impact of Digital Transformation on the Satisfaction of Tax Administration Users in Morocco during the Covid-19 Pandemic: An Empirical Study By Imad Ait Lhassan; Oumayma Bedraoui; Otmane Akhannich
  10. Critical approach to tourism and nature conservation strategies: the case of the wilaya of El Tarf, Algeria By Pierre Pech; Imene Diaf

  1. By: Arestakes Simavoryan (ORBELI - Analytical Research Center)
    Abstract: 2011 Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced the construction of a new canal bypassing the Bosphorus, which will connect the Mediterranean with the Black Sea. The Turkish press called it Erdogan's "crazy project". The article discusses the Istanbul Canal project, its parameters, environmental and legal issues, as well as the infrastructure that will be built around the canal.
    Keywords: Turkey,Istanbul Canal,The Canal and Adjacent Infrastructures,Ecological Issues,Mediterranean Sea,Black Sea,Montreux Convention
    Date: 2020–06–18
  2. By: João Pedro Dytz (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: social protection reforms; Tunisia; Morocco; COVID-19
    Date: 2021–11
  3. By: Chort, Isabelle (Université de Pau et des pays de l’Adour); Hotte, Rozenn; Marazyan, Karine (Université de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of income shocks and bride price on early marriage in Turkey. The practice of bride-price, still vivid in many regions of the country, may provide incentives for parents to marry their daughter earlier, when faced with a negative income shock. In addition, marriages precipitated by negative income shocks may present specific features (endogamy, age and education difference between spouses). Weather shocks provide an exogenous source of variation of household income through agricultural production. Data on weather shocks are merged with individual and household level data from the Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 to 2013. To study the role of payments to the bride's parents, we interact our measure of shocks with a province-level indicator of a high prevalence of bride-price. We find that girls living in provinces with a high practice of bride-price and exposed to a negative income shocks when aged 12-14 have a 28% higher probability to be married before the age of 15 than girls not exposed to shocks. This effect is specific to provinces with a high prevalence of bride price. Compared to women who experienced the same shock but lived in a province where bride price is infrequent, such women are also more likely to give birth to their first child before 18 and for those who married religiously first, the civil ceremony is delayed by 2 months on average. Our results suggest that girl marriage still participates to household strategies aimed at mitigating negative income shocks in contemporary Turkey.
    Keywords: cultural norms, child marriage, bride price, weather shocks, Turkey
    JEL: J1 J12 J13 O15
    Date: 2022–05
  4. By: Moncef Krarti; Mohammad Aldubyan (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: This study focuses on the impact of improving the energy efficiency of housing units on the design of carbon-neutral grid-connected residential communities in Saudi Arabia. Particularly, it examines the efficacy of both photovoltaic systems and wind turbines as on-site renewable power technologies in achieving carbon neutrality.
    Keywords: Battery storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2021–12–13
  5. By: Mohammad Aldubyan; Moncef Krarti (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The analysis presented in this paper evaluates the impact of the COVID-19 stay-home order (or lockdown) on electricity consumption among Saudi residential building stock. Our analysis is based on an assessment of monitored data obtained for a sample of housing units as well as the results from a residential energy model (REEM). Specifically, we estimate the impact of the stay-home order imposed due to COVID-19 in most Saudi regions between March 15 and June 15, 2020, on residential electricity consumption.
    Keywords: Battery storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2022–01–01
  6. By: Baltagi, Badi H. (Syracuse University); Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso (Syracuse University); Karatas, Haci M. (Giresun University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between higher education and body weight and smoking behavior among women in Turkey. We exploit the largely exogenous and substantial increase in the openings of universities throughout Turkey. Based on the spatial and temporal variability of university openings, we construct college accessibility measures at the level of the city of residence when the woman turned 17 years of age to serve as instruments for college enrollment. The college accessibility measures have a substantial 5 percentage-point (about 80%) impact on the probability of college enrollment, and we show they also impact lower levels of schooling, likely through expectations. Using the college accessibility measures as instruments for college enrollment, we find that a one percentage point increase in the probability of college enrollment reduces BMI by about 0.21% and the probability of being classified as obese by 0.44 percentage points. Regarding smoking, we find that a similar increase in the probability of college enrollment increases the probability of being a current smoker by 0.73 to 1.1 percentage points. Both results contrast with previous findings for Turkey and other countries, likely denoting heterogeneities in the level of schooling considered (primary or secondary versus tertiary) and in the level of economic development of these countries.
    Keywords: health, tertiary education, women, body mass index, obesity, smoking, Turkey
    JEL: I12 I21 I23 I26 C26
    Date: 2022–05
  7. By: Salaheddine Soummane; Amro Elshurafa; Hatem Al Atawi; Frank Felder (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Load shifting, that is, moving demand from peak to off-peak hours, is an important type of demand response. It can reduce the overall operating costs of a power system and improve the reliability of the power grid. This study estimates the financial implications of load shifting in the Saudi industrial sector. We use a national Saudi power system dispatch optimization model to simulate three scenarios. With this model, we quantify the impacts of shifting industrial loads from the peak summer to the off-peak winter months, keeping industrial electricity tariffs unchanged.
    Keywords: Battery storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2022–01–01
  8. By: Nezar Alhaidari; Amro Elshurafa; Frank Felder (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia’s Ministry of Energy has set ambitious renewable energy goals. Although the Kingdom’s current energy mix is dominated by conventional energy (>95%), it aims to draw 50% of its energy from renewable sources by 2030. Currently, the Kingdom enjoys very high solar photovoltaic potential, and it is also well positioned for wind generation. Thus, studying the reliability of highly renewable power systems and the impact of converting conventional generation to renewable energy is of paramount importance. The latter analysis is important because temperatures in the Kingdom are often high for a considerable portion of the year.
    Keywords: Battery storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2021–12–13
  9. By: Imad Ait Lhassan (UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Oumayma Bedraoui (USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah); Otmane Akhannich (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: Purpose: The objective of any change in public administrations is to improve their management system to provide a better service to the citizen user. This is how policy makers defend their political agendas. However, the effectiveness of the digital transformation of public services is not limited to the promulgation of laws but to their impact on the satisfaction of users of public administration and its perception by the public agent and the citizen. The objective of this article is to analyze the impact of digital transformation on the satisfaction of users of public administration, and more particularly of tax administration. Design / Method / Approach: This is an empirical study with a quantitative approach using a questionnaire administered to 107 taxpayers. We analyzed data through the structural equation method with SmartPls software to study the relationship between five sub-variables of digital transformation and user satisfaction. Originality / Value: The results show a significantly positive relationship between three sub-variables of digital transformation and user satisfaction: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and website design. Research Limitations / Future Research: In addition, public administrations need to stay abreast of current trends in service digitalization. The success of the digitization of the administration is conditioned by the commitment and involvement of all stakeholders. This is with the view to providing quality services in real-time, thus meeting users' expectations.
    Keywords: digital,satisfaction,public administration,Morocco
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Pierre Pech (LADYSS - Laboratoire Dynamiques Sociales et Recomposition des Espaces - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Imene Diaf
    Abstract: As the world's leading industrial and economic activity, tourism is considered a highly predatory sector in terms of resources, energy, and water, a major polluter and producer of mass waste and impacts on biodiversity. Yet tourism development models are investing in protected areas. The Mediterranean area is the world's leading tourist destination. All types of tourism concentrate all forms of infrastructure, including the models which have emerged there such as marbelisation. In addition, the Mediterranean basin is recognized as a biodiversity hotspot. Algeria fits into this scheme. The study of the National Park of El Kala, situated in the North-East of Algeria, reveals the maintenance of a dual approach between tourist projects and the strict protection of its natural environments. Tourism and nature conservation strategies are approached critically. This reveals the political stakes of the dual approach of these two strategies in Algeria.
    Abstract: Première activité industrielle et économique au monde, le tourisme est considéré comme un secteur très prédateur en ressources, en énergie, en eau, très gros pollueur et producteur de déchets de masse et d'effets négatifs sur la biodiversité. Pourtant des modèles de développement touristique investissent des aires protégées. L'aire méditerranéenne est le premier foyer mondial de fréquentation touristique. Tous les types de tourismes concentrent toutes les formes d'infrastructures, y compris les modèles qui y sont nés comme la marbellisation. En outre, le bassin méditerranéen est reconnu comme étant un point chaud de la biodiversité. L'Algérie s'inscrit dans ce schéma. L'étude du parc national d'El Kala, situé au nord-est de l'Algérie, est révélatrice du maintien d'une approche duale, entre projets touristiques et protection stricte de ses milieux naturels. Les stratégies touristiques et de conservation de la nature sont abordées selon une approche critique. Celle-ci révèle les enjeux politiques de l'approche duale de ces deux stratégies en Algérie.
    Keywords: sustainable tourism,protected area,local development,socio-ecosystem
    Date: 2022–01–05

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