nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒05‒30
twenty papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Resilience in the Time of Covid-19: Lessons Learned from MENA SMEs By Zouheir EL-SAHLI; Mouyad ALSAMARA
  2. Populations' Behavior Toward Covid-19 Safety Measures: Evidence from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia By Lahna IDRES; Moundir LASSASSI
  3. Social Safety Nets and Food Insecurity in the Time of COVID-19: Selected MENA Countries By Amira EL-SHAL; Eman MOUSTAFA; Nada ROSTOM; Yasmine ABDELFATTAH
  4. Green entrepreneurship: A driver of sustainable territorial development in Morocco What is the role of political and economic actors? By Fatima Touhami; Mohamed El Moukhtar
  5. Economic diplomacy of developed countries and its impact on FDI flows to Morocco By Mohammed Eddaou
  6. Determinants of Remittance Outflows: The Case of Saudi Arabia By Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov
  7. First Out, Last In amid COVID-19: Employment Vulnerability of Youths in the Middle East By Vladimir HLASNY; Shireen ALAZZAWI
  8. The colonial legacy of education: evidence from of Tunisia By Mhamed Ben Salah; Cédric Chambru; Maleke Fourati
  9. Corporate Vulnerabilities in the Middle East, North Africa, and Pakistan in the Wake of COVID-19 Pandemic By Nordine Abidi; Mohamed Belkhir
  10. The emergence of business ecosystems in Morocco: Aesthetic tourism case By Oumaima Smyej; Si Mohamed Ben Massou
  11. The promotion of green entrepreneurship: What role for the Moroccan university? The case of Sultan Moulay Slimane University By Mohamed Elmoukhtar; Fatima Touhami; Othmane Taouabit
  12. Mental Health and Gender Inequality in the MENA Region: An Analysis of Shock Related Factors Within the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic By Anna SPINARDI; Nigora ISAMIDDINOVA; Irene CLAVIJO; Kevin HENKENS
  13. Gender stereotypes in Moroccan television advertising By Zoubida Drissi Kaïtouni; Morad Sbiti
  14. Evaluation of the satisfaction of users of e-services of the Moroccan tax administration during the Covid-19 pandemic By Otmane Akhannich; Fatiha Benamar; Imad Ait Lhassan; Oumayma Bedraoui
  15. The Impact of Servant Leadership on Employees’ Motivation with the Mediating Role of Employees’ Job Satisfaction: The Case of the Petroleum Sector in Egypt By Radi, Sherihan
  16. Patterns and Correlates of Supply Chain Trade in MENA and SSA By Jaime de Melo; Jean-Marc Solleder
  17. "School Performance and Child Labor: Evidence from West Bank Schools" By Sameh Hallaq; Ayman Khalifah
  18. Jordan: Technical Assistance Report-Forecasting Framework for Currency in Circulation By International Monetary Fund
  19. West Bank and Gaza: Report to the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee By International Monetary Fund
  20. As propostas de reforma dos sistemas de proteção social no Marrocos e na Tunísia, no contexto do impacto da COVID-19 By João Pedro Dytz

  1. By: Zouheir EL-SAHLI; Mouyad ALSAMARA
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in four non-oil-exporting MENA countries (Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt). Using data from a recent enterprise survey, we highlight several new findings. MENA SMEs resorted to wage and work hours reductions more readily than layoffs in the wake of the pandemic. Within SMEs, larger firms are more resilient, recover faster, and adapt more often. On the sector level, the accommodation and food services sector is the worst affected in most outcomes. There is, however, clear recovery in Q2 (versus Q1) 2021 across sectors and countries. Furthermore, SMEs that switch to remote work are less likely to face closures, recover faster, and adapt more frequently, signaling higher resilience and adaptability. On the other hand, participation in government assistance programs does not improve firm outcomes, whereas firms that participate in international trade are more resilient and adaptable in the face of the shock. The results of the study carry very important policy implications to support SMEs in developing countries in time of extreme exogenous shocks.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–04–28
  2. By: Lahna IDRES; Moundir LASSASSI
    Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the populations’ behavior toward COVID-19 safety measures in each of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. In this direction, a particular focus is put on which safety measures are observed and which category of people is most likely to observe them. To answer these questions, household data provided by Economic Research Forum (ERF) rapid phone survey are used for both Morocco and Tunisia. However, the used data for Algeria are provided by a household survey conducted by the Research Center of Applied Economics for Development (CREAD). The obtained results show some similarities among the population’s behavior of these countries. In fact, in all these countries, women are those who mostly observe the safety measures. The educational level also plays a role in these populations’ behavior, nevertheless, its impact on these behaviors differs from a country to another. Moreover, an ordred probit model is estimated to identify the determinants of the observed safety measures intensity in each country. In this regard, it is shown that women and elderly mostly comply with the barrier methodes, nevertheless men and youth are those who use these measures more intesenvily. Furthermore, simulations results show that the percentage of Moroccans observing three safety measures converges to 80%, against 59% in Tunisia, and only 5% in Algeria.
    Keywords: Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–05–04
    Abstract: COVID-19 is testing food and social protection systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region at an unprecedented scale. Countries responded by expanding social safety nets (SSNs) and/or distributing new cash transfers. We estimate if and to what extent SSNs have mitigated food insecurity in MENA during COVID-19, using a unique panel survey of four MENA countries for November 2020–June 2021. Our difference-in-differences (DD) fixed-effects estimates show that those who received non-usual government support in Tunisia were 15 percentage points (ppts) less likely to be unable to buy their typical amount of food due to price increases than those who did not receive support. No significant effects are observed in Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco. Non-usual social support from non-governmental institutions had greater effect. Individuals who received non-usual support from non-governmental institutions in Morocco and Jordan were, respectively, 22 ppts and 15 ppts less likely to report being unable to buy their typical amount of food due to decreased income. Our estimates also show that government SSNs have mitigated the negative effect of food insecurity on resorting to adverse coping strategies during COVID-19, especially selling assets.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–05–04
  4. By: Fatima Touhami (Laboratoire de recherche multidisciplinaire en économie et gestion); Mohamed El Moukhtar
    Date: 2022–03–31
  5. By: Mohammed Eddaou (Université Mohammed Premier [Oujda])
    Abstract: Since 2007, the majority of FDI flows to Morocco, an average of 74%, have come from developed countries. This reality of FDI in Morocco leads to questions about the determinants of its attractiveness. In fact, the location of multinational firms could emanate either from a rational choice based on the advantages of Morocco, or from a systemic choice linked to the economic policy of the countries and their economic diplomacy. In our paper, we have tried to answer the question: What is the relationship between the economic diplomacy of developed countries and FDI flows to Morocco? In order to provide theoretical insight on our main question, and in the face of this relative reality on the determinants of FDI flows, we have opted for scientific realism as an epistemological position, and the hypothetico-deductive approach as a research approach. A review of the literature has allowed us to explain the flow of FDI to Morocco by the components of economic diplomacy, like the need for fiscal adjustment in developed countries and the military power of the latter on an international scale. To study our research hypotheses, we constructed a sample of panel data from 2007 to 2020 (T=14) covering 6 original developed countries (France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Canada and Sweden). As data sources, we used statistics from the University of Sherbrooke, data from Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and data from Moroccan Exchange Office. With the existence of longitudinal data that are represented by a double dimension: individual and temporal, we are obliged to pass by an empirical analysis of the data by using panel data econometrics. The procedure followed to achieve this technique is composed of three steps. The first step is to determine the panel structure using a sequential testing procedure. Then in the second step, calculate the VIF (variance inflation factor) to avoid multicollinearity, and in the third step, use the estimation method related to the result of the procedure. The study conducted an empirical examination to test the relationship between the need for fiscal adjustment in developed countries, their military power and FDI flows to Morocco. The sequential testing procedure led us to a fixed effect econometric model. The results of the study show that the power of developed countries and their need for fiscal adjustment cause FDI flows to Morocco. This means that the economic diplomacy of developed countries causes FDI flows to Morocco. The results of our research are not in line with the conclusions of previous studies on the determinants of FDI in Morocco. Their views of FDI ignores the existence of a real world in which capital movements are only achieved through a coalitional game between unequally strong carrier states. This research suggests that Morocco should invest more in military spending to exceed the military strength of the countries that represent the origin of the substitute FDI. It also suggests that Morocco should take advantage of its current military strength to create new and sustainable localisation and internalisation opportunities for Moroccan-based multinational firms, and to reduce the country's eventual fiscal adjustment needs.
    Abstract: Depuis l'année 2007, la majorité des flux des IDE au Maroc, soit 74% en moyenne, proviennent des pays développés. Cette réalité des IDE au Maroc conduit à se poser des questions sur les déterminants de leur attractivité. Dans le cadre de notre article, nous avons essayé de répondre à la question suivante : Quelle est la relation entre la diplomatie économique des pays développés et les flux des IDE au Maroc ? Devant cette réalité relative sur les déterminants des flux des IDE, nous avons opté pour le réalisme scientifique en tant que positionnement épistémologique et la démarche hypothéticodéductive en tant que démarche de recherche. Une revue de littérature nous a permis d'expliquer le flux des IDE au Maroc par les composantes de la diplomatie économique à savoir le besoin de redressement budgétaire et la puissance militaire des pays développés. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que la puissance des pays développés et leur besoin de redressement budgétaire causent les flux des IDE au Maroc.
    Date: 2022–03–30
  6. By: Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: International labor migration has played a key role in the development of both advanced and developing countries. Many developing countries in Asia have relied on labor migration, mainly to the oil-rich Gulf region, to reduce both unemployment and poverty (Naseem 2007). Mansoor and Quillin (2006) explain that poverty, unemployment and low wages in developing countries are the main drivers of migration from these countries. Higher wages and the potential for improved standards of living and professional development in resource-rich countries are pull factors for migration.
    Keywords: Agent Based modeling, Analytics, Applied Research, Autometrics
    Date: 2022–05–22
  7. By: Vladimir HLASNY; Shireen ALAZZAWI
    Abstract: This study estimates the impacts of the evolving COVID-19 crisis on the trends in workers’ employment outcomes in Egypt and Jordan. Using panel microdata from ERF COVID-19 MENA Monitors, waves 1–5 (July ‘20–September ‘21), we estimate logit models of workers’ job loss, and multinomial logits of workers’ labor market statuses. We confirm that the COVID-19 regime stringency affects negatively employment and labor participation of most groups of workers – particularly youths, even if they were not disadvantaged pre-COVID-19. Higher education is associated with the retention of a better employment status, conferring consistently high returns in terms of remaining economically active, employed, and in formal employment. Workers’ pre-COVID-19 employment status affects their outcomes amid COVID-19, implying strong employment-status dependence. Those laid off amid COVID-19 come predominantly from among those without (formal) employment pre-pandemic. Between mid-2020 and mid-2021, men’s employment prospects gradually improved, but women faced a stagnation by being largely excluded from work opportunities. Youths trailed non-youths early during the pandemic, but have caught up during recovery. In sum, evidence suggests that youths and women are affected more adversely than non-youths and men at the height of the pandemic, face higher risks of getting laid off, and have a harder time returning to work – supporting the ‘last in’ if not the ‘first out’ hypothesis.
    Keywords: Égypte, Jordanie
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–04–22
  8. By: Mhamed Ben Salah; Cédric Chambru; Maleke Fourati
    Abstract: We study the effect of exposure to colonial public primary education on contemporary education outcomes in Tunisia. We assemble a new data set on the location of schools with the number of pupils by origin, along with population data during the French protectorate (1881–1956). We match those with contemporary data on education at both district and individual level. We find that the exposure of local population to colonial public primary education has a long-lasting effect on educational outcomes, even when controlling for colonial investments in education. A one per cent increase in Tunisian enrolment rate in 1931 is associated with a 1.69 percentage points increase in literacy rate in 2014. Our results are driven by older generations, namely individuals who attended primary schools before the 1989/91 education reform. We suggest that the efforts undertaken by the Tunisian government after independence to promote schooling finally paid off after 40 years and overturned the effects of history.
    Keywords: Colonial investment, primary education, Tunisia
    JEL: D10 N37 N47
    Date: 2022–05
  9. By: Nordine Abidi; Mohamed Belkhir
    Abstract: This paper analyzes corporate vulnerabilities in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan (MENAP hereafter) in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic shock. Using a sample of nearly 700 firms from eleven countries in MENAP, we assess the non-financial corporate (NFC) sector’s liquidity and solvency risk and viability over the medium term under different stress test scenarios. Our findings suggest that the health crisis has exacerbated vulnerabilities in the corporate sector, though the effects are heterogenous across the region. Small firms, which entered the pandemic in a more vulnerable position, would remain under high liquidity stress over the medium term, putting a substantial share of these firms’ debt at risk of default. Similarly, liquidity needs of firms in contact-intensive sectors have also worsened and would remain elevated in 2022-23. We also show that an adverse scenario of subdued growth and premature withdrawal of policy support would impair the capacity to service interest expenses, especially among small firms, resulting in higher insolvency risk. Overall, our results indicate that some segments of the MENAP corporate sector could remain reliant on policy support during the recovery phase and that structural reforms are critical to save distressed but viable firms from bankruptcy and ensure an efficient liquidation of “zombie” firms.
    Keywords: MENAP, COVID-19 crisis, non-financial corporate vulnerabilities, stress tests, “zombification”, policy support.; non-financial corporate; solvency risk; liquidity needs; NFC stress tests; vulnerabilities in the Middle East; COVID-19; Liquidity; Solvency; Stress testing; Corporate sector; Middle East; North Africa; Middle East and Central Asia; Global
    Date: 2022–04–29
  10. By: Oumaima Smyej (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Si Mohamed Ben Massou (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: The concept of business ecosystem is not new. Indeed, it is to Moore (1993) that we owe the first reflections on inter-organizational networks, their dynamics and the common factors of their development. Membership in these entities is an invaluable source of innovation. They not only have a theoretical interest but also economical and managerial ones. On a theoretical level, this paper work enhances studies dealing with business ecosystems in general and aesthetic tourism ecosystems in a particular way. Economically speaking, this article highlights the importance of inter-organizational partnerships for the development of the nation economies. In a managerial point of view, it responds to leaders questions about the strategies to adopt when it comes to being part of these new types of reticular organizations. In addition, aesthetic tourism in Morocco, as an ecosystem that has established itself for several years as a market in it's best shape, has started to attract the attention of researchers and managers. Based on a qualitative study, this work tends to explore the conditions for the emergence of an aesthetic tourism ecosystem in Morocco, the problems it faces as well as the potential solutions for its emergence. The theoretical researches revealed a set of emergence factors. They were supported, then supplemented during the interviews with a sample of 11 potential actors of the Moroccan Aesthetic tourism ecosystem. Essentially, we were able to conclude that the birth of an ecosystem community is led by an alternation between spontaneity and intention, during which there is foster for mutual sharing of resources in a well-founded legal basis and a superior climate of trust within diversity.
    Abstract: Le concept d'écosystème d'affaires (ESA) ne date pas d'hier. En effet, c'est à Moore (1993) que nous devons les premières réflexions s'appuyant sur les réseaux inter-organisationnels, leurs dynamiques et les facteurs communs de leurs essors. L'appartenance à ces entités écosystémiques constitue une source inestimable de flux d'innovation. Ils occupent une place non négligeable dans l'économie des États. Certes, les domaines d'affaires diffèrent, mais l'importance de ce rassemblement ne manque pas d'intérêt théorique comme économique et managérial. Sur le plan théorique, cet article scientifique constitue un enrichissement aux travaux traitant les écosystèmes d'affaires en général et les écosystèmes de tourisme ésthétiques (ETE) en particulier. Économiquement parlant, ce papier met en avant l'importance des partenariats inter-organisationnels pour le développement de l'économie et des nations. Du point de vue managérial, il répond aux interrogations des dirigeants concernant les stratégies à adopter lorsqu'il s'agit de faire partie de ces nouveaux types d'organisations réticulaires. Par ailleurs, le tourisme esthétique au Maroc, en tant qu'écosystème qui s'impose depuis quelques années comme un marché qui bat son plein, a commencé d'attirer l'attention des chercheurs et des praticiens. À partir d'une étude qualitative, ce travail académique tend à explorer les conditions d'émergence d'un ETE au Maroc, les contraintes qui l'affrontent ainsi que les solutions potentielles pour son émergence. Les résultats documentaires ont permis de révéler un ensemble de facteurs d'émergence. Ils ont été appuyés, puis complétés au cours des entretiens semi-directifs avec un échantillon de 11 potentiels acteurs de L'ETE marocain. Essentiellement, nous avons pu conclure que la naissance d'une communauté de partage est favorisée par une altercation entre spontanéité et programmation, durant laquelle, il y a une incitation au partage mutuel des ressources sur la base d'une assiette juridique bien fondée et une mise en place d'un climat de confiance au sein de la diversité.
    Keywords: collaborative innovation.,keystone,actors,Aesthetic tourism,Business ecosystem,tourisme esthétique,Écosystème d’affaires,acteurs,pivot,innovation collaborative.
    Date: 2022–03–31
  11. By: Mohamed Elmoukhtar (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane); Fatima Touhami (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane); Othmane Taouabit (USMS - Université Sultan Moulay Slimane)
    Abstract: The development, whether economic, social or environmental, of our country depends on its capacity to create and develop innovative products and services. The creation of green activity and the creation of green companies and start-ups are thus fully involved in this process. For this reason, higher education institutions have invested in this new dynamic of green entrepreneurial culture, in particular through the support and monitoring of innovative green projects. Of course, entrepreneurship is a process that requires certain skills and attitudes, which can only be acquired through well adapted teaching and training programmes. Such programmes would eventually foster the emergence of business ideas or opportunities, and ultimately the creation of a business. Like most disciplines that belong to the management and social sciences. Green entrepreneurship can even be the subject of academic teaching in Morocco. The main question of our research is: What is the role that the Moroccan university can play in promoting green entrepreneurship in Morocco? Our research aims to provide some answers to this question. In order to define it closely, we will take a practical case, namely the Sultan Moulay Slimane University of Béni-Mellal, with the aim of drawing certain conclusions and recommendations. Indeed, to answer our problematic we intend to adopt a mixed research approach in a perspective where we can associate the qualitative (semi-directive interviews) with the quantitative (questionnaire) through triangulation. It should be noted that despite the richness of the theoretical field with regard to the availability of information on entrepreneurship, the treatment of "green entrepreneurship" remains limited or non-existent. This is the main reason why we will discuss the role of the university in promoting green entrepreneurship in a broad sense. In the empirical part, we will try to see if the Sultan Moulay Slimane University is able to sensitize its students to become eco-entrepreneurs. From the analysed results of our quantitative study, we can say that students consider green entrepreneurship to be very important. However it is the gain that remains their major concern in relation to autonomy and self-realisation. Among their suggestions, they propose the setting up of training courses and seminars so that they can familiarise themselves with this new concept. As for the result of the qualitative study, we can say that Sultan Moulay Slimane University needs to review its pedagogical practices, to introduce a module on green entrepreneurship, to encourage students to present green projects and to give importance to eco-responsible skills and competences.
    Abstract: Le développement, que ça soit, économique, social ou environnemental de notre pays, dépend de sa capacité à créer et à développer des produits et des services innovants. La création d'activité verte et la création d'entreprise et de Start-Up verte participent ainsi pleinement à ce processus. Raison pour laquelle, les institutions d'enseignement supérieur, se sont investies dans cette nouvelle dynamique de culture entrepreneuriale verte notamment via l'accompagnement et le suivi des porteurs de projets innovants verts. Certes, l'entrepreneuriat est un processus qui nécessite certaines aptitudes et attitudes, qui ne peuvent être acquises que par des programmes d'enseignements et de formations bien adaptés. De tels programmes favoriseraient éventuellement l'émergence d'idées ou d'opportunités d'affaires, et in finela création d'entreprises.Comme la plupart des disciplines qui appartiennent aux sciences de gestion et management, et aux sciences sociales, l'entrepreneuriat vert peut même faire l'objet d'un enseignement académique au Maroc. La question principale de notre recherche est de savoir: Quel est donc le rôle que l'université marocaine pourra jouer dans la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat vertau Maroc ?Notre recherche vise à donner certains éléments de réponse à notre problématique. Pour la cerner de près, nous allons prendre un cas pratique à savoir l'Université Sultan Moulay Slimane de Béni-Mellal, ceci dans le but d'en tirer certaines conclusions et recommandations. En effet, pour répondre à notre problématique nous comptons adopter une approche de recherche mixte dans une perspective où on peut associer le qualitatif (entretiens semi-directifs) au quantitatif (questionnaire) par le biais de la triangulation. Il faut noter que malgré la richesse du champ théorique en ce qui concerne la disponibilité de l'information sur l'entrepreneuriat, du côté de «l'entrepreneuriat vert» le traitement reste limité, voire inexistant. C'est la raison principale pour laquelle nous évoquerons le rôle de l'université dans la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat vert au sens large. Dans la partie empirique, nous essayerons de voir si l'Université Sultan Moulay Slimane est en mesure de sensibiliser ses étudiants à devenir des éco-entrepreneurs. À partir de l'analyse des résultats de l'étude quantitative, nous pouvons dire que les étudiants jugent que l'entrepreneuriat vert est très important, toutefois c'est le gain qui constitue leur préoccupation majeure par rapport à l'autonomie et la réalisation de soi. Parmi leurs suggestions, ils proposent la mise en place de formations et séminaires afin qu'ils puissent se familiariser avec ce nouveau concept. Quant aux résultats de l'étude qualitative, nous pouvons dire que l'université Sultan Moulay Slimane a besoin de revoir ses pratiques pédagogiques, d'introduire un module sur l'entrepreneuriat vert, d'encourager les étudiants à présenter des projets verts et de donner de l'importance aux compétences et habiletés éco-responsables
    Keywords: Green entrepreneurship,green economy,sustainable development,Moroccan University,Entrepreneuriat vert,économie verte,Développement durable,Université Marocaine.
    Date: 2022
    Abstract: This paper investigates the potential associations between factors that affected households during the pandemic (such as food insecurity) and the gendered mental health inequalities in the MENA region. To analyze these potential associations, the paper used data from the World Health Organization (five-question module to measure mental health and well-being) and the ERF COVID-MENA Monitor Survey panel dataset. The results indicate a statistically significant difference in the mental health well-being between men and women, with women’s mental health being significantly poorer than that of men. The results reveal that women, on average, worry more over the health consequences of the pandemic and the household’s economic situation. The analysis also indicates that women on average report higher levels of food insecurity in their households, and this variable significantly explains the observed difference in mental health outcomes between genders. In terms of policy recommendations to address the burden of the pandemic affecting women’s mental health as well as food insecurity, it is crucial to collect more sex-disaggregated data that allows for a more accurate assessment of the food insecurity situation in the MENA region from a gender perspective. To address food insecurity, governments and development partners are advised to invest in food assistance programs as well as to expand existing social safety net programs, especially those that improve female-headed households’ access to healthy and nutritious food. In addition, governments are advised to improve access to mental health and psychosocial services for women, as well as to invest in public policies that allow domestic work to be redistributed equally among family members, including assistance and care services for young children.
    Keywords: Afrique
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–05–04
  13. By: Zoubida Drissi Kaïtouni (Université Mohamed V Agdal); Morad Sbiti
    Abstract: De nos jours, il est vital de communiquer sur son business, différents moyens et outils sont mis en œuvre de la part des entreprises afin de transmettre l'information à sa cible. La publicité reste le moyen par excellence ou la créativité et la société jouent des rôles très importants dans l'élaboration de cette dernière. La télévision demeure l'un des vecteurs élémentaires exerçant une influence remarquable grâce à sa place dominante dans les foyers marocains. La publicité télévisée s'engage à donner le maximum d'informations en un temps réduit et pour y arriver, elle s'appuie sur les habitudes et les clichés, le masculin l'emporte sur le féminin et cela n'est pas juste une règle de grammaire, mais c'est aussi une règle publicitaire. Cette règle nous a poussés à chercher sa confirmation et à voir la victime de ce phénomène qui est nommément la femme comment elle se manifeste dans la publicité télévisée marocaine. En ce qui concerne notre revue de littérature, elle a affirmé ce fait bien présent et que les publicités télévisées marocaines ont tendance à cantonner les femmes dans des rôles traditionnels. Et pour notre étude sur le terrain, nous avons essayé de comprendre tous azimuts concernant les stéréotypes de genre dans la publicité télévisée et comprendre la source de cette anomalie. Des entretiens semi-directifs ont été établis auprès de 13 acteurs publicitaires depuis l'annonceur jusqu'au réalisateur en passant par les créatifs. La lutte pour éradiquer les clichés négatifs envers la femme y est, mais le chemin reste long. Suite à l'analyse de notre expérience enrichissante, les stéréotypes sont bien présents, l'écosystème essaie d'y remédier, mais le consommateur qui désire le changement n'y contribue pas, loin de là, il injecte son propre venin pour s'autodétruire en biaisant les études établies par les entreprises de sondage et de marketing d'opinion. Il a été suggéré pour les responsables d'études et de sondages de bien choisir la cible pour ne plus avoir de résultats faussés, pour les créatifs d'être audacieux afin de proposer la nouveauté et pour les annonceurs d'oser la créativité et la différence Les auteurs n'ont pas connaissance de quelconque financement qui pourrait affecter l'objectivité de cette étude. Conflit d'intérêts : Les auteurs ne signalent aucun conflit d'intérêts.
    Keywords: Faculté des sciences juridiques,économiques et sociales Agdal Avenue des Nations-Unies,B.P. 721 Agdal -Rabat -MAROC Advertising,gender stereotype,Moroccan television. JEL Classification: M37 Paper type: Empirical research
    Date: 2022–03–31
  14. By: Otmane Akhannich (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Fatiha Benamar (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Imad Ait Lhassan (UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi); Oumayma Bedraoui (USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah)
    Abstract: Technology has been evolving for a long time, but the acceleration of progress has become very significant in recent years. Indeed, with the rise in the use of new technologies, organizations in general and public administrations in particular are required to adapt to these new trends, through the implementation of a digital strategy allowing the transformation of traditional and inefficient procedures, towards the digitization of tasks and the digitization of all administrative procedures, which reduces transport costs and the speed of execution of tasks. This article revolves around the concept of digital transformation and e-government during the Covid-19 pandemic. It represents a literature review as well as an empirical study on e-administration, which is considered today as a fundamental tool for the economic and social development of countries. To this end, to properly conduct our study, we distributed 107 questionnaires to a carefully selected sample, based on their relationship with the tax administration. In terms of the results obtained, it was found that the electronic services offered by the tax administration allow partial satisfaction of the users questioned. However, two main aspects still need to be improved, in particular the quality of the exchange of information and the processing of complaints by the tax administration.
    Abstract: La technologie évolue depuis longtemps, mais l'accélération des progrès est devenue très significative depuis ces dernières années. En effet, avec la montée de l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies, les organisations en général et les administrations publiques en particulier sont tenues de s'adapter par rapport à ces nouvelles tendances, à travers la mise en place d'une stratégie digitale permettant la transformation des procédures traditionnelles et inefficaces, vers la numérisation des tâches et la digitalisation de toutes les procédures administratives, ce qui permet de réduire les coûts de transport et la rapidité d'exécution des tâches. Cet article s'articule autour du concept de la transformation digitale et l'administration électronique durant la pandémie de Covid-19. Il représente une revue de littérature ainsi qu'une étude empirique sur l'e-administration qui est considérée aujourd'hui comme un outil fondamental pour le développement économique et social des pays. À cet effet, pour bien mener notre étude, nous avons distribué 107 questionnaires auprès d'un échantillon sélectionné avec soin, sur la base de leur relation avec l'administration fiscale, en l'occurrence les personnes morales, physiques et les particuliers. En termes des résultats obtenus, nous avons constaté que les services électroniques proposés par la direction générale des Impôts permettent une satisfaction partielle des usagers interrogés. Toutefois, il reste à améliorer deux aspects principaux, notamment la qualité de l'échange des informations et le traitement des réclamations par la direction générale des Impôts.
    Keywords: User satisfaction,E-services,Performance,Moroccan tax administration,Digital transformation,Satisfaction des usagers,Services électroniques,Administration fiscale marocaine,Transformation digitale
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Radi, Sherihan
    Abstract: Servant leadership, the growing trend in today’s business and the future leadership style is based on the concept that a healthy business development can be achieved if all employees at all levels are supported. It is a powerful and energetic factor in creating employees motivation encouraging employees to work with a higher degree of enthusiasm to achieve some of the best business results. The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of servant leadership on employees’ motivation with the mediating role of employees’ job satisfaction. The structural equation model (SEM) method has been used and the population sample size consisted of 186 employees working in the petroleum sector in Egypt. The result of this empirical research is that servant leadership has a significant positive impact on employees’ motivation in the workplace and that employees’ job satisfaction plays a meditating role of 77% of the total effect between servant leadership and employees’ motivation. Insights from this study can be used for the achievement of this research line development in future.
    Keywords: servant leadership, employees’ motivation, employees’ job satisfaction, mediating role.
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2022–04–20
  16. By: Jaime de Melo (UNIGE - Université de Genève, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Jean-Marc Solleder (UNIGE - Université de Genève)
    Abstract: Strong participation in Global Supply Chains (GSCs) (aka Global Value Chains (GVCs)) is an indication of the structural transformation at the heart of the ‘Africa we want' described in African Union's Agenda 2063 project. We discuss challenges at measuring GSCs and report new input- output based measures (upstreamness and downstreamness of exports) at several levels: across countries, regions, and sectors over the period 1995-2015. We also report participation measures based on firm-level data and new estimates of factors affecting participation of sectors in GVCs over the period 1995-2015. On average, for both Africa and MENA, exports have a low content of imported intermediates and exports undergo further transformation in destination countries before reaching consumers. Compared with other regions, both Africa and MENA mostly engage in supply chain trade with countries outside their respective region. Firm-level estimates for several countries show that African firms are scarcely engaged in supply chain trade. In sum, in spite of regional trade agreements focussing on reducing trade barriers to intra-regional trade, regional value chains have failed to develop in both regions. [...]
    Keywords: Trade policy,Global value chains,Digitalization,Servicification,Trade costs,National date infrastructure,Sub-Saharan Africa,Middle-East and North Africa
    Date: 2022–04–22
  17. By: Sameh Hallaq; Ayman Khalifah
    Abstract: The current study aims to investigate the impact of academic achievement on child labor. The study utilizes survey data collected from Palestinian children in West Bank schools who are in the primary grades (5th-9th). The results show that increasing a child's academic achievement is significantly associated with decreasing the probability that a child works for money in the following period. Our findings varied among children according to their gender, age, and parental academic background. Our analyses are subject to different specifications, including two-stage least squares (2SLS) to account for potential endogeneity. The results provide robust evidence about the linkage between school performance and child labor in the West Bank. Further, the study proposes an assessment of the child’s mental health problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a potential mechanism through which the child's achievement at school affects child labor.
    Keywords: Academic Achievement; Child Labor; West Bank
    JEL: D15 I21 J13 I12
    Date: 2022–05
  18. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The currency in circulation forecasting model presently used by the Central Bank of Jordan is aligned with international practices and provides a solid basis for liquidity management. The central bank uses an Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model with many indicator variables to model binary seasonality and to capture special events. The ARIMA model is fitted on daily currency in circulation data using a standard maximum likelihood estimator. This ARIMA approach is aligned with the models traditionally used by central banks in emerging and middle-income countries.
    Keywords: moving average; staff level agreement; IMF team; hierarchy forecasting; ARIMA model; Monetary base; Currency issuance; Open market operations; Global
    Date: 2022–04–07
  19. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This IMF report to the AHLC is the first since September 2018. Following limited engagement over the past three years, policy discussions have intensified in recent months. These discussions have focused mainly on establishing a medium term macro-fiscal framework, including the broad outlines of a reform scenario.
    Keywords: B. PA policy; reform scenario; spending reform; policy discussion; IMF report; Arrears; Pension spending; Middle East and Central Asia
    Date: 2022–05–02
  20. By: João Pedro Dytz (IPC-IG)
    Keywords: reformas da proteção social; Tunísia; Marrocos; COVID-19
    Date: 2021–11

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