nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒12‒06
eleven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Cancer Care in the Middle East and Africa By Hofmarcher, Thomas; Ahmad, Abeer; Lindgren, Peter; Wilking, Nils
  2. School Integration of Refugee Children: Evidence from the Largest Refugee Group in Any Country By Kirdar, Murat G.; Koc, Ismet; Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem
  3. The Role of Out-group Network in the Choice of Migration Destination: Evidence from Turkey By Filiz Künüroğlu; Ali Sina Önder
  4. Does Education Really Cause Domestic Violence? Revisiting the Turkish Data By Akyol, Pelin; Kirdar, Murat G.
  5. Can Perceptions of Reduction in Physical Water Availability Affect Irrigation Behaviors? Evidence from Jordan By Kafle, Kashi; Balasubramanya, Soumya
  6. HR reporting, revealing and piloting the company's HR strategy: the case of the OCP SA Group in Morocco By Mohamed Zahidi; Jamila Ayegou
  7. Oil Prices and Fiscal Policy in an Oil-exporter country: Empirical Evidence from Oman By Aljabri, Salwa; Raghavan, Mala; Vespignani, Joaquin
  8. Putting economic growth at the service of human development in Djibouti By Omar Ahmed
  9. Social welfare and inequalities in Morocco: A theoretical and empirical analysis By Najib Bahmani; Mustapha Jaad
  10. Assessment of The Macroeconomic Situation in North African Countries and Their Role in The System of World Economic Relations By Agapova, Anna; Budarina, N; Shafiev, R; Tataeva, I.; Kuskov, A.
  11. Impact de la décentralisation fiscale sur l’inclusion sociale au niveau local au Maroc Une analyse empirique à l’aide de l’approche ARDL en séries chronologiques By Boukbech, Rachid; Liouaeddine, Mariem

  1. By: Hofmarcher, Thomas (IHE - The Swedish Institute for Health Economics); Ahmad, Abeer (IHE - The Swedish Institute for Health Economics); Lindgren, Peter (IHE - The Swedish Institute for Health Economics); Wilking, Nils (IHE - The Swedish Institute for Health Economics)
    Abstract: This report explores the state of cancer care in the Middle East and Africa. Nine countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates) are included. <p> The report builds on a comprehensive analysis of secondary literature and interviews with over 30 local experts in these countries. All areas of cancer control – prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment, survivorship, as well as governance – are analyzed in every country. Country-specific recommendations on how to improve the current state of cancer care are provided. <p> The report provides a comparative analysis of the 9 countries and also includes additional comparisons with European countries. It focuses on: <p> 1. Burden of cancer <p> • How many people get and die from cancer? <p> • How big is the burden of cancer in relation to other diseases? <p> • What is the economic cost of cancer to society? <p> 2. Organization of health care and cancer care <p> • Health system – How is it organized and financed? <p> • Cancer care – How is it organized and financed? <p> 3. Current state of cancer care <p> • Governance – Is there a national cancer plan and are there cancer registries? <p> • Prevention – What are the major modifiable risk factors? <p> • Early detection – Why are patients diagnosed late and is there cancer screening? <p> • Diagnosis and treatment – How good is the availability of medical staff, treatment facilities, medical equipment, and cancer drugs? <p> • Survivorship – How good is follow-up care and the return to normal life? <p> 4. Policy recommendations <p> • General recommendations – Why and how to prioritize cancer? <p> • Country-specific recommendations – How to improve cancer care? <p> This report was commissioned and funded by the PhRMA MEA Oncology Working Group and based on independent research delivered by IHE. The PhRMA MEA Oncology Working Group has had no influence or editorial control over the content of this report, and the views and opinions of the authors are not necessarily those of the Oncology Working Group. <p> Disclaimer: This report does not necessarily reflect the views of the country-level experts or their organizations involved.
    Keywords: Cancer; policy; costs; prevention; screening; radiotherapy; drugs; Middle East; Africa; Algeria; Egypt; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Morocco; Saudi Arabia; South Africa; United Arab Emirates; health econonmics
    Date: 2021–11–24
  2. By: Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University); Koc, Ismet (Hacettepe University); Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Although school integration of the children of economic migrants in developed countries is well-studied in the literature, little evidence based on large scale representative data exists on the school integration of refugee children—many of whom live in low- or middle-income countries. This study focuses on Syrian refugee children in Turkey and examines the underlying causes of the native-refugee differences in school enrollment. We also analyze employment and marriage outcomes, as they are potentially jointly determined with schooling. For this purpose, we use the 2018 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, which includes a representative sample of Syrian refugee households. We find that once a rich set of socioeconomic variables are accounted for, the native-refugee gap in school enrollment drops by half for boys and two-thirds for girls, but the gap persists for both genders. However, once we restrict the sample to refugees who arrive in Turkey at or before age 8 and account for the socioeconomic differences, the native-refugee gap completely vanishes both for boys and girls. In one outcome—in never attending school—the native-refugee gap persists even for children who arrive before age 8. Data for Syrians from the pre-war period suggest that this might be an "ethnic capital" that they bring with them from Syria. Finally, we find that the timing of boys' school drop-out coincides with their entry into the labor market, whereas girls' drop-out mostly takes place earlier than their marriage.
    Keywords: refugees, education, school enrollment, integration, child labor, marriage, Turkey
    JEL: F22 I21 I28 O15
    Date: 2021–09
  3. By: Filiz Künüroğlu (Izmir Katip Çelebi University); Ali Sina Önder (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: We analyse the association between cultural contact and international migration decision drawing on the inter-group contact hypothesis. Using data on Turkish migrant stock in 22 countries and immigration from these countries to Turkey between 2000 and 2015, we find strong association between the size of the Turkish community and migration flow of host country nationals to Turkey. Our results are robust to country-specific and year-specific effects as well as to exclusion of different channels of cultural contact. Our research brings a new perspective to the importance of networks in migration destination as most research focuses on the presence of in-group national community in the target country. Our findings contribute to the improvement of extant theories of international migration providing insight in the role of cultural contact with the out-group in the choice of migration destination.
    Keywords: International migration; network migration, contact hypothesis
    Date: 2021–11–25
  4. By: Akyol, Pelin (Bilkent University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: Using the 2008 Turkish National Survey of Domestic Violence against Women (NSDVW) and the 1997 compulsory schooling policy as an instrument for schooling, Erten and Keskin (2018, henceforth EK), published in AEJ–Applied Economics, find that women's education increases the psychological violence and financial control behavior that they face from their partners. The authors also claim that the incidence of financial control behavior rises because women become more likely to be employed—supporting the instrumental violence hypothesis. They present this evidence only for women who live in what they call “rural areas during childhood”. We first show that the evidence EK provide—which exists only for childhood rural areas—is a result of their misclassification of the rural areas variable. We show that once this variable is defined properly, the evidence for their findings vanishes. Second, ignoring the misclassification of the rural status variable, we demonstrate a number of serious flaws in their empirical analysis: (i) selection bias resulting from the policy altering the composition of women in their sample, (ii) failure of the main identification assumption of RDD for some key outcomes, (iii) failure of the exclusion restriction assumption, (iv) inconsistency in the definition of employment variable across men and women (and a problematic definition of employment of women), (v) elementary mistakes in data cleaning, RDD estimation, and interpretation of the estimates. In addition, the evidence for urban areas contradicts the hypothesis they claim to hold for rural areas. Then, we examine the policy effect on domestic violence outcomes using both 2008 and 2014 TNSDVW datasets. We find null policy effects on psychological violence and almost null effects on women's employment, and positive but statistically insignificant effects on partners' financial control behavior. Hence, our findings do not support the instrumental violence hypothesis, and this holds true for the rural sample as well. The only robust evidence the data provide is that the policy reduces physical violence for women with rural childhood residence.
    Keywords: intimate partner violence, education, compulsory schooling, psychological violence, financial control behavior, women's employment
    JEL: I21 I28 J12 J16 J24 O15 O18
    Date: 2021–09
  5. By: Kafle, Kashi; Balasubramanya, Soumya
    Keywords: Farm Management, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08
  6. By: Mohamed Zahidi (University Hassan II [Casablanca]); Jamila Ayegou (University Hassan II [Casablanca])
    Abstract: This article consists of the study and implementation of human resource (HR) reporting systems within the OCP-Maroc group, with a view to developing the skills of the group's employees (the design of dashboards social recruitment, training, mobility and career management), and to analyze firstly, how HR reporting helps to reveal the orientations of the group's strategy in terms of human resources management, and secondly, how HR reporting makes it possible to social management of the dimensions of the group's HR strategy. Therefore, we seek to study (theoretically, but essentially practically) the possible links between HR reporting and the HR strategy of OCP, via a single case method of the OCP SA group (Casablanca headquarters) which is largely based, in action research. In fact, to properly study this relationship between HR reporting and the group's HR strategy, we are relying on a model of four strategic options from Bamberger and Meshoulam. Indeed, after the implementation of an HR reporting system within the group (design of HR dashboards and measurement of social indicators), and after analysis of the HR strategy resulting from the HR reporting carried out, and that adopted by the group, We were able to ascertain how HR reporting plays the role of a revealer and communicator of HR strategy, on the one hand, and the role of the pilot and controller of HR strategy, on the other hand. So it serves to ensure alignment between the group's HR strategy and social performance within the company. These results can be generalized to other companies of at least the same size as the OCP group.
    Abstract: Le présent article consiste en l'étude et la mise en place d'un système de reporting ressources humaines (RH) au sein du groupe OCP-Maroc, dans une optique de développement des compétences collaborateurs du groupe (la conception des tableaux de bord sociaux de recrutement, formation, mobilité et gestion des carrières), et à analyser premièrement, comment le reporting RH permet de révéler les orientations de la stratégie du groupe en matière de gestion des ressources humaines, et deuxièmement, comment le reporting RH permet de faire un pilotage social des dimensions de la stratégie RH du groupe. Donc, nous cherchons à étudier (théoriquement, mais essentiellement pratiquement) les liens possibles entre le reporting RH et la stratégie RH de l'OCP, via une méthode de cas unique du groupe OCP SA (siège Casablanca) qui se base en grande partie, sur une recherche-action. En fait, pour bien étudier cette relation entre le reporting RH et la stratégie RH du groupe, nous comptons sur un modèle de quatre options stratégiques de Bamberger et Meshoulam. En effet, après implémentation d'un système de reporting RH au sein du groupe (conception des tableaux de bord RH et mesure des indicateurs sociaux), et après analyse de la stratégie RH issue du reporting RH effectué, et celle adoptée par le groupe, nous avons pu monter, comment le reporting RH joue le rôle du révélateur et du communicateur de la stratégie RH d'un côté, et le rôle du pilote et contrôleur de la stratégie RH de l'autre côté. Donc il sert à garantir l'alignement entre la stratégie RH du groupe et les performances sociales au sein de l'entreprise. Ces résultats peuvent être généralisés sur les autres entreprises au moins de la même taille que le groupe OCP.
    Keywords: Monthly Analytics Dashboard.,Key Performance Indicator,HR Strategy,HR Dashboards,HR Reporting,Human Resource,Reporting RH,Ressources humaines,Tableaux de bord ressources humaines,Stratégie RH,Indicateur clé de performance,Analytics Monthly Dashboard.
    Date: 2021–09–02
  7. By: Aljabri, Salwa; Raghavan, Mala; Vespignani, Joaquin
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of oil price shocks on fiscal policy and real GDP in Oman using new unexplored data. We find that an oil price shock explains around 22% and 46% of the variation in the government revenue and GDP, respectively. Decomposing the government revenue and GDP further into petroleum and non-petroleum related components, we find that an oil price shock explains around 26% of the variation in petroleum revenue and 90% of the petroleum-GDP. Though petroleum and non-petroleum GDP respond positively to oil price shocks, government expenditure is not affected by oil prices but is affected by government revenue. The results suggest that the Omani government uses its reserve fund and local and international debt to smooth and reduce the impact of oil price fluctuations.
    Keywords: oil price shocks, fiscal policy, GDP, SVAR
    JEL: E00 E6 F4
    Date: 2021–09–03
  8. By: Omar Ahmed (Université Mohammed V de Rabat [Agdal])
    Date: 2021–10–11
  9. By: Najib Bahmani (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Économiques et Sociales d'Agadir, Université Ibn Zohr [Agadir]); Mustapha Jaad (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Économiques et Sociales d'Agadir, Université Ibn Zohr [Agadir])
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the twentieth century, when the concept of "Well-being" has found its new place in economics, the welfare economics, has since consisted of evaluating economic situations, and mainly, the terms of distribution. The debate that was before is only about the measurement of value and utility. Happiness, or well-being, was synonymous with anything that provides satisfaction without necessarily being "useful", yet the relativity of measuring utility was simplified by cumulative aggregation. Indeed, collective well-being represents the sum of the levels of well-being (or utility) of the individuals who make up the community considered. The useful is therefore anything that contributes to maximizing social well-being. Utilitarianism, through functions of marginal utility, has made it possible to identify the optimum of collective and social well-being. On the other hand, and according to the principle of maximization of the sum of well-being, the hypothesis of an equitable distribution of shares, in particular of income between the members of a society, requires that the marginal gain in well-being, in the allocation of resources to different individuals, ie the same everywhere. The fundamental and recapitulated matrix of utilitarianism was uttered by Jeremy Bentham: "The greatest happiness of the greatest number is the measure of just and unjust." The utilitarian doctrine was therefore crucial in the development of several theories in economic and social sciences. We cite in particular the theory of justice. The latter stipulates according to its founder John Rawls, that Men are too egocentric and selfish to determine the principles of fair and equitable distribution of wealth: they seek only to derive their own benefit. Through a theoretical base which presents the economy of well-being, and the theory of justice, our article will deal with the problem of economic inequalities and its perspectives on the attainment of social well-being, in its most extreme ideal's conditions. However, the quest to maximize individual and social well-being was also the subject of several critiques of the utilitarian approach. The cross-sectional analyzes, which we will undertake, will thus allow us to focus our gaze on other modern theories, namely general equilibrium theory, social choice theory, capability theory, and also that of social justice.
    Abstract: Depuis le début du XXème siècle, que le concept du « Bien-être » a connu sa nouvelle place en sciences économiques, l'économie du bien-être (welfare economics), consistait depuis lors, à évaluer les situations économiques, et principalement, les modalités de la répartition. Le débat qui était avant ne porte que sur la mesure de la valeur et de l'utilité. Le bonheur, ou le bien-être était synonyme de tout ce qui procure une satisfaction sans être nécessairement « utile », cependant la relativité de mesure de l'utilité, était simplifiée par une agrégation cumulative. En effet le bien-être collectif représente la somme des niveaux de bien-être (ou d'utilité) des individus qui composent la collectivité considérée. L'utile est donc tout ce qui contribue à maximiser le bien-être social. L'utilitarisme, à travers des fonctions d'utilité marginale, a permis d'identifier l'optimum du bien-être collectif et social. En revanche, et selon le principe de maximisation de la somme du bien-être, l'hypothèse d'une distribution de parts équitables notamment des revenus entre les membres d'une société, exige que le gain marginal en bien-être, dans l'affectation des ressources aux différents individus, soit partout le même. La matrice fondamentale et récapitulative de l'utilitarisme était prononcée par Jeremy Bentham : « Le plus grand bonheur du plus grand nombre est la mesure du juste et de l'injuste ». La doctrine utilitariste était donc cruciale dans le développement de plusieurs théories en sciences économiques et sociales. On cite notamment la théorie de la justice. Cette dernière stipule selon son fondateur John Rawls, que les Hommes sont trop égocentriques et égoïstes pour déterminer des principes de répartition des richesses justes et équitables : ils cherchent uniquement à tirer leur propre bénéfice. À travers, un soubassement théorique qui présente l'économie du bien-être, et la théorie de la justice, notre article traitera, la problématique des inégalités économiques et ses perspectives sur l'atteinte du bien-être social, sous ses états les plus idéaux. Or, la recherche à maximiser le bien-être individuel et social, faisait aussi l'objet de plusieurs critiques de l'approche utilitariste. Les analyses transversales, que nous entamerons-nous permettront ainsi de focaliser le regard sur les autres théories modernes à savoir la théorie de l'équilibre général, la théorie du choix social, la théorie des capabilités, et aussi celle de la justice sociale.
    Keywords: social welfare,well-being,social justice,Inequalities,Justice sociale,Inégalités,P36,P46,H75,D63,social welfare. JEL Classification: I31,sociales et juridiques Inequalities,Bien-être social,Faculté des sciences économiques,bien-être
    Date: 2021–10–01
  10. By: Agapova, Anna; Budarina, N; Shafiev, R; Tataeva, I.; Kuskov, A.
    Abstract: In this article, based on the analysis of the macroeconomic situation of the North African countries, their role in the system of world economic relations is determined. It is proved that despite a certain similarity of the economic model of development of the countries of North Africa, based on the use of raw materials, the impact of external shocks causes different reactions and consequences that are incomparable in scale. It has been determined that the political and economic instability of the North African countries is reflected, among other things, in the ratings of socio-economic development published by international organizations and leading expert and analytical centers. It was revealed that the progress that was achieved by the countries of the region in previous years is largely leveled by factors of a political and religious nature, as well as a strong dependence on world markets for raw materials, which in modern conditions adds certain difficulties to these countries in the world economy.
    Keywords: North African countries, economic development, unemployment rate, export and import of goods, global competitiveness index, globalization index, doing business index, economic freedom index, global innovation index.
    JEL: O10
    Date: 2021–03–05
  11. By: Boukbech, Rachid; Liouaeddine, Mariem
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to assess the impact of fiscal decentralization on social inclusion at the local level in Morocco during the period 2002-2017. To this end, we constructed a social inclusion index (IIS) according to the ACP approach, and we calculated two fiscal decentralization indices (revenue (IDFR) and expenditure (IDFD)) which are alternately the exogenous variables of the two models estimated using time series econometric techniques. The control variables used are gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) and the population growth rate (TxPOP). The empirical results of the study show that the model of fiscal decentralization measured by expenditure is not significant. However, fiscal decentralization measured by revenue has a significant and negative impact on social inclusion. This finding indicates that the effect of fiscal decentralization in Morocco remains limited. The mobilization of local tax revenues could depend not only on the fiscal decentralization system adopted, but also on other political, socio-economic, demographic, etc. factors.
    Keywords: Fiscal decentralization, social inclusion, local level
    JEL: E62 F63 R58
    Date: 2021–11

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