nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒11‒01
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. A Socially Engaged Model of Sharing Platforms in Turkey: Design as a Blueprint of Practices and Local Cooperations By Subasi, Ozge; Kirkulak-Uludag, Berna
  2. Identifying the Effects of Sanctions on the Iranian Economy using Newspaper Coverage By Dario Laudati; M. Hashem Pesaran
  3. Does Education Really Cause Domestic Violence? Revisiting the Turkish Data By Pelin Akyol; Murat Guray Kirdar
  4. The impact of the adoption of IFRS standards on the informational relevance of financial performance indicators of companies listed in the Casablanca BVC By Adil Laouane; Mohamed Torra
  5. Bread and Social Justice: Measurement of Social Welfare and Inequality Using Anthropometrics By Mohammad Abu‐zaineh; Ramses Abul Naga
  6. Public–private differentials in health care delivery: the case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria By Ahcène Zehnati; Marwân-Al-Qays Bousmah; Mohammad Abu-Zaineh
  7. Jordan: Technical Assistance Report-Fiscal Transparency Evaluation By International Monetary Fund
  8. Contribution à la compréhension du rôle de système de gouvernance dans la réussite de transmission au sein de l'entreprise familiale par l'approche exploratoire : Cas du Groupe Ménara Holding By Maryam Elbahjaoui; Oussama Chwiki; Abdelaziz Elabjani; Khadija Benazzi
  9. La performance de l’accompagnement entrepreneurial dans le contexte marocain. By Sanaa Haouata; Younes Bennane
  10. 저유가 시기 GCC 주요국의 경제정책 변화와 한국의 대응방안(Changes of Economic Policies of GCC Countries in the Era of Low Oil Prices and Their Policy Implications for Korea) By Lee, Kwon Hyung; Son, Sung Hyun; Jang, Yunhee; Ryou, Kwang Ho

  1. By: Subasi, Ozge; Kirkulak-Uludag, Berna
    Abstract: The growing importance of sharing economy brought criticism with it. Can a new emerging economy be more socially engaged? Given the emergence of local forms of sharing, the current study attempts to collide the authentic socially engaged forms of sharing in the form of platforms, services, and communities from Turkey. Despite intense public attention, there have been very few studies about landscapes of sharing and caring in Turkey. This gap needs to be addressed, as Turkey has great potential. Rapid urbanisation, accompanied by an increasingly young population, provides unique opportunities for scalable new services. In addition to this, there has been remarkable progress in Turkey’s entrepreneurial ecosystem in recent years. To that end, this study carried out a critical review and a thematic categorisation of sharing and caring platforms in Turkey. Based on a social model of sharing, the authors show the ecological, local, and regional values of such platforms. Key findings from the initial thematical mapping indicate regional and cultural potentials. The diversity in the monetary aspects of different platforms and how they relate to the cultural components also show the importance of a variety of assets for defining the value of sharing economy in diverse cultures.
    Keywords: Caring; Local Platforms; Sharing; Turkey
    JEL: L86
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Dario Laudati; M. Hashem Pesaran
    Abstract: This paper considers how sanctions affected the Iranian economy using a novel measure of sanctions intensity based on daily newspaper coverage. It finds sanctions to have significant effects on exchange rates, inflation, and output growth, with the Iranian rial over-reacting to sanctions, followed up with a rise in inflation and a fall in output. In absence of sanctions, Iran's average annual growth could have been around 4-5 per cent, as compared to the 3 per cent realized. Sanctions are also found to have adverse effects on employment, labor force participation, secondary and high-school education, with such effects amplified for females.
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Pelin Akyol (Department of Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey); Murat Guray Kirdar (Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey)
    Abstract: Using the 2008 Turkish National Survey of Domestic Violence against Women (NSDVW) and the 1997 compulsory schooling policy as an instrument for schooling, Erten and Keskin (2018, henceforth EK), published in AEJ–Applied Economics, find that women’s education increases the psychological violence and financial control behavior that they face from their partners. The authors also claim that the incidence of financial control behavior rises because women become more likely to be employed—supporting the instrumental violence hypothesis. They present this evidence only for women who live in what they call “rural areas during childhood”. We first show that the evidence EK provide—which exists only for childhood rural areas—is a result of their misclassification of the rural areas variable. We show that once this variable is defined properly, the evidence for their findings vanishes. Second, ignoring the misclassification of the rural status variable, we demonstrate a number of serious flaws in their empirical analysis: (i) selection bias resulting from the policy altering the composition of women in their sample, (ii) failure of the main identification assumption of RDD for some key outcomes, (iii) failure of the exclusion restriction assumption, (iv) inconsistency in the definition of employment variable across men and women (and a problematic definition of employment of women), (v) elementary mistakes in data cleaning, RDD estimation, and interpretation of the estimates. In addition, the evidence for urban areas contradicts the hypothesis they claim to hold for rural areas. Then, we examine the policy effect on domestic violence outcomes using both 2008 and 2014 TNSDVW datasets. We find null policy effects on psychological violence and almost null effects on women’s employment, and positive but statistically insignificant effects on partners’ financial control behavior. Hence, our findings do not support the instrumental violence hypothesis, and this holds true for the rural sample as well. The only robust evidence the data provide is that the policy reduces physical violence for women with rural childhood residence.
    Keywords: Intimate partner violence, education, compulsory schooling, psychological violence, financial control behavior, women’s employment.
    JEL: I21 I28 J12 J16 J24 O15 O18
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Adil Laouane (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Mohamed Torra (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: The adoption of international financial standards should provide companies with enormous benefits, especially through the production of reliable and high-quality financial information by strengthening the explanatory power of accounting and stock market performance indicators. These indicators are key elements used to assess the value created by firms. This article is proving to be a great contribution to scientific research in this field. It will allow an empirical approach to assess the impact of the adoption of IFRS standards on the informational relevance of financial performance indicators. In figures, 93 observations were collected from companies listed on the Casablanca stock exchange from 2015 through 2020. We used a theoretical framework based essentially on the theory of financial market efficiency and a series of empirical tests on the two samples: IFRS- Sample Standards and Local- Sample Standards. Ultimately, our main results seem to indicate that the implementation of IFRS standards contributes to slightly to the improvement of the informational relevance of accounting figures for Moroccan companies listed in the Casablanca stock market.
    Abstract: L'adoption des normes financières internationales devrait procurer aux entreprises des avantages énormes surtout à travers la production d'une information financière fiable et de haute qualité en renforçant le pouvoir explicatif des indicateurs comptables et boursiers de performance, principaux éléments utilisés pour apprécier la valeur créée par les firmes. Cet article s'avère être d'un grand apport à la recherche scientifique dans ce domaine. Elle permettra d'évaluer à travers une approche empirique l'impact de l'adoption des normes IFRS sur la pertinence informationnelle des indicateurs de performance financière. En nombre, il s'agit de 93 observations collectées auprès des entreprises cotées à la bourse de valeur de Casablanca pour la période allant de 2015 à 2020. Nous avons eu recours à un cadre théorique basé essentiellement sur la théorie d'efficience des marchés financiers et sur une série de tests empiriques sur les deux échantillons : Echantillon-Normes IFRS et Echantillon-Normes locales. En définitive, nous pouvons avancer que dans l'ensemble, nos principaux résultats semblent indiquer que la mise en place des normes IFRS à contribuer légèrement à l'amélioration de la pertinence informationnelle des chiffres comptables pour les entreprises marocaines cotées à la place casablancaise.
    Keywords: IFRS,Local Standards,Informational Relevance,Financial Performance JEL classification : M41 Paper Type : Empirical research,Normes IFRS,Normes locales,Pertinence informationnelle,Performance financière
    Date: 2021–10
  5. By: Mohammad Abu‐zaineh (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Ramses Abul Naga (University of Aberdeen, Universidad de Málaga [Málaga] = University of Málaga [Málaga], PARSC - Pan African Scientific Research Council)
    Abstract: We address the question of the measurement of health achievement and inequality in the context of variables exhibiting an inverted-U relation with health and well-being. The chosen approach is to measure separately achievement and inequality in the health increasing range of the variable, from a lower survival bound a to an optimum value m, and in the health decreasing range from m to an upper survival bound b. Because in the health decreasing range, the equally distributed equivalent value associated with a distribution is decreasing in progressive transfers, the paper introduces appropriate relative and absolute achievement and inequality indices to be used for variables exhibiting a negative association with well-being. We then discuss questions pertaining to consistent measurement across health attainments and shortfalls, as well as the ordering of distributions exhibiting an inverted-U relation with well-being. An illustration of the methodology is provided using a group of five Arab countries.
    Keywords: survival thresholds,Arab countries,anthropometrics,health achievement and inequality
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Ahcène Zehnati (CREAD - Centre de recherches en économie appliquée au développement); Marwân-Al-Qays Bousmah (CEPED - UMR_D 196 - Centre population et développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UP - Université de Paris, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, SAGESUD - ERL Inserm U1244 - Santé, vulnérabilités et relations de genre au sud - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale - CEPED - UMR_D 196 - Centre population et développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UP - Université de Paris); Mohammad Abu-Zaineh (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université, IPED - Institute for Policy and Economic Development - UTEP - University of Texas [El Paso])
    Abstract: Akin to other developing countries, Algeria has witnessed an increasing role of the private health sector in the past two decades. Our study sheds light on the public–private overlap and the phenomenon of physician dual practice in the provision of health care services using the particular case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria. Existing studies have reported that, compared to the public sector, delivering in a private health facility increases the risk of enduring a cesarean section. While confirming this result for the case of Algeria, our study also reveals the existence of public–private differentials in the effect of medical variables on the probability of cesarean delivery. After controlling for selection in both sectors, we show that cesarean deliveries in the private sector tend to be less medically justified compared with those taking place in the public sector, thus, potentially leading to maternal and neonatal health problems. As elsewhere, the contribution of the private health sector to the unmet need for health care in Algeria hinges on an appropriate legal framework that better coordinates the activities of the two sectors and reinforces their complementarity.
    Keywords: public–private differentials,physician dual practice,Algeria,cesarean delivery
    Date: 2021–09
  7. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Jordan has taken important steps to enhance its fiscal transparency over the past decade. Notably, there is a comprehensive legal framework for the management of public finances. Fiscal reports have become more comprehensive and cover a high proportion of public sector institutions. The frequency of in-year reporting is at an advanced level, as is the timeliness of publication of the government’s annual financial statements. Fiscal statistics are disseminated in accordance with international standards (SDDS). Fiscal forecasts and budgets have become more forward looking and policy oriented with the introduction of a five-year medium-term budget framework and a program classification. As a result of improvements in fiscal transparency practices, in the 2019 Open Budget Survey, Jordan scored above the global average for transparency, and is the only country in the region ranked overall as ‘green’ on this measure. Nevertheless, the FTE provides a more detailed and in-depth analysis with a broader focus.
    Date: 2021–10–08
  8. By: Maryam Elbahjaoui (laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherches et d’études en management des organisations et droit de l’entreprise-LIREMD); Oussama Chwiki (Laboratoire d’innovation, responsabilité et développement durable-INREED); Abdelaziz Elabjani (laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherches et d’études en management des organisations et droit de l’entreprise-LIREMD); Khadija Benazzi
    Abstract: Déclaration de divulgation : Les auteurs n'ont pas connaissance de quelconque financement qui pourrait affecter l'objectivité de cette étude. Conflit d'intérêts : Les auteurs ne signalent aucun conflit d'intérêts.
    Keywords: Family business,Business Succession,Governance Mechanisms JEL Classification: M12,P31. Paper type: Empirical research
    Date: 2021–09–22
  9. By: Sanaa Haouata (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Younes Bennane (KLMSU - Kalmyk State University)
    Date: 2020–02–04
    Abstract: 본 연구의 목적은 사우디아라비아, UAE 등 GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) 국가들을 중심으로 저유가시기를 극복하기 위한 경제정책의 변화 내용을 파악하고, 이러한 변화에 대응하여 한-중동 경제협력을 확대하기 위한 정책 방안을 제시하는 데 있다. 경제정책의 변화를 산업, 고용, 통상, 투자정책 등으로 구분하여 분석하고, 이 구분에 따라 관련 사례도 구체적으로 검토하였다. 이를 토대로 국내 기업이 중동지역에 진출하는 데 고려해야 할 위험요인과 시사점을 도출하였다. The aim of the research is to study changes in the economic policies of GCC countries in the era of low oil prices, and to suggest policy implications for economic cooperation between Korea and Middle East countries. We conduct a review of economic policies, including case studies, divided into the areas of industrial, employment, trade and investment policies. Then, corporate risk factors and implications are drawn for Korean companies aiming to consolidate their market position in the Middle East. (the rest omitted)
    Keywords: GCC; Gulf Cooperation Council; Middle East; Saudi Arabia; UAE; economic cooperation; market
    Date: 2020–12–30

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