nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒07‒19
24 papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Rising Labor Share in Turkey By Orhun Sevinc; Emre Cakir
  2. Constructing an Economic Activity Indicator for Turkey By Aysu Celgin; Elif Akbostanci
  3. Tariff Changes by Turkey During the Covid-19 Pandemic: Impact on Import Value and Import Prices By Yusuf Kenan Bagir
  4. Big Data Information and Nowcasting: Consumption and Investment from Bank Transactions in Turkey By Ali B. Barlas; Seda Guler Mert; Berk Orkun Isa; Alvaro Ortiz; Tomasa Rodrigo; Baris Soybilgen; Ege Yazgan
  5. Analysis of determinants of Morocco's sovereign financial rating By Mohamed El-Qasemy; Lalla Zhor Alaoui Omari
  6. Towards the Reversal of Poverty and Income Inequality Setbacks Due to COVID-19: The Role of Globalisation and Resource Allocation By Ofori, Isaac K.; Armah, Mark K.; Asmah, Emmanuel E.
  7. The impact of Combustible Renewables and Waste on Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in Tunisia By Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien
  8. Heterogeneous Effect of Exchange Rates on Firms’ Exports: Role of Labor Intensity By Kurmas Akdoðan; Yusuf Kenan Bagir; Huzeyfe Torun
  9. Older Adult Health Following Greater Access to Secondary Health Care: Evidence from Bus Service Introductions to Arab Towns in Israel By Abu-Qarn, Aamer; Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee
  10. Does Stock Market Listing Boost or Impede Corporate Investment? By Ibrahim Yarba; Ahmet Duhan Yassa
  11. Return Migrants and the Wage Premium: Does the Legal Status of Migrants Matter? By Elmallakh, Nelly; Wahba, Jackline
  12. Nowcasting and Short-term Forecasting Turkish GDP: Factor-MIDAS Approach By Selcuk Gul; Abdullah Kazdal
  13. Nowcasting in Tunisia using large datasets and mixed frequency models By Hager Ben Romdhane
  14. Migrant Networks and Destination Choice: Evidence from Moves across Turkish Provinces By Abdurrahman B. Aydemir; Erkan Duman
  15. THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON THE MOROCCAN SUPPLY CHAIN By Boulitama Othman; Rahli Driss; Sabri Karim
  16. Examination of Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Socioscientific Issues By Hastürk, Hanife Gamze; Ökkeşoğulları, Eyüp
  17. Individual Determinants of Self-employment Entry in Social and Conventional Entrepreneurship: Are co-operatives different? By Adil Outla; Moustapha Hamzaoui
  18. The Impact of Human Capital Underutilization on Productivity and Economic Growth in Egypt By Hashem, Eman Ahmed
  19. Government Policies, Financial Scopes and Technological Usages for Agricultural Development and Post-Harvest Loss Reduction in Algeria By Djihad, Tria; Alghorbany, Abdelkader; Bin Muhamad, Azim Izzuddin; Alam, Md. Mahmudul
  20. The role of sustainability living labs in understanding food-water-energy nexus challenges and solutions in India and Jordan By Küblböck, Karin; Omann, Ines; Grohs, Hannes; Karutz, Raphael; Klassert, Christian; Klauer, Bernd; Zhu, Yuanzao; Zozmann, Heinrich; Smilovic, Mikhail; Gorelick, Steven
  21. Sustainability, natural capital and climate change in Kuwait By Atkinson, Giles; Gelan, Ayele
  22. Apport de l’Audit Interne à la Gouvernance des Entreprises : Cas de l’Algérie By Hamida Adja; Kechad Rabah; Colot Olivier
  23. La gestion des connaissances et la performance organisationnelle: cas de l’université Abdelmalek Essaadi By Yassine Boussenna
  24. Turizmin Buyume ve Ýstihdam Uzerindeki Etkileri By Aysu Celgin; Mert Gokcu; Selcuk Gul; Abdullah Kazdal

  1. By: Orhun Sevinc; Emre Cakir
    Abstract: [EN] We follow alternative methods to estimate the share of labor income in value-added. We estimate that as of 2018 labor share in Turkey lies somewhere around 45 percent (no less than 42%, no more than 54%). We document that labor share robustly increases by about 12.2 percent from the mid-2000s to 2017. A shift-share analysis reveals that within-and between-sector forces are equally important for the rise of the Turkish labor share. [TR] Bu notta cesitli yontemler kullanarak isgucu gelirinin toplam katma deger icindeki payini olcuyoruz. Turkiye'de 2018 itibariyla emek payinin yuzde 45 civarinda (% 42'den az,% 54'ten fazla degil) oldugunu tahmin ediyoruz. Emek payinin yonteme bagli olmaksizin 2000'li yillarin ortasindan 2017'ye kadar ortalama yuzde 12,2 arttigini belgeliyoruz. Degisim payi analizi, sektorler icindeki ve arasindaki gelismelerin, Turkiye'deki emek payinin yukselmesinde esit derecede onemli oldugunu ortaya koyuyor.
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Aysu Celgin; Elif Akbostanci
    Abstract: In this paper, a monthly economic activity indicator is constructed for the Turkish economy for 1988-2020 period. Dynamic factor modelling framework is utilized in the estimation of the indicator. In the context of data selection, first of all, the variables are categorized into five types as: activity (hard data), activity (survey-based data or soft data), trade, employment and financial variables. After determining the candidate variables for each category, data selection is finalized by using the hard-thresholding method. The results indicate that monthly economic activity indicator is successful in detecting the past recessionary and contractionary periods of the Turkish economy and providing timely information about the course of the economic activity.
    Keywords: Economic activity, Dynamic factor model, Hard-thresholding, Real time analysis
    JEL: C22 E32 E37
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Yusuf Kenan Bagir
    Abstract: Turkey introduced additional customs duties on 5,088 products for a temporary period in 2020. This study investigates the impact of the changes in effective tariff rates on quarterly import value and prices using monthly trade data at 12-digit product – country breakdown. Although the product range affected from the tariff rate hikes is quite wide, the regulations affected only 6.5% of total imports since the majority of top trade partners are excluded from the additional custom duties via existing bilateral trade agreements. Country-product level regression analysis suggests that a one percentage point increase in effective tariff rates reduces the import value by 1.24 percent. There is no evidence of heterogeneity at product level despite Turkey’s market power in certain product groups. There is also no statistically significant impact on import prices therefore the price cost of increased tariff rates is entirely borne by the Turkish firms and consumers. Overall, the regression results imply that the temporary increases in additional customs duty rates with 6 different regulations reduced the total import value by about 0.9% in the third quarter of 2020.
    Keywords: Tariff rates, Imports, Import prices
    JEL: F13 F14
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Ali B. Barlas (BBVA Research); Seda Guler Mert (BBVA Research); Berk Orkun Isa (BBVA Research); Alvaro Ortiz (BBVA Research); Tomasa Rodrigo (BBVA Research); Baris Soybilgen (Bilgi University); Ege Yazgan (Bilgi University)
    Abstract: We use the aggregate information from individual-to-firm and firm-to-firm in Garanti BBVA Bank transactions to mimic domestic private demand. Particularly, we replicate the quarterly national accounts aggregate consumption and investment (gross fixed capital formation) and its bigger components (Machinery and Equipment and Construction) in real time for the case of Turkey. In order to validate the usefulness of the information derived from these indicators we test the nowcasting ability of both indicators to nowcast the Turkish GDP using different nowcasting models. The results are successful and confirm the usefulness of Consumption and Investment Banking transactions for nowcasting purposes. The value of the Big data information is more relevant at the beginning of the nowcasting process, when the traditional hard data information is scarce. This makes this information specially relevant for those countries where statistical release lags are longer like the Emerging Markets.
    Date: 2021–07
  5. By: Mohamed El-Qasemy (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Lalla Zhor Alaoui Omari (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: The correlation between the sovereign credit rating granted by credit rating agencies (CRA) and conditions of access to foreign capital leads Moroccan authorities to pay greater attention to ratings obtained by Morocco. Understanding the determinants of Morocco's sovereign rating is critical given its implications for economic policies and structural reforms. In this perspective, this study examines the extent to which Morocco's sovereign rating reflects the performance recorded by its economic fundamentals and accounts for its sovereign risk. The aim is to identify a limited number of factors that can be the subject of the bulk of public action in order to reduce sovereign risk. The study included the case of the sovereign credit rating granted by Standard & Poor's (S&P). Using an ARDL model and monthly data covering the period 1998-2019, our study suggested that the Moroccan's sovereign rates, is determined by nine variables, namely: economic growth, depth of the financial system, inflation, accountability, control of corruption, budget balance, total central government debt, central government external debt and net foreign assets. The relationship between the variables is generally a short-term relationship, with the exception of the variables representing public finances. Moving from "speculative grade" to "investment grade" requires greater effort than what is normally required to move just along the path of "speculative grade". Our results can guide economic policy decisions in terms of the choice of sectors and factors that should primarily benefit from government efforts. Thus, given its long-term relationship and its predominance in the S&P's process of awarding sovereign rating, public finance factors must occupy the central place in economic policy, if Morocco wishes to consolidate its positioning at the Investment Grade, while moving away from the threshold separating it from the speculative grade. To our best knowledge, there are no academic studies that have attempted to examine the determinants of Morocco's sovereign rating. Also, from a methodological point of view, previous empirical studies have not had the opportunity to use an ARDL model to examine this type of relationship, i.e.: financial rating vs its determinants in the case of a specific country. Thus, our study can help demystify sovereign financial rating and its impact on the decision-making process relating to economic policies.
    Abstract: La corrélation existant entre les notes de crédits souverains accordées par les agences de notation de crédits (ANC) et les conditions d'accès aux capitaux étrangers fait que les autorités marocaines prêtent une attention particulière aux notes obtenue par le Maroc. La compréhension des déterminants de la note souveraine du Maroc est critique au vu de ses implications en termes de politiques économiques et de réformes structurelles. Dans cette perspective, cette étude examine dans quelle mesure la note souveraine du Maroc reflète la performance enregistrée par ses fondamentaux économiques et rend compte de son risque souverain. L'objectif est d'identifier un nombre limité de facteurs qui peuvent faire l'objet de l'essentiel de l'action publique afin de réduire le risque souverain. L'étude a retenu le cas de la note financière souveraine accordée par l'agence Standard & Poor's (S&P). En utilisant un modèle ARDL et des données mensuelles couvrant la période 1998-2019, notre étude a conclu que la note financière souveraine accordée par S&P, variable dépendante, est déterminée par neuf variables : croissance économique, profondeur du système financier, inflation, reddition des comptes et voix des citoyens, contrôle de la corruption, solde budgétaire, dette totale de l'administration centrale, dette extérieure de l'administration centrale et avoirs nets extérieurs. La relation entre les variables est globalement une relation de court terme à l'exception des variables représentant les finances publiques. Passer du « Speculative Grade » à l'« Investment Grade » nécessite des efforts plus importants par rapport à ce qui est normalement exigé pour évoluer juste au niveau de la trajectoire du « Speculative Grade ». Nos résultats peuvent orienter les décisions de politique économique en termes de choix des secteurs et facteurs qui doivent bénéficier en priorité des efforts des pouvoirs publics. Ainsi, le domaine des finances publiques, vu sa relation de long terme et sa prédominance dans le processus d'attribution de la note souveraine par l'agence S&P, doit occuper la place centrale dans la politique économique, si le Maroc souhaite consolider son positionnement au niveau de l'« Investment Grade » tout en s'éloignant du seuil le séparant du « Speculative Grade ». À notre meilleure connaissance, il n'y a pas d'études académiques qui se sont attelées à examiner les déterminants de la note financière souveraine du Maroc. Aussi, de point de vue méthodologique, les études empiriques précédentes n'ont pas eu l'occasion d'utiliser un modèle ARDL pour examiner ce type de relation, c.-à-d. : notation financière et ses déterminants dans le cas d'un pays précis. Notre étude peut ainsi contribuer à démystifier la notation financière souveraine et son impact sur le processus de décision relatif aux politiques économiques.
    Keywords: Sovereign Credit Rating,S&P,Morocco,Economic Policy,ARDL,Notation financière souveraine,Maroc,Politiques économiques
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Ofori, Isaac K.; Armah, Mark K.; Asmah, Emmanuel E.
    Abstract: Policy recommendations for building resilient and all-inclusive societies post COVID-19 pandemic continue to dominate the media and research landscapes. However, rigorous empirical content backing such claims, particularly, on both poverty and income inequality, is hard to find. Motivated by the bleak outlook of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, as driven primarily by the floundering hydrocarbon sector, vulnerable employment, and low foreign direct investment, we analyse the poverty and income inequality effects of globalisation and resource allocation in the region. Using data from the World Bank’s Poverty and Equity Database for the period 1990–2019, we provide estimates robust to several econometric techniques the pooled least square, fixed effect, random effect, and the system generalized method of moments estimators to show that: (1) while economic globalisation reduces both poverty and income inequality, social globalisation matters only for income inequality in MENA; (2) economic globalisation is remarkable in reducing income inequality through resource allocation. Policy recommendations are provided in the light of the geopolitical fragility and rise in social globalisation of the region.
    Keywords: Economic Integration, Financial Deepening, GMM, MENA, Globalisation, Inequality, Poverty
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 F43 F6 I3 O1 O23 O43 O55
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Bakari, Sayef; Tiba, Sofien
    Abstract: This paper aiming at investigating the impact of renewable combustible and waste on the economic growth and environmental quality for the case of Tunisia using the ARDL bounds testing approach during the period 1971-2018. The results confirm the presence of long-run relationships between the combustible renewables and waste and the aggregate wealth proxy and the ecological proxies, respectively. Furthermore, for the production function model, our empirical results reflect that combustible renewables and waste exerts a significant positive effect on economic growth. For the environmental model, the findings confirm that combustible renewables and waste has a negative effect on environmental quality. From this outlook, the perspectives on the use of renewable energy use in Tunisia seem to be constructive and positive. The transition towards friendly energy sources is the main response to the climate emergency for a green economy in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).The encouragement of sustainable consumption, sustainable goods, and practices will be the main element towards the achievement of the green transition of the structure Tunisian economy as a whole.
    Keywords: Renewable combustible and waste ; GDP ; CO2 ; ARDL Bounds testing ; Tunisia.
    JEL: O40 O44 O47 Q2 Q20 Q28 Q5 Q52 Q54 Q57
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Kurmas Akdoðan; Yusuf Kenan Bagir; Huzeyfe Torun
    Abstract: Using an extensive firm-level database that combines balance sheet information, social security registry and customs data, we examine whether the relationship between the exchange rate and exports change with the degree of labor-intensity of production. The results based on manufacturing firms in Turkey suggest that the sensitivity of labor-intensive firms to the exchange rate is higher than that of the less labor-intensive ones, both at the intensive and extensive margins of exports. However, we do not find a significant impact on the export prices varying across the labor-intensity of the firms. Our results are robust to alternative definitions of labor-intensity and exchange rates, and the use of different time spans.
    Keywords: Exports, Exchange rates, Labor-intensity
    JEL: F14 F16 D22
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Abu-Qarn, Aamer (Ben Gurion University); Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee (Ben Gurion University)
    Abstract: How much can socioeconomically-based health disparities be attributed to differential access to secondary and specialist health care? We evaluate this question in the context of Arab-Jewish health disparities in Israel while exploiting the introduction of public transportation to Arab communities. Primary care health services are readily available within Arab towns and the introduction of bus services increased residents' access to secondary health services that are almost exclusively available only outside their towns. In the short term older adults reported higher probabilities of being diagnosed with common health conditions, such as heart problems or high cholesterol, and rare health conditions. In the longer term – more than two years following the initial introduction of public transportation to one's town – there were reductions in overweight and mostly null effects on diagnosis-based health conditions. Coupled with an analysis on mortality rates, our results suggest that the higher rates of chronic conditions in the short term are due to higher diagnosis rates rather than health deterioration. However, this effect is weaker in the long run when the benefits of greater access to health care facilities offset the higher diagnosis rates.
    Keywords: public transportation, health disparities, health care access, secondary health care
    JEL: I12 I14 R4
    Date: 2021–06
  10. By: Ibrahim Yarba; Ahmet Duhan Yassa
    Abstract: This paper investigates investment behavior across public and privately held firms using a novel firm-level dataset. We use coarsened exact matching to construct a control group of firms with which we compare listed firms before and after listing in a difference-in-differences framework. Results reveal that stock market listing spurs growth significantly in terms of sales, employment and assets for manufacturing firms. Furthermore, results indicate that manufacturing listed firms invest more than their non-listed counterparts. In addition, their investment decisions are significantly more sensitive to changes in investment opportunities, and they respond more aggressively. These results constitute a rejecting evidence against existence of short-termism for manufacturing listed firms in Turkey. Moreover, these findings provide significant support for the arguments regarding the advantages of public firms in terms of better access to external finance and enhanced corporate structure, which enables them to fulfill growth potential much easily, and highlight the importance of policies that should be implemented to deepen the Turkish capital markets.
    Keywords: Stock market listing, Corporate investment, Firm growth, Short-termism, Coarsened exact matching, Difference-in-differences
    JEL: C23 D22 G31 G32 L25
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Elmallakh, Nelly (World Bank); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the legal status of overseas migrants on their wages upon return to the home country. Using unique data from Egypt, which allows us to distinguish between return migrants according to their type of international migration, documented versus undocumented, we examine the impact of the illegal status on wages upon return. Relying on a conditional mixed process model, which takes into account the selection into emigration, into return, and into the legal status of temporary migration, we find that, upon return, undocumented migrants witness a wage penalty compared to documented migrants, as well as relative to non-migrants. Our results are the first to show the impact of undocumented migration on the migrant upon return to the country of origin.
    Keywords: return migration, undocumented migration, illegality, wages, Egypt
    JEL: F22 J30
    Date: 2021–06
  12. By: Selcuk Gul; Abdullah Kazdal
    Abstract: This paper compares several nowcast approaches that account for mixed-data frequency and “ragged-edge” problems. More specifically, it examines the relative performance of the factor-augmented MIDAS approach (Marcellino and Schumacher; 2010) in nowcasting Turkish GDP with respect to benchmark forecasts. By using 40 monthly indicators in factor extraction, several combinations of the factor-MIDAS models are estimated. Recursive pseudo-out-of sample forecasting exercise in evaluating the alternative models’ performance suggests that factor-augmented MIDAS performs better than the benchmarks, especially in nowcasting. However, they do not provide much information content to forecasting a quarter ahead. Results indicate that taking into account the “ragged-edge” characteristic of the data helps improve the predictive ability of the nowcast models. Besides, dynamic factor extraction methods provide better predictions than the static factor extraction methods.
    Keywords: Forecasting, Mixed frequency, Factor-MIDAS
    JEL: C52 C53 E37
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Hager Ben Romdhane (Central Bank of Tunisia)
    Abstract: The object of this paper is to nowcast, forecast and track changes in Tunisian economic activity during normal and crisis times. The main target variable is quarterly real GDP (RGDP) and we have collected a large and varied set of monthly indicators as predictors. We use several mixed frequency models, such as unrestricted autoregressive MIDAS (UMIDAS-AR), three pass regression filter (3PRF) and mixed dynamic factor models (MDFM). We evaluate these models by comparing them with benchmarking low frequency models including vector autoregressive (VAR) and ARMA models. The dynamic factor and the 3PRF forecasts are more accurate in terms of mean squared errors (MSE) than other alternatives models both in-sample and out of sample in normal times, meaning before the COVID19 period. Forecast errors derived from low frequency models including crisis periods are larger than errors from mixed data sampling approaches including autoregressive terms due mainly to the failure of the low frequency models to capture these tail events. Fortunately, the reliability of nowcasts and forecasts increase when using the mixed frequency dynamic factor model based on information at both monthly and quarterly frequencies.
    Keywords: Mixed Frequency Data Sampling; Nowcasting; short-term forecasting
    JEL: E37 C55 C55 F17 O11
    Date: 2021–06–30
  14. By: Abdurrahman B. Aydemir (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sabancı University); Erkan Duman (Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sabancı University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates effects of birth place migration networks and other location attributes on destination choices of internal migrants conditional on migration. We also study heterogeneity in the role of these factors for migrant types who differ by skill group, age at migration, and reason of migration. We use data on male migrants from three rounds of Turkish censuses 1985, 1990 and 2000 who choose among 67 provinces. We find that migrants are drawn to provinces with larger networks, relatively better economic conditions, and distance is a significant deterrent for migration. There are, however, significant heterogeneities across migrant types. More educated and those migrating for employment reasons rely less on networks for destination choice. More educated move longer distances and labor market conditions play a significant role only in choices of migrants moving for employment reasons. Importance of labor market conditions increases and the effect of distance decreases with age.
    Keywords: migration, networks, destination choice, education, reason of migration, heterogeneous effects.
    JEL: J61 O15 R23 Z13
    Date: 2021–07
  15. By: Boulitama Othman (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Rahli Driss (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca]); Sabri Karim (UH2MC - Université Hassan II [Casablanca])
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic that spread in the year 2020 has caused considerable damage to the global economy. It has shown the impact of new health risks on the functioning of companies. No matter how resilient logistics chains are, their interconnection exposes companies and therefore the economy to serious disruptions. Since the start of the pandemic, several studies have been carried out to assess the impact of this crisis on different aspects of human life. This article is also a contribution to this effort. It seeks to provide rough orders of the magnitude of the impact of the pandemic on the functioning of Moroccan companies. Based on a sample of 196 Moroccan companies, the results showed a severe contraction in activity due to the disruption of various links in the logistics chain following the general containment of the population and the closure of borders. The study has also revealed the presence of three models of companies' behavior in facing this shock, the strong destabilization of purchasing and distribution departments and the role of technology and digital transformation in crisis response strategies.
    Abstract: La pandémie de la COVID-19 qui s'est propagée en l'an 2020 a causé des dommages considérables à l'économie mondiale. Elle a montré l'impact des nouveaux risques sanitaires sur le fonctionnement des entreprises. Quel que soit le niveau de résilience des chaînes logistiques, leur interconnexion font exposer les entreprises et par conséquent l'économie à des perturbations graves. Depuis le début de la pandémie, plusieurs études ont été réalisées afin d'évaluer les répercussions de cette crise sur les différents aspects de la vie humaine. Cet article est également une contribution à cet effort. Il cherche à fournir des ordres de grandeur approximatifs de l'impact de la pandémie sur le fonctionnement des entreprises marocaines. Sur la base d'un échantillon de 196 entreprises marocaines, les résultats ont montré une contraction sévère de l'activité du fait de la perturbation des différents maillons de la chaîne logistique suite au confinement général de la population et à la fermeture des frontières. L'étude a également révélé la présence de trois modèles de comportement des entreprises face au choc, la forte déstabilisation des services achats et distributions et le rôle de la technologie et de la transformation numérique dans les stratégies de réponse à la crise.
    Keywords: Crisis Management,COVID-19,Supply Chain,Supply Chain crisis.,Gestion des crises,Crises logistiques,Chaînes d’approvisionnement
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Hastürk, Hanife Gamze; Ökkeşoğulları, Eyüp
    Abstract: The interplay between culture and technology is dynamic. Since ancient times, science has had a major impact on people, and people have determined the general direction of science progress. In this way, there is mutual influence between society and science. Socioscientific issues have emerged as a result of the interaction process between science and society. In this context, it was aimed to examine eighth grade students' attitudes towards socioscientific issues. The study was conducted with 136 eighth grade students studying in a city in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey in the 2018-2019 academic year. Quantitative data collection and analysis methods were used in this study, which aimed to examine the secondary school students’ attitudes towards socioscientific issues. “The Attitudes towards Socioscientific Issues Scale (ATSIS) " was used as data collection tool in the study. According to the findings of the factorial ANOVA test; it was determined that eighth grade students' showed positive attitude on socioscientific issues. While students had positive attitudes related to interest and usefulness of SSI, they also had neither positive nor negative attitudes related to interest and usefulness of SSI. In addition, it was observed that the general attitude levels about socioscientific issues and the mean scores of interest and usefulness, liking and anxiety sub-dimensions did not differentiate according to gender. Based on the findings, the importance of socioscientific issues was emphasized and recommendations were made to program makers, researchers and practitioners on teaching.
    Date: 2021–06–09
  17. By: Adil Outla (Economy,finance and development LAB,Abdelmalek Essadi University of Tangier); Moustapha Hamzaoui (Economy,finance and development LAB,Abdelmalek Essadi University of Tangier)
    Abstract: The paper provides theoretical and empirical analysis on the choice problem of individuals' self-employment entry. With more focus on social entrepreneurship, the authors attempt to answer the question of how self-employment entry is different for social and conventional entrepreneurship. Drawing on the national employment survey, the empirical analysis and methodology approach allows the employment status preferences between cooperatives self-employment, independent self-employment, and employer self-employment. For the comparative analysis purpose, the probability of choosing paid job employment is also addressed. The empirical results indicate that the main positive determinants of social entrepreneurship entry are the risk tolerance, basic education, secondary education, and the attractiveness of rural areas. The results reveal also evidences of weak entrepreneurial culture in the Moroccan context. By comparison to conventional entrepreneurship, the empirical section contains additional information. The paper moves policymakers close to individuals' determinants and contributes to the socioeconomic incentive for social entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Social-Entrepreneurship,Business-entrepreneurship,Co-operatives
    Date: 2021–06–26
  18. By: Hashem, Eman Ahmed
    Abstract: This study estimates the effects of human capital underutilization on economic growth and productivity. This paper investigated the relationship between underutilization of human capital and economic growth using a variety of econometric tests like the Augmented Dickey Fuller test, the Johansen Integration test, and the ARDL model. The results indicate that, there is a negative relationship between human capital underutilization and economic growth. The results indicate that underutilization of human capital has a greater long-term impact on economic growth than it does in the short run. Reforms to education and training systems are required in order to maximise human capital utilisation and thus increase productivity and economic growth.
    Date: 2021–06–09
  19. By: Djihad, Tria; Alghorbany, Abdelkader; Bin Muhamad, Azim Izzuddin; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Agriculture is considered to be a vital aspect of Algeria’s national economy and rural development. Achieving sustainable agricultural production, generating employment, reducing imports and minimising post-harvest crops losses are the major objectives of the Algerian government. However, based on the evaluation of existing policies, this study found that poor governance is hampering the agriculture sector, particularly in terms of management of financial resources, where most financial investments are made only for short-term gains. The lack of awareness about the importance of post-harvest practices and lack of using modern technology threaten the growth of this sector. Adopting sound post-harvest methods can reduce food losses and wastage in every stage of the food supply chain, and integration of modern techniques, skilled labour, and education training systems are very important if agriculture in Algeria is to progress.
    Date: 2020–06–07
  20. By: Küblböck, Karin; Omann, Ines; Grohs, Hannes; Karutz, Raphael; Klassert, Christian; Klauer, Bernd; Zhu, Yuanzao; Zozmann, Heinrich; Smilovic, Mikhail; Gorelick, Steven
    Abstract: There are a multitude of challenges confronting resource-limited, rapidly growing cities that revolve around food-water-energy (FWE) resource issues, and there are a multitude of potential solutions. But such solutions often address one or just a few challenges without regard to their impacts on the entire FWE system. We report on an innovative stakeholder engagement concept that links a living lab approach with the development of an integrated multi-agent urban-FWE systems model for two study regions: Pune, India and Amman Jordan. The model captures connections and feedbacks among the FWE sectors and aims to support long-term policy planning for a more sustainable and equitable provision of food, water and energy. In this context, knowledge of local stakeholders with regard to the FWE nexus is key. Moreover, stakeholder participation increases the chance that the model results are useful for and therefore used by policy makers and other relevant stakeholders, and consequently that the model supports efforts for achieving greater equity and sustainability in the FWE-nexus sectors. We have implemented a two-stage sustainability living lab process (2SLL), embedding several characteristics of existing living lab approaches, and adapting it to the requirements of our effort in Jordan and India. This paper presents the objectives of stakeholder engagement within FUSE, differentiating between model-related and process-related objectives, and discusses requirements for reaching those objectives: First, workshop preparation was key. For one to two months, members of our team were in the study regions, and were able to select a representative cross section of workshop participants. Second, professional facilitation of the workshops was essential in bringing together stakeholders from many different sectors with scientists from different disciplines, and for creating an environment in which the stakeholders were able to formulate their food-water-energy challenges and to propose solutions. Third, an interdisciplinary research team was essential to be able to translate workshops results into inputs for different parts of the systems model. We conclude that the 2SLL process shares many of the characteristics of the classical living labs, such as collaboration between scientific and societal actors, embeddedness in real-world contexts and use of experimentation and learning. However, the 2SLL process adds to these approaches by engaging stakeholders to co-formulate the model and ultimately evaluate the viability of solutions aimed at meeting the multitude of present and future food-water-energy challenges.
    Keywords: food-water-energy nexus,multi-agent modelling,urban sustainability,living labs,sustainability living labs,urban living labs,transdisciplinary research,policy evaluation,stakeholder engagement,systems modelling
    Date: 2021
  21. By: Atkinson, Giles; Gelan, Ayele
    Abstract: We explore the challenge of sustainability in Kuwait and, in doing so, explore three distinct (but related) questions surrounding this. First, we assess development prospects in Kuwait using metrics of national wealth and natural capital. Secondly, we construct a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory for Kuwait. Third, we provide a risk assessment for Kuwait of climate change impacts by combining an economic model with different climate scenarios relevant to Kuwait’s food security. Our findings on wealth accounting and our GHG inventory point to the importance of strengthening, and extending, statistical systems in Kuwait. The benefits of this would be improved sustainability benchmarks (against which official national savings commitments can be evaluated) and a more robust basis for judging GHG reduction strategies (given our finding that existing data sources underestimate Kuwait emissions). Moreover, understanding climate risks for Kuwait is crucial to prudent assessment of development prospects. We show that food security is a useful starting point for this and investigate the impacts of changing world food prices on the cost of imports and scope for substituting for domestic activities in both the food. production and processing sectors
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–07
  22. By: Hamida Adja (ESC - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d'Alger, UMons - Université de Mons); Kechad Rabah (ESC - Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d'Alger); Colot Olivier (UMons - Université de Mons)
    Abstract: La gouvernance d'entreprise constitue une des thématiques d'actualité, notamment après la série de scandales survenus depuis le début du 21ème siècle. En réponse à ces dysfonctionnements, une attention particulière a été accordée à l'audit interne pour réduire les risques, assurer la transparence et garantir une meilleure gouvernance. Cette étude vise à expliquer la manière dont l'audit interne renforce la gouvernance d'entreprise en Algérie. Pour ce faire, une méthode qualitative à l'aide d'un entretien semi-directif a été adoptée. Les résultats indiquent que l'audit interne améliore la gouvernance d'entreprise à travers l'évaluation du contrôle interne, la gestion des risques, la réduction des asymétries informationnelles, et la protection des droits des parties prenantes. Néanmoins, les signes d'une bonne gouvernance d'entreprise en Algérie sont encore faibles, cela est dû principalement à l'absence d'audit interne dans de nombreuses entreprises, à son rattachement à la direction générale, et à l'environnement macroéconomique défavorable.
    Keywords: Audit interne,Gouvernance d'entreprise,Gestion des risques,Contrôle interne,Asymétrie d'information
    Date: 2021–06–08
  23. By: Yassine Boussenna (UAE, ENCG Tanger -Groupe de recherche "Management & Systèmes d'information"-)
    Abstract: L'énorme quantité d'informations dans notre vie quotidienne et le travail continu pour les organiser et les exploiter de la meilleure façon possible ont conduit à l'émergence de la gestion des connaissances. D'un autre côté, le terme « performance » a fait couler beaucoup d'encre. Il s'agit d'un vocabulaire largement utilisé dans le domaine du management. La quête de la performance était l'objectif ultime de toutes les organisations. Par ailleurs, il est démontré depuis longtemps qu'une meilleure gestion des connaissances impacte positivement la performance organisationnelle. Cependant, la manière de réalisation de ce processus n'est pas encore bien claire en milieu universitaire et en particulier dans les pays en voie de développement comme le Maroc. Cet article a pour objectif principal de répondre à cette problématique à travers un recensement des points de vue des enseignants-chercheurs de l'Université Abdelmalek Essaadi à travers une démarche de raisonnement de type hypothético-déductive et une méthode de travail quantitative. Notre questionnaire a été administré auprès d'un échantillon représentatif de 88 enseignants-chercheurs des différents établissements de l'université étudiée. Les résultats obtenus montrent une forte corrélation entre la gestion des connaissances et la performance organisationnelle et un faible degré d'application du processus de knowledge management (création-stockage-partage-application) à l'université en question.
    Date: 2020–11–20
  24. By: Aysu Celgin; Mert Gokcu; Selcuk Gul; Abdullah Kazdal
    Abstract: [TR] Bu calismada, turizmin ekonomideki yeri betimsel olarak sunulduktan sonra buyume ve istihdam uzerindeki etkileri farkli yöntemlerle ele alinmaktadir. Zaman serisi yöntemleri ve girdi-cikti analizinden elde edilen bulgular, yuzde 10 duzeyindeki turizm sokunun GSYÝH buyumesi uzerindeki etkisinin yaklasik 1 yuzde puan olduguna isaret etmektedir. Turizmin GSYÝH icindeki payi göz önune alindiginda, iktisadi faaliyet uzerindeki dolayli etkilerinin en az dogrudan etkileri kadar önemli oldugu sonucu ortaya cikmaktadir. Ayrica, turizm gelismelerinin dogrudan baglantili sektörlerde daha kuvvetli olmak uzere isgucu piyasasi uzerindeki etkilerinin de belirgin oldugu gözlenmektedir. [EN] This study examines the effects of tourism developments on growth and employment with different methods after presenting the place of tourismin the economy. Findings from time series methods and input-output analysis indicate that the effect of a 10 percent tourism shock on GDPgrowthis around 1 percentage point. Giventhe share oftourism in GDP,it is concluded thattheindirect effects of a tourism shock on economic activity are as important as its direct effects. Besides, it is observed that the impact of tourism developments on the labourmarket, especially on the sectors directly linked to tourism, issignificant.
    Date: 2021

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