nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒04‒12
eight papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Management of the Employeur Brand in the Digital Era: the case of call centers in Morocco By Zakaria Lissaneddine; Farid Chaouki; Florence Rodhain
  2. Household Poverty in Egypt: Poverty Profile, Econometric Modeling and Policy Simulations By Nosier, Shereen; Beram, Reham; Mahrous, Mohamed
  3. Unleashing the full potential of the Turkish business sector By Dennis Dlugosch; Rauf Gönenç; Yusuf Kenan Bağır; Hüzeyfe Torun; Eun Jung Kim
  4. The misalignment of real effective exchange rate: Evidence from Tunisia By Ahmed Derbali; ;
  5. E-Commerce in Turkey and SAP Integrated E-Commerce System By Ahmet Kaya; \"Omer Aydin
  6. To cooperate or not to cooperate? An analysis of in-group favoritism among Syrian refugees By El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
  7. Driving Factors Behind the Social Role of Retail Centers on Recreational Activities By Sepideh Baghaee; Saeed Nosratabadi; Farshid Aram; Amir Mosavi
  8. L’Economie Informelle en Algérie By BENABBOU, Hassiba; BELBACHIR, Gouraya; BELBACHIR, Hadjira

  1. By: Zakaria Lissaneddine; Farid Chaouki; Florence Rodhain (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UM - Université de Montpellier - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - UM2 - Université Montpellier 2 - Sciences et Techniques - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3)
    Abstract: Businesses increasingly rely on human capital as a sustainable competitive advantage in order to compete in an economy characterized by continuous turbulence. Based on HR marketing practices in the digital age, they continue their quest to attract, recruit and retain high-potential candidates capable of generating the desired competitive advantages. The objective of this research aims to understand h network sites (SNS) in order to attract potential candidates, retain recruits and limit turnover. To address this problem, a multiple case study was carried out with managers from four call centers.
    Abstract: Les entreprises misent de plus en plus sur le capital humain comme avantage compétitif durable, afin de faire face à la concurrence dans une économie caractérisée par des turbulences continues. En s'appuyant sur des pratiques de marketing RH à l'ère du digital, elles poursuivent leur quête pour attirer, recruter et fidéliser des candidats à haut potentiel, capables de générer les avantages concurrentiels souhaités. L'objectif de cette recherche vise à comprendre comment les centres de la relation client au Maroc managent leur marque employeur via les réseaux sociaux numériques (RSN) afin d'attirer des candidats potentiels, fidéliser les recrues et limiter le turnover. Pour répondre à cette problématique, une étude de cas multiples a été réalisée auprès de managers de quatre centres de la relation client.
    Keywords: Employer brand management,Social Network Sites,Call centers,Turnover,e-reputation,Management de la marque employeur,Réseaux sociaux numériques,Centre de la relation client
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Nosier, Shereen; Beram, Reham; Mahrous, Mohamed
    Abstract: Recognizing and understanding the roots of poverty, its elements and determinants in Egypt is vital to coming up with policy recommendations that help eradicate poverty and ameliorate welfare. As a developing country, Egypt has been suffering from increasing poverty rates since year 2000. In this study, the three most recent Egyptian Households Income, Expenditure and Consumption Surveys conducted by the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics for the years 2011, 2013 and 2015 are utilized to analyze and model the determinants of poverty in Egypt. A comprehensive poverty profile is constructed for the three years, as well as a comparison for the changes that have occurred over time on the national, rural and urban levels. Some determinants were selected as the most important factors affecting poverty, such as: demographic characteristics, employment status and educational attainment. Additionally, two econometric techniques are employed to model the different factors affecting households’ consumption as well as probability of falling in poverty in Egypt; namely, Fixed Effects Regression and Logistic Regression. The results of the poverty profile, as well as both models, illustrate that the main variables which help reduce poverty are: having low family size, high number of earners and better educational attainment. On the other hand, factors that worsen poverty status of households are working in agriculture and construction sectors, depending on pension as the main source of income in addition to having high dependency ratio. Furthermore, poverty simulation analyses are conducted to assess the effect of changes in the levels of determinants of poverty on probability of being poor to show the possible consequences and effects of potential poverty lessening policies and plans.
    Date: 2021–04–09
  3. By: Dennis Dlugosch; Rauf Gönenç; Yusuf Kenan Bağır; Hüzeyfe Torun; Eun Jung Kim
    Abstract: Productivity in Turkey has been growing stronger than in most peer countries since 2010 but has slowed down. Despite a remarkably entrepreneurial population, business dynamism has also been less vigorous in recent years. This working paper discusses the factors behind this slowdown and analyses a wide range of structural policies that would help to revive productivity growth and unleash the full potential of the Turkish business sector. The elevated number of informal, semi-formal and fully formal forms constitutes a key impediment to higher growth and more high-quality jobs. Structural reforms that allow more flexibility in labour markets, more competition in product markets and major progress with the quality of governance would foster productivity growth, job creation but also boost the digital transformation. Streamlining and simplifying the complex system of regulations and government support schemes would prevent firms from clustering around eligibility thresholds and thus remove obstacles to the upscaling of firms.
    Keywords: capital structure of the business sector, digitalization, informal labour markets, productivity, Turkey
    JEL: E22 E26 G30 G38 G21 J21 J11
    Date: 2021–04–13
  4. By: Ahmed Derbali (Central Bank of Tunisia); ;
    Abstract: This paper presents an estimation of the Tunisian equilibrium exchange rate based on the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate approach (BEER). The BEER framework links exchange rates to its fundamentals: Tunisian productivity, partners' productivity, trade openness and terms of trade. We calculate the distortion between the observed Real Exchange Rate (RER) and the equilibrium rate, and the misalignments related thereto. Vector autoregressive models and vector error correction models are applied to characterize the joint dynamics of variables in the long run, using quarterly data over the period 1990-2020. We find that this period was marked by phases of overvaluation and undervaluation of the RER. The empirical results indicate a low sensitivity of the RER to monetary and trade shocks. Indeed, the error correction mechanism on the one hand confirms one of the convergences of the real exchange rate series of its trajectory to its long-term target value. On the other hand, it reflects the success of monetary and commercial policies exploited to absorb unpredictable shocks capable of preventing the stability of real exchange rate from its equilibrium value.
    Keywords: Equilibrium exchange rate, Misalignment, BEER approach, Error correction model
    JEL: C32 F31 O55
    Date: 2021–03–29
  5. By: Ahmet Kaya; \"Omer Aydin
    Abstract: E-commerce is a kind of shopping by use of the internet. E-commerce, very different from the usual shopping concept, is compatible with today's economic dynamics. E-commerce is becoming an indispensable method with the increase of internet usage. With the use of E-commerce, there are also a number of advantages for companies. On the other hand, SAP is a pioneer and leader in the company resource planning software sector. SAP is very important for large-scale companies. They manage all their processes on SAP and its integration is very important with other related software. In this article, we give brief information on some important aspects of e-commerce and propose a solution for ERP integration of an e-commerce system.
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
    Abstract: Does the experience of civil war promote in-group bias among survivors? We try to answer this question by analyzing cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma game among Syrian refugees in two host countries, Germany and Jordan. We use a between-subjects analysis to test our in-group cooperation hypothesis. We find that Syrians are more likely to cooperate when they are interacting with another Syrian participant than when they are interacting with a German or a Jordanian participant. While Syrian refugees self-report a feeling of relative welcome in the host country, punishment of cooperation norm violations by ingroup or out-group members does not differ significantly. We conclude that our results are more likely to be driven by in-group favoritism rather than out-group hostility.
    Keywords: cooperation,in-group favoritism,refugees,experiments
    JEL: C71 C92 D91
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Sepideh Baghaee; Saeed Nosratabadi; Farshid Aram; Amir Mosavi
    Abstract: Retail centers can be considered as places for interactional and recreational activities and such social roles of retail centers contribute to the popularity of the retail centers. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify effective factors encouraging customers to engage with interactional activities and measure how these factors affect customer behavior. Accordingly, two hypotheses were raised illustrating that the travel time (i.e., the time it takes for a customer to reach the retail center) and the variety of shops (in a retail center) increase the percentage of people who spend their leisure time and recreational activities retail centers. Two case studies were conducted in two analogous retail centers, one in Tehran, Iran, and the other in Madrid, Spain. According to the results, there is an interaction between the travel time and the motivation for the presence of people in the retail center. Furthermore, the results revealed that half of both retail center goers who spend more than 10 minutes to reach the retail centers prefer to do leisure activities and browsing than shopping. In other words, the longer it takes a person to get to the center, the more likely he/she is to spend more time in the mall and do more leisure activities. It is also found that there is a significant relationship between the variety of shops in a retail center and the motivation of customers attending a retail center that encourages people to spend their leisure time in retail centers.
    Date: 2021–04
  8. By: BENABBOU, Hassiba; BELBACHIR, Gouraya; BELBACHIR, Hadjira
    Abstract: The globalization of many countries is largely the informal economy in Algeria. Although there is a gap between the different estimated studies, their integration into the formal economy seems obvious, so it remains necessary to find the applicable strategy for their participation in growth indicators after the fall in oil prices. A profit with an increase in GDP, which reached 25.41% of gross domestic product.
    Keywords: Economy, Formal Economy, Informal Economy, Algeria
    JEL: E22 E26
    Date: 2021–01–14

This nep-ara issue is ©2021 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.