nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒03‒01
five papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Addressing Employment Obstacles for Young Syrian Refugee Women By Datta, Namita; Constant, Louay; Thawesaengskulthai, Natanee; Acheson-Field, Hannah
  2. Quality of Management of Firms in Turkey By Del Carpio, Ximena; Taskin, Temel
  3. Jordan Jobs Diagnostic By Winkler, Hernan Jorge; Gonzalez,Alvaro S.
  4. The Place and Importance of Oil in Terms of the Kurdistan Regional Economy: Contract Oriented Oil Production By Toptancı, Ali İskan
  5. Economic Governance Reforms to Support Inclusive Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia By Christopher J. Jarvis; Gaelle Pierre; Benedicte Baduel; Dominique Fayad; Alexander de Keyserling; Babacar Sarr; Mariusz A. Sumlinski

  1. By: Datta, Namita; Constant, Louay; Thawesaengskulthai, Natanee; Acheson-Field, Hannah
    Abstract: This Jobs Note is a result of collaboration between S4YE-Jobs Group and Rand Corporation (an S4YE partner) . It builds on research covering the three countries with the highest concentration of Syrian refugees displaced since 2011: Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. It is intended to inform policymakers and practitioners on the barriers that Syrian refugees, especially women, face in securing work to earn a livelihood. This Note highlights practical solutions that have been designed and implemented by the World Bank and other S4YE partners including ReBootKamp, Education for Employment-Tunisia, Youth Business International, and the International Labour Organization. While not specific addressing internally-displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria, this Note could serve as a blueprint for examining and addressing many of the same barriers women face in Syria.
    Keywords: Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development; refugee woman; female-headed household; labor force participation rate; access to labor market; access to social security; jobs and development; Technical and Vocational Education; skill and business; Gender-Based Violence; work permit; barriers to employment; host country worker; labor market need; number of refugees; access to finance; labor market integration; soft skills training; Internally Displaced Person; world food programme; risk of poverty; access to women; social security law; number of beneficiaries; number of women; job placement rate; access to employer; opportunity for woman; consultations with stakeholders; opportunities for youth; perceptions of woman; support for refugee; average monthly income; labor market experience; creating job opportunity; economic empowerment program; attitudes about women; source income; source of income; labor market opportunities; access to technology; job training program; investments in agriculture; host country nationals; social security benefit; data collection method; Development Policy Financing; labour force participation; social security payment; special economic zone; refugee crisis; legal restriction; sexual harassment; job skill
    Date: 2020–06–01
  2. By: Del Carpio, Ximena; Taskin, Temel
    Abstract: This paper examines the quality of management practices in Turkey and its relation to other firm-level characteristics such as firm performance, competition, and type of ownership. A key finding is that management quality is positively correlated with productivity and quality of jobs across subsectors of manufacturing. But the average score of management quality in Turkey is relatively low compared to peer countries. Factors such as firm size, level of human capital of the workforce, export intensity of the firm, openness to international markets, level of hierarchy in decision making, and degree of managerial autonomy are found to be important determinants of managerial practices in Turkey. Thus, improvements in these dimensions, through relevant policies and incentives, can have a positive effect on the quality of firm management going forward.Such improvements in management practices—particularly in the two dimensions whereTurkey scores lowest: monitoring and targeting—can have positive effects on firmperformance and lead to increases in the creation of quality jobs.
    Keywords: paper issue; management operation; per capita income level; human capital of worker; regional per capita income; higher level of education; lack of knowledge; human resource management; journal of finance; improvements in management; quality of job; impact of competition; flexible labor market; privileges and immunity; principal component analysis; product market competition; underdeveloped financial market; Rule of Law; intensity of competition; quality assurance process; types of firms
    Date: 2019–04–01
  3. By: Winkler, Hernan Jorge; Gonzalez,Alvaro S.
    Abstract: This report provides a detailed diagnostic of the Jordanian labor market. It finds that labor market outcomes are worsening in Jordan. It has one of the lowest levels of labor force participation in the world, and only one out of every three working-age Jordanians has a job. Low rates of firm entry and exit suggest that the process of creative destruction is limited. Most private sector firms are either small – and stay small or large and old. The share of employment in small firms -which tend to be less productive- is growing. Employment is increasingly informal, less productive. High levels of informality drive down overall levels of labor productivity and suggests that important distortions affect the allocation of resources in the economy. At the same time, a large inflow of Syrian refugees and economic migrants makes the need for job creation even more urgent.
    Keywords: united nations conference on trade and development; high rate of population growth; employment in the services sector; male labor force participation rate; public sector wage premium; gross fixed capital formation; female labor force participation; Labor Market; elasticity of labor supply; information and communication technology; real exchange rate appreciation; lower level of education; educational attainment of woman; high level of dependence; arts and humanities education; high level of dispersion; low labor force participation; process of trade liberalization; paper and paper products; employment rate of woman; elasticity of labor demand; gender and labor market; women's labor market outcomes; Levels of Educational Attainment; quality of education system; real effective exchange rate; quality education system; Primary and Secondary Education; total factor productivity growth; rate of growth; public sector job; private sector job; labor productivity growth; labor market segmentation; fear of failure; Job Creation; fields of specialization; demand for labor; private sector employment; agriculture industry; access to finance; unpaid family worker; private sector worker; female labor market; average real wage; high fertility rate; gender wage gap; foreign direct investment; share of wage; social insurance coverage; social security coverage; public sector employment; rate of employment; number of jobs; foreign trade partners; highly educated women; private sector counterpart; private sector wage; job creation rate; public sector worker; labor market transition; output per worker; structure of employment; supply of worker; change in employment; higher education level; employment of woman; million people; social security reform; labor market performance; Public Sector Jobs; employment and unemployment; allocation of resource; low labor productivity; payroll tax reduction; law and regulation; inflow of migrants; labor market opportunities; effect on employment; share of labor; tax rate reduction; formal labor market; implementation of law; number of refugees; social security system; women in industry; privileges and immunity; barriers to growth; formal educational system; real exchange appreciation; lack of availability; purchasing power parity; labor market distortion; employment in agriculture; cost of labor; skill train program; inflow of immigrants; share of export; formal sector wage; share of employment; high school education; demand for worker; protection against unemployment; price of oil; increase productivity; social insurance fund; incentive for employer; inflow of remittance; traditional gender roles; labor market participation; labor market integration; social security contribution; number of workers; payroll tax rate; less skilled worker; role of remittance; decline in productivity; impact of remittance; impact of refugees; economies of scale; private sector public; quality of work; forms of employment; lack of opportunity; physical capital accumulation; degree in education; complete secondary education; decomposition of growth; effects of competition; official unemployment rate; incidence of unemployment; higher test score; gulf cooperation council; machinery and equipment; private sector company; reallocation of resource; rates of entrepreneurship; mining and mineral; employer payroll tax; exposure to risk; informal sector worker; government wage bill; working age population; price adjustment mechanism; real wage index; labor market condition; Real estate; Gender Gap; Young Workers; retail trade; value added; work permit; young child; minimum wage; total employment; unskilled worker; oil price; comparator country; first marriage
    Date: 2019–11–01
  4. By: Toptancı, Ali İskan
    Abstract: A production sharing agreement is a contract that regulates the relations between an oil-producing country and an international oil company, or between a national oil company and an international oil company. An international oil company bears all petroleum operating expenses and in return covers the cost value and its shares and expenses from oil production. An oil-producing country receives its share of oil production and receives taxes. Iraq signed oil sharing agreements with West Al Qurna, a Russian oil company, in 2007 and 2008 to develop an oil field. The Kurdistan Region has used production sharing agreements with international oil companies by the Kurdistan Region Oil and Gas Law No. 28 2007. This was done although the oil contracts were not recognized by the Iraqi federal governments. The Kurdistan Region Administration claimed that such oil contracts encourage and attract international investments in the Kurdistan Region and that these agreements have legitimacy according to Article 112 of the Iraqi Constitution. Article 112 gives the Kurdistan Regional Government the right to oil contracts with international oil companies. International oil companies carry the most risk in production sharing contracts, but oil contracts are also more suitable for them. Because these contracts provide a framework for maximum recovery and oil production. In the Kurdistan Region, oil contracts have become a political issue rather than a legal and economic problem between the Kurdistan Region and Iraq. The study shows that production sharing agreements are more attractive than Iraqi oil contracts for the Kurdistan Regional Government. Therefore, international oil companies demand to invest more in the Kurdistan Region. In this case, there are some disadvantages. International oil companies generally have more control over setting contract terms. They can negotiate long-term and broad contract terms against oil-producing countries.
    Keywords: Kurdistan Region,Oil Sharing Contracts,Oil
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Christopher J. Jarvis; Gaelle Pierre; Benedicte Baduel; Dominique Fayad; Alexander de Keyserling; Babacar Sarr; Mariusz A. Sumlinski
    Abstract: This IMF Departmental Paper presents the key areas in which countries of the Middle East, North Africa, and the Caucasus and Central Asia (MECA) can enhance governance and fight corruption to achieve their economic policy goals. It draws on advances that have already taken hold in the region.
    Keywords: Institutional governance;Corruption;Inclusive growth;Middle East and Central Asia;Fiscal governance;Anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT);Fiscal transparency;Revenue administration transparency and accountability;Good Governance;EconomicGovernance;Corruption;Inclusive Growth
    Date: 2021–01–13

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