nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2021‒01‒25
eighteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Does Education Really Cause Domestic Violence? Replication and Reappraisal of "For Better or For Worse? Education and the Prevalence of Domestic Violence in Turkey" By Akyol, Pelin; Kirdar, Murat G.
  2. Symposium policy note 3: Cash transfers as an effective tool for social protection and shock response in Egypt [in Arabic] By International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  3. Cooperative housing and sustainable development goals from the economic perspective: case study of Egypt By Shaker, Saber
  4. Building Resilience in Turkey By World Bank
  5. Norm Compliance and Lying Patterns: an Experimental Study Among Refugees and Non-refugees in Syria, Jordan, and Germany By El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
  6. Sudan Programmatic Poverty Assessment By World Bank
  7. Ethnic Divisions and the Onset of Civil Wars in Syria By Abosedra, Salah; Fakih, Ali; Haimoun, Nathir
  8. Lebanon Economic Monitor, Fall 2019 By World Bank
  9. Financial development and macroeconomic sustainability: modeling based on a modified environmental Kuznets curve By Adel Ben Youssef; Sabri Boubaker; Anis Omri
  10. Qatar; 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  11. The Effect of Refugees on Native Adolescents' Test Scores: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Pisa By Tumen, Semih
  12. Jordan Jobs Diagnostic By Hernan Winkler; Alvaro Gonzalez
  13. Poverty Map of the Palestinian Territories By Aziz Atamanov; Nethra Palaniswamy
  14. Harnessing Digital Technologies to Promote SMEs in the MENAP Region By Inutu Lukonga
  15. West Bank and Gaza By World Bank
  16. Qatar; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  17. Covid-19 et déficit du développement : pour une réponse conjointe au Maroc By Y. Tamsamani, Yasser
  18. Les risques psychosociaux (RPS) sur le lieu de travail au Maroc : une revue de littérature By Pierre Chaudat; Esserdi Hamid; Laurent Mériade

  1. By: Akyol, Pelin (Bilkent University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University)
    Abstract: Using the 2008 Turkish National Survey of Domestic Violence against Women, Erten and Keskin (2018, henceforth EK), published in AEJ–Applied Economics, find that women's education increases the psychological violence and financial control behavior that they face from their partners. The authors also claim that the incidence of financial control behavior rises because women become more likely to be employed—supporting the instrumental violence hypothesis. They present this evidence only for women who live in what they call "rural areas during childhood". EK's findings are an artifact of the way the authors create two key variables: the variable that classifies women into rural vs. urban childhood location and the variable measuring financial control behavior. EK misclassify the variable on childhood rural status. We find that once this variable is defined properly, the evidence for all their findings vanishes. EK make use of two of the three variables related to financial control behavior in the dataset. We show that using all three variables—or any other combination of two of the three variables—generates no evidence of a policy effect on financial control behavior. Even after ignoring these problems, the evidence EK provide in their paper is highly specification sensitive and the standard checks of the continuity assumption in RDD fail for their key outcomes. Moreover, the results obtained from the analysis of urban areas—not provided in their paper—are inconsistent with the instrumental violence hypothesis. In addition, EK claim—using RDD graphs with high-order polynomials but no estimation results—that the policy has no effect on men's schooling, contrary to the findings of the previous literature. However, we show a clear and substantial policy effect on men's schooling, resulting in the failure of their exclusion restriction assumption.
    Keywords: education, domestic violence, regression discontinuity, financial control behavior, women's employment
    JEL: J12 J16 I25
    Date: 2020–12
  2. By: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, cash transfers, social protection, shock, programmes, impact assessment
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Shaker, Saber
    Abstract: The housing sector is linked to 13 out of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. Thus, all countries of the world are pursuing the sustainable development agenda as a second phase, after the completion of the MDGs. In 2019, Egypt has achieved about 66.2% of the total SDGs, and soon, Egypt is expected to achieve five goals as green goals. Cooperative housing has created nearly 4.7 million direct and indirect jobs and it consider the second provider of residential units by 19% in Egypt. Finally, there are several types of sustainable financing instruments, such as green bonds and social impact bonds, which contribute to enhancing the role of cooperative housing in achieving sustainable development goals.
    Keywords: SDGs, Sustainable finance, Cooperative housing, Cooperative banks
    JEL: J54 O18 P13 Q01
    Date: 2019–12–01
  4. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Environment - Adaptation to Climate Change Environment - Climate Change Impacts Environment - Climate Change and Environment Environment - Natural Disasters Infrastructure Economics and Finance - Infrastructure Economics
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: El-Bialy, Nora; Fraile Aranda, Elisa; Nicklisch, Andreas; Saleh, Lamis; Voigt, Stefan
    Abstract: We report the results of an experiment on norm violation, specifically lying, in a repeatedly played mind game with Syrian refugees in Jordan and in Germany. We compare their behavior with Jordanians, Germans, and Syrians who still live in Syria. The average number of lies is amazingly similar - and low - across all five samples. However, the lying patterns of Syrian refugees are very different from non-refugee participants in Germany, Jordan, and Syria itself. After having lied once, refugee participants resort to a "never return"- pattern significantly more often than the nonrefugee participants. A closer look at the socio-demographic characteristics of our Syrian refugee participants reveals that lying is associated with higher age and gender, while a longer stay in the host country is positively correlated with a lower likelihood of reporting extreme numbers of matches.
    Keywords: Civil war,experimental economics,honesty,lying,psychological distress
    JEL: C93 D01
    Date: 2021
  6. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Gender - Gender and Poverty Poverty Reduction - Employment and Shared Growth Poverty Reduction - Inequality Poverty Reduction - Living Standards Poverty Reduction - Poverty Assessment Poverty Reduction - Poverty Monitoring & Analysis Poverty Reduction - Services & Transfers to Poor
    Date: 2019–06
  7. By: Abosedra, Salah (American University in the Emirates); Fakih, Ali (Lebanese American University); Haimoun, Nathir (University of Lethbridge)
    Abstract: While most civil wars seem to have an economic basis, they are generally pushed by political, ethnic, and religious differences. This paper attempts to identify the drivers of the Syrian civil war of 2011 by investigating the role of ethnic divisions in starting a conflict. We integrate a variety of variables such as excluded population, power-sharing, anocracy, ethnic groups in addition to a number of economic factors. The main results indicate that ethnicity does not seem to be a very important factor in starting both the civil and ethnic conflict in Syria, but it shows that the lack of power-sharing to be the most significant factor. Therefore, where power in Syria was not inclusive and shared among different demographic segments, such as religious or urban groups, it created upheavals between different groups, as some groups disidentify with the state, paving the way to causing the conflict. Economic factors also provide an explanation of the onset of conflicts in Syria. The paper offers detailed policy suggestions that could serve as a recovery mechanism for the Syrian crisis and a preventive measurement for its reoccurrence.
    Keywords: armed conflicts, ethnic conflicts, ethnic groups, power-sharing, Syria
    JEL: D74 F51 H56
    Date: 2021–01
  8. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Relief and HIPC Finance and Financial Sector Development - Strategic Debt Management Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Growth Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Fiscal & Monetary Policy Poverty Reduction - Employment and Shared Growth
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: Adel Ben Youssef (Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS, GREDEG (France), GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (... - 2019) - COMUE UCA - COMUE Université Côte d'Azur (2015 - 2019) - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur); Sabri Boubaker; Anis Omri
    Abstract: Sustainability has become an important and widely applied concept in the environmental economics literature. Despite the numerous studies employing an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) this model has been critiqued for its incompleteness. This article builds a modified EKC model to examine the contribution of financial development for achieving sustainable development. Using data for 14 selected Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries during 1990-2017, the empirical results show that the EKC hypothesis is valid for per capita CO 2 emissions and ecological footprint. The results provide evidence also of the presence of linear and non-linear relationships between financial development and non-sustainability and indicate that financial development is likely to have a small long-term impact on sustainable development. This suggests that current efforts aimed at protecting the environment and achieving sustainability will be ineffective given the extent of the problem.
    Keywords: Financial development,Sustainable development,Modified EKC-model
    Date: 2020–11
  10. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2019 Article IV Consultation discusses that stronger real gross domestic product (GDP) growth is envisaged in the near term, with a recovery in hydrocarbon output. Medium-term growth will be buoyed by increased gas production and non-hydrocarbon growth. Expenditure consolidation would help to sustain fiscal and external surpluses. Ample liquidity will enable credit growth to support non-hydrocarbon GDP. Trade and geopolitical tensions could undermine investor confidence and weaken fiscal and external positions. The policy priorities are fiscal consolidation, strengthened fiscal policy frameworks, enhanced resiliency of the financial sector, financial inclusion, and a diversified economy. The financial sector remains sound, underpinned by strong profitability and capital. Strengthening the regulatory and supervisory frameworks would help to bolster financial stability. Attention to women’s empowerment by introducing legislation emphasizing equality in remuneration and avoiding gender-based discrimination would support inclusive growth.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy;Oil prices;Fiscal stance;Expenditure;Public debt;ISCR,CR,Qatar,GDP,IMF staff estimate,central bank,economy
    Date: 2019–06–03
  11. By: Tumen, Semih (TED University)
    Abstract: Existing evidence suggests that low-skilled refugee influx may increase educational attainment among native adolescents due to reduced opportunities and returns in the lower segment of the labor market. In this paper, I test whether refugee influx can also increase the intensity of human capital accumulation among native adolescents who are enrolled in school. Using the PISA micro data and implementing a quasi-experimental empirical strategy designed to exploit (i) the time variation in regional refugee intensity and (ii) institutional setting in the Turkish public education system, I show that the Math, Science, and Reading scores of Turkish adolescents increased following the Syrian refugee influx. The increase in test scores mostly comes from the lower half of the test score distribution and from native adolescents with lower maternal education. The empirical design embeds a framework where the estimated refugee impact can solely be attributed to the labor market mechanism. In particular, I use the observation that refugee adolescents are enrolled more systematically into the Turkish education system after 2016, which gave me the opportunity to use 2015 and 2018 PISA waves in a way to isolate the the effect of the labor market mechanism from the potentially negating force coming from the education experience mechanism. I conclude that the labor market forces that emerged in the aftermath of the refugee crisis have led native adolescents, who would normally perform worse in school, to take their high school education more seriously.
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, test scores, PISA, labor markets
    JEL: I21 I25 I26 J61
    Date: 2021–01
  12. By: Hernan Winkler; Alvaro Gonzalez
    Keywords: Gender - Gender and Development Social Protections and Labor - Employment and Unemployment Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets Social Protections and Labor - Skills Development and Labor Force Training Social Protections and Labor - Wages, Compensation & Benefits
    Date: 2019–11
  13. By: Aziz Atamanov; Nethra Palaniswamy
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Inequality Poverty Reduction - Poverty Assessment Poverty Reduction - Poverty Lines Poverty Reduction - Poverty Monitoring & Analysis Poverty Reduction - Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping
    Date: 2019–09
  14. By: Inutu Lukonga
    Abstract: Policy makers in the MENAP region have been formulating policies and designing programs to develop small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) with a view to create jobs and achieve inclusive growth. But while the programs have helped increase the number of enterprises, growth of SMEs continues to face barriers to growth. As a result, microenterprises predominate and SMEs contribution to employment remains below potential. Partial implementation of reforms explain some of the underperformance, but frictions in strategy design also played an important role. Sustaining current reforms is, therefore, not sufficient to achieve inclusive growth. Digital technologies have potential to boost SMEs productivity and growth and economies are rapidly digitalizing, thus SMEs need to embrace digital solutions to compete and survive. Therefore, for SMEs to be effective engines of inclusive growth, a rethinking of the SME development strategy is needed that makes SMEs’ digital transformation a priority.
    Keywords: Technology;Small and medium enterprises;Employment;Business environment;Digitalization;WP,SME growth,MENAP country,financing SMEs,SME sector,SME support policy,SMEs in MENAP
    Date: 2020–07–24
  15. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Public Sector Development - Public Financial Management Public Sector Development - Public Sector Expenditure Policy Public Sector Development - Public Sector Management and Reform
    Date: 2019–06
  16. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Selected Issues paper focuses on policies to drive diversification for Qatar. Diversification is important for a large commodity exporter like Qatar: it helps manage temporary shocks and prepare for sweeping changes to the economic setting. Qatar’s large financial holdings can help diversify revenues. Both structural reforms to improve the business environment and sector-specific policies can support diversification of activity and exports. Sector-specific policies should build on existing economic strengths in areas with room for exports and innovation. Emphasis should be placed on developing expertise in specific clusters. Export markets and competition provide crucial mechanisms to ensure discipline. Further diversification is important to help Qatar manage temporary shocks and prepare for far-reaching shifts to the economic context. Well-targeted, structured, and sequenced policies to encourage specific sectors can also play a role in diversifying Qatar’s economy. Export markets and competition should be deliberately used to hold recipients of support accountable. Policies to encourage specific sectors have resulted in little more than inefficient import substitution in many countries. Avoiding this outcome requires discipline: support should be withdrawn in the absence of progress.
    Keywords: Expenditure;Exports;Fiscal policy;Budget planning and preparation;Fiscal rules;ISCR,CR,Qatar,price,government spending
    Date: 2019–06–03
  17. By: Y. Tamsamani, Yasser
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the merits of a joint response to the health crisis emergency and to the development challenges, which involves the establishment of the welfare state in Morocco. Based on the macroeconomic framework provided by the economist M. Kalecki, our analysis will try to ensure the internal coherence of economic policies that meet the requirements of a social state. Furthermore, three new paths are discussed on how to finance some aspects of this social state. These paths are articulated initially to reestablish the central role of fiscal policy in the development of the country, with the backing of a monetary policy. Additionally, it would have an indirect incentive effect on the banking system to be more involved in the Moroccan economy.
    Keywords: Covid-19, development, social state, fiscal policy, public banking, wealth taxation
    JEL: H1 H6 O1 P16
    Date: 2021–01–06
  18. By: Pierre Chaudat (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Esserdi Hamid (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Laurent Mériade (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - Clermont Auvergne - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: Les RPS, à cause de leur nature humaine, n'épargnent aucune communauté. Ils sont particulièrement prépondérants sur le lieu de travailquel que soit le contexte socioculturel. Le Maroc, pays arabo-musulman, en voie de développement, n'échappe pas à ce phénomène. Les travailleurs marocains souffrent des RPS sous la pression sociale et économique et sous le silence du législateur. Les études sur les RPS se sont nettement développées au cours des dix dernières années au Maroc, mais de manière relativement peu coordonnée. Une analyse fine de la littérature existante nous permet de réaliser un premier point sur les principaux déterminants et manifestions de ces risques dans le contexte marocain. Pour synthétiser ces travaux, nos premiers résultats mettent en évidence des caractéristiques des RPS particulièrement marquéesque nous proposons comme premiers éléments de structuration de la littérature relative au RPS, dans le contexte professionnel marocain.
    Keywords: Risques psychosociaux,déterminants,manifestations,Maroc
    Date: 2021–02–01

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