nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2020‒10‒26
six papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. A Non-Parametric Approach to the Women Employment Through Microcredit Financing By Varol İyidoğan, Pelin
  2. Electricity Sector Liberalization in Eqypt: Features, Challenges, and Opportunities for Market Integration By Shahid Hasan; Turki Al-Aqeel; Hafez El Salmawy
  3. Efficiency-Market Hypothesis: case of Tunisian and 6 ‎Asian stock markets ‎ By neifar, malika
  4. Encouraging Brilliance in the Workplace: The Case of the Petroleum Sector in Egypt By Radi, Sherihan
  5. Fiscal Multipliers for Saudi Arabia Revisited By H.E. Dr. Majid Al Moneef; Fakhri Hasanov
  6. The future costs of renewable electricity generation technologies in Lebanon : what projections for 2030 ? By Nour Wehbe

  1. By: Varol İyidoğan, Pelin
    Abstract: The empowerment of women as a priority of economic development is a crucial issue for all economies, particularly for developing ones. Supporting employment is an inevitable aspect of women empowerment which enhances the socioeconomic conditions, nominately for the ones being a member of low-income households. As a developing country Turkey also tackles with the trouble of low labor force participation rate of women. More clearly, in 2018, the regarding rate was % 34 which is far more behind the developed economies. Furthermore, the rate of women entrepreneurship is low as well, that corresponds to around % 1.5 of employed women. Therefore, within the scope of gender equality, measures supporting the employment and entrepreneurship of women become the focus of economy and social policies. Regardingly, microcredit financing emerges as a policy solution for employment and other socio-economic struggle areas of women. In this context, this study aims to analyze the efficiency of microcredit schemes provided via Turkish Grameen Microfinance Program by employing a non-parametric approach, that is data envelopment analysis. The methodology enables to provide an efficiency ranking on the basis of input and output variables among the selected provinces of Turkey. The findings indicate that the microcredit programs in the East region of Turkey are implemented so as to ensure higher efficiency scores compared with others.
    Keywords: women employment, microcredit financing, data envelopment analysis
    JEL: C67 J16 J21
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Shahid Hasan; Turki Al-Aqeel; Hafez El Salmawy (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: KAPSARC has initiated a research project to develop insights that can facilitate the establishment of a well-functioning integrated electricity market comprising the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). It aims to assess the key issues affecting electricity market integration within the GCC and wider Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to produce insights and policy recommendations that facilitate market integration.
    Keywords: Energy transitions, Energy security,Benefits of electricity trade, Network regulations
    Date: 2020–10–05
  3. By: neifar, malika
    Abstract: In this paper we test the weak form of the Efficient-Market Hypothesis (EMH) using monthly ‎data of stock prices for the period from 2010M01 to 2019M07 for seven markets (Tunindex) ‎in Tunisia and 6 Asian countries : Saudi Arabia (TSAI), Japon (Nikkei 225), China (SSEC), ‎Turkey (BIST100), India (BSE30), and Indonesia (JKSE) by using linear and nonlinear (KSS ‎and Modified KSS) unit root tests. Our empirical results indicate that the stock markets are ‎efficient [not efficient] in the weak form of EMH in Tunisia and Saudi Arabia [Japan, ‎Turkey, India, Indonesia, and China]. The major policy implications is that in these five ‎countries (Japan, Turkey, India, Indonesia, and China), fund managers and investors can ‎enjoy excess returns to their investment. ‎
    Keywords: Efficient-Market Hypothesis (EMH); BDS test; Linear Unit root test; Nonlinear Unit root test, ‎Tunisia and 6 Asian countries
    JEL: C12 C22 G10 G14
    Date: 2020–09–30
  4. By: Radi, Sherihan
    Abstract: This research investigates the impact of five pillars (growth – happiness – abundance- significance - meaning) on encouraging brilliance in the workplace. It used a mixed methods approach to collect information related to the research. The researcher found that the five pillars (growth – happiness – abundance - significance - meaning) have a significant impact on encouraging brilliance in the workplace. Insights from this study can be used to benefit the development of this research line in future.
    Keywords: Brilliance, growth, happiness, abundance, significance, meaning, workplace.
    JEL: J00 J28
    Date: 2020–08–20
  5. By: H.E. Dr. Majid Al Moneef; Fakhri Hasanov (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Fiscal policy lies at the heart of key macroeconomic and budgetary decisions and is central to understanding the dynamics of oil rich economies. Fiscal multipliers, including spending multipliers, indicate how changes to fiscal policy can stimulate economic growth, to what magnitude, and how efficiently, making them valuable tools for macroeconomic planning and analysis.
    Keywords: Fiscal multipliers, Non-oil Private GDP, VAR analysis
    Date: 2020–10–05
  6. By: Nour Wehbe (UMR ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UM - Université de Montpellier - UM3 - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings of our study on forecasting the levelized cost of electricity of different electricity generation technologies including renewable energy (solar PV, hydropower, biomass and wind) until 2030. Usually, the cost of electrical generation from renewable and conventional sources are compared by using the LCOE method (Levelized Cost Of Energy). In general, the LCOE is calculated based on the assumptions for each technology. In this paper, we evaluate the LCOE of the various electricity generation techniques for the case of Lebanon. The study predicts future evolution of these costs in Lebanon until 2030 according to specic assumptions related to each technology and taking into account the triple aspects : technical, economic and environmental. The generation costs don't depend only on investment, maintenance and fuel costs, but also on the cost of carbon emitted by each technology per unit of the electricity produced. We focus our analysis on these assumptions and the impact of their variability on the cost by using sensitivity analysis. Our study shows that by 2030, renewable generation technologies will remain more expensive than fossil-fueled technologies. However, within certain measures taken by the State, as integration of a carbon price, renewable energy resources could emerge strongly in the electricity generation investment planning and become much competitive.
    Abstract: Cet article présente des prévisions du coût moyen de production de cinq technologies qui pourraient contribuer d'une manière significative à la production d'électricité au Liban : les centrales à gaz (cycle ouvert et cycle combiné), les centrales solaires (technologie photovoltaïque), les parcs éoliens, les centrqles hydroélectriques et les centrales à déchets. Habituellement, la comparaison du coût des sources renouvelables et conventionnelles se fait en utilisant la méthode du LCOE (Levelized Cost Of Energy). Dans cet article, nous estimons l'évolution future de ces coûts au Liban jusqu'en 2030 selon des hypothèses spécifiques liées à chaque technologie et en tenant compte du triple aspect: technique, économique et environnemental. Les coûts de production ne dépendent pas seulement des coûts d'investissement, d'entretien et de carburant, mais aussi du coût du carbone émis par unité d'électricité produite. Nous nous focalisons ainsi dans notre analyse sur l'impact de leur variabilité sur le coût en utilisant des analyses de sensibilité. Les principaux résultats montrent que d'ici 2030, les technologies de production renouvelable resteront plus chères que les technologies à combustibles fossiles. Cependant, dans le cadre de certaines mesures prises par l'État, les énergies renouvelables pourraient émerger fortement dans la planification des investissements et devenir très compétitives dans le contexte libanais.
    Keywords: Electricity of Lebanon,Renewable Energy Market,Levelized Cost Of Electricity,Cost Analysis
    Date: 2021–01–30

This nep-ara issue is ©2020 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.