nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2020‒08‒24
24 papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Lives and Livelihoods of Syrian Refugees in the Middle East : Evidence from the 2015-16 Surveys of Syrian Refugees and Host Communities in Jordan, Lebanon, and Kurdistan, Iraq By Krishnan,Nandini; Russo Riva,Flavio Luiz; Sharma,Dhiraj; Vishwanath,Tara
  2. Assessment of Basic Skills of Low Qualified Adults in Turkey for Labor Market: Needs Analysis By Muhammet Berigel; Onur Ad?yaman; Özlem Özgenç; Furkan Kalyoncu; Merve Y?ld?z
  3. High-Quality Versus Low-Quality Growth in Turkey - Causes and Consequences By Acemoglu, Daron; Üçer, Murat
  4. Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: The Role of the Intergenerational Links By Mine Durman-Aslan
  5. Morocco; Second Review Under the Arrangement Under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Morocco By International Monetary Fund
  6. Asymmetric behavior of exchange rate in Tunisia: a nonlinear approach By Boukraine, Wissem
  7. Where You Export Matters: Measuring Uncertainty in Turkey's Export Markets By Jianchun Fang; Giray Gozgor; Sercan Pekel
  8. Impact of Syrian Refugees on Education Outcomes in Jordan By Assaad, Ragui; Ginn, Thomas; Saleh, Mohamed
  9. Administered energy prices have played a key role in Saudi Arabia’s socio-economic development. However, they have numerous adverse effects because they induce a wasteful use of energy resources. Over recent years, Saudi Arabia has reformed its administered energy pricing, as part of its broader objective to reform its economy in accordance with Saudi Vision 2030, its blueprint for economic diversification. By Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Hossa Almutairi; Abdullah AlJraboua; Frederic Murhphy; Shreekar Pradhan; Axel Pierru
  10. Assessing Iraqi Kurdistan's stability: how patronage shapes conflict By Ali Saleem, Zmkan; Skelton, Mac
  11. Wage Losses and Inequality in Developing Countries: labor market and distributional consequences of Covid-19 lockdowns in Turkey By Duman, Anil
  12. Coping with the Influx : Service Delivery to Syrian Refugees and Hosts in Jordan, Lebanon, and Kurdistan, Iraq By Krishnan,Nandini; Russo Riva,Flavio Luiz; Sharma,Dhiraj; Vishwanath,Tara
  13. Reforming wealth distribution in Kuwait: estimating costs and impacts By Hertog, Steffen
  14. Iraq’s political marketplace at the subnational level: the struggle for power in three provinces By Skelton, Mac; Ali Saleem, Zmkan
  15. Transforming Teacher Education in the West Bank and Gaza : Policy Implications for Developing Countries By Burke,Andrew; Cuadra,Ernesto Pancracio; Mahon,Tony; Moreno Olmedilla,Juan Manuel; Thacker,Simon
  16. Discrimination, narratives and family history: An experiment with Jordanian host and Syrian refugee children By Kai Barron; Heike Harmgart; Steffen Huck; Sebastian Schneider; Matthias Sutter
  17. Sudan; 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Sudan By International Monetary Fund
  18. Urban violence in war and peace: Lebanon's reconstruction By Sharp, Deen
  19. Conceptual Framework of Adaptive Web Based Skill Assessment Tool Designed for Low Qualified Adults in Turkey By Muhammet Berigel; Onur Ad?yaman; Hasan Karal; Adnan Baki; Taner Altun; Merve Y?ld?z; Furkan Kalyoncu
  20. Fuel-mining exports and growth in a developing state: the case of the UAE By Kalaitzi, Athanasia Stylianou; Chamberlain, Trevor William
  21. Exports and economic growth: some evidence from the GCC By Kalaitzi, Athanasia; Chamberlain, Trevor W.
  22. Active Conflict and Access to Education : Evidence from a Series of Conflict-Related Shocks in the Republic of Yemen By Almoayad,Safa Ali Qassim; Favari,Eliana; Halabi,Samira; Krishnaswamy,Siddharth; Music,Almedina; Tandon,Sharad Alan
  23. Cycles of construing in radicalization and deradicalization: a study of Salafist Muslims By Winter, David; Muhanna-Matar, Aitemad

  1. By: Krishnan,Nandini; Russo Riva,Flavio Luiz; Sharma,Dhiraj; Vishwanath,Tara
    Abstract: The Syrian crisis has led to rapid and large-scale population displacement. This paper has two main aims. (i) It documents the size and timing of the Syrian refugee influx into Jordan, Lebanon, and Kurdistan, characterizing the forced nature of displacement and exploring factors that influenced the decision to flee and subsequently move within the host country. (ii) The paper describes the daily living conditions of refugees after displacement, documenting vulnerability along several dimensions, such as housing access and quality, labor market attachment, and financial security. The data sources include the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees'registration database and multi-country, multi-topic surveys conducted in 2015-16.
    Keywords: Urban Housing,Urban Housing and Land Settlements,Municipal Management and Reform,Urban Governance and Management,Educational Sciences,Social Cohesion,Health Care Services Industry,Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–07–21
  2. By: Muhammet Berigel (Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University); Onur Ad?yaman (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy, Science and Industry; Eastern Black Sea Development Agency); Özlem Özgenç (Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University); Furkan Kalyoncu (Fatih Education Faculty, Trabzon University); Merve Y?ld?z (Distance Education Application and Research Center, Karadeniz Technical University)
    Abstract: Today, the structure of employment and the number of unemployment in many countries are an important indicator of the country's level of economic development and social development. Unemployment is one of Turkey's most important social and economic problem. Functional relationship between employment and the education/skill level is quite weak in Turkey. In addition, people who have vocational education do not have the qualifications demanded by the labor market, while on the other hand, there is a qualified intermediate shortage in the enterprises. A detailed investigation of these problems will be useful in developing policies for unemployment. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the problems and needs for basic skill assessment processes, which is one of the problems experienced by the public and private institutions. This study is a deeply qualitative research to expose existing problems to improve the basic skills of low-qualified adults. Semi conducted interviews were made with 6 job and occupational consultant from ISKUR (Turkish Employment Agency), 5 job experts from Trabzon Chamber of Commerce and Industry and 5 vocational education experts from Public Education Center.Results of this study showed that there is no systematic approach for institutions dealing with employment affairs in Turkish organizations. In addition, business and vocational consultants faced lack of vocational training in the process of guiding the unemployed applicants to jobs.
    Keywords: Problems at Employment in Turkey, Skills Problems, Need Analyses, Assessing Unemployment
    JEL: J64 C18 E24
  3. By: Acemoglu, Daron; Üçer, Murat
    Abstract: Turkey's economy has made important strides in the 17 years since the financial crisis of 2001, averaging an annual growth rate of about 5.7%. But the quality of this growth has been poor, especially since 2007, with little-to-no productivity growth, limited technological upgrading, substantial (mis)allocation of resources to the construction sector and a huge surge in credit. This growth has also been generally unequal. This low-quality, unequal growth has been in the context of worsening economic institutions, underpinned by deteriorating political institutions. This paper attempts to understand the causes and consequences of low-quality growth in Turkey, briefly interrupted by a period of higher-quality growth between 2002 and 2006. The main thesis of our paper is that the lack of high-quality, shared growth in Turkey is rooted in the nature and evolution of its economic institutions, which are themselves closely linked to the country's political institutions. The short episode of high-quality and more equally shared growth came as a result of institutional improvements, but duly disappeared as these institutional gains were reversed.
    Keywords: economic growth; emerging markets; high-quality growth; institutions; productivity; shared prosperity; Turkey
    JEL: E65 O52
    Date: 2019–10
  4. By: Mine Durman-Aslan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of the transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences from parents to children on the labor force participation decision of married women in Turkey. Using parents-children data we estimate a reduced-form model in which a married woman's participation in adulthood depends on her mother's and mother-in-law's former labor force participation in her adolescence. Our estimation results show that married women grown up with working mothers are 10.8 - 17.8 percent more likely to participate in the labor force than married women with nonworking mothers and married women with working mothers-in-law are 9.3 - 17.3 percent more likely to be in the labor force than married women with nonworking mothers-in-law. In addition, the estimated effects of mother's and the mothers-in-law's former labor force participation in rural sample are larger than those in the urban sample. We also find that as the education level of married women increases, the effect of being raised by a working mother on female labor force participation decreases. Having a husband grown up with a working mother increases the probability that a married woman with less than a high school education participates in the labor force; however, it is not a significant determinant of the labor force participation decision of highly educated women. Our findings reveal that the intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences influences the labor market behavior of married women in Turkey. More importantly, higher education reduces the effect of intergenerational transmission of gender role attitudes and/or preferences on female labor force participation.
    Keywords: Female labor force participation,Marriage,Intergenerational social norm,Turkey
    Date: 2020–05
  5. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This paper discusses Morocco’s Second Review Under the Arrangement Under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line. The authorities are committed to further reduce fiscal and external vulnerabilities, while strengthening the foundations for higher and more inclusive growth. Building on recent progress in improving the business environment, sustained reforms are needed to raise potential growth and reduce high unemployment, especially among the youth, increase female labor participation, and reduce regional disparities. Reforms of education, governance, and the labor market should contribute to more private sector-led growth and job creation. Considering the slowdown in fiscal consolidation, stepped up tax reforms and contained wage bill are needed to lower the public debt-to-gross domestic product ratio while securing priority investment and social spending in the medium term. A decisive and comprehensive tax reform should aim to secure adequate revenues while bringing about greater equity and simplicity of the tax system. The transition to greater exchange rate flexibility initiated in 2018 would enhance the economy’s capacity to absorb shocks and preserve its external competitiveness.
    Keywords: External sector;Economic policy;Employment;Fiscal policy;Unemployment;ISCR,CR,PLL,percent of GDP,medium term,tourism receipt,net lend
    Date: 2020–01–28
  6. By: Boukraine, Wissem
    Abstract: This paper employs the smooth transition autoregressive models (STAR) to analyze Tunisian exchange rate pass-through on quarterly data over the period 2011Q4 2019Q4. The non linearity tests suggest that the LSTAR specification describes better the behavior of exchange rate pass-through in Tunisia and our empirical results confirm its nonlinearity. We found evidence on high pass-through to inflation through external debt in both regimes.
    Keywords: Exchange rate pass-through, Regime Change, LSTAR, Tunisia
    JEL: C24 E31 F31 H60
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Jianchun Fang; Giray Gozgor; Sercan Pekel
    Abstract: Using data from the World Uncertainty, World Trade Uncertainty, and World Pandemic Uncertainty indices for 142 countries, this paper introduces three new indicators for measuring uncertainty in Turkey’s export markets from the first quarter of 1996 to the first quarter of 2020. The indicators measure uncertainty in Turkey’s export destinations. After introducing three indicators of uncertainty for export markets, we investigate their effects on economic growth. We find that all uncertainty indicators are negatively related to economic performance. Specifically, an increase in uncertainty in export destinations leads to a slower growth rate of up to two quarters. Pandemic-induced uncertainty negatively affects economic growth only at the higher quantiles. We also discuss potential implications.
    Keywords: export market diversification, economic policy uncertainty, trade policy uncertainty, COVID-19 uncertainties, developing economics, quantile regressions
    JEL: F14 F43 D81 C21
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Assaad, Ragui; Ginn, Thomas; Saleh, Mohamed
    Abstract: Mass influxes of refugees have potentially large effects on host countries; while labor market impacts are frequently studied, outcomes like children's education could also be affected. This paper examines the impact of Syrian refugees on the educational attainment of Jordanians. Combining detailed household surveys with school-level records on the density of Syrians, we study both quantity and quality of education for the hosts using a differences-in-differences design across refugee prevalence and birth cohort. We find no evidence that greater exposure to Syrian refugees affected the attainment of Jordanians; adding a second, donor-funded shift in high-Syrian areas appears sufficient to mitigate potential over-crowding.
    Keywords: education; Impact of Refugees; Jordan; Middle East
    JEL: F22 I21 N35 O15
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Hossa Almutairi; Abdullah AlJraboua; Frederic Murhphy; Shreekar Pradhan; Axel Pierru (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Keywords: Energy Market regulation and reform, Energy Policy, Energy Subsidies
    Date: 2020–08–19
  10. By: Ali Saleem, Zmkan; Skelton, Mac
    Abstract: The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) has generally lacked the security incidents common throughout the country since 2003. Yet, tension between the main political parties ruling over the region – the Erbil-based Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Sulaimani-based Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) – has increasingly come to the surface. What explains these increasingly overt signs of volatility? The post-2003 political order in the KRI is built upon a two-party patronage system that undercuts any meaningful institutionalisation of a joint administrative and security system. Public employment, access to government contracts, and positions in security forces are mediated by party-controlled channels. Troublingly, the potential for conflict arises when one party impedes on the capacity of the other to maintain its patronage networks. Expectations that the current dip in oil prices will encourage political reforms are likely misplaced. Analysts have too often understood Iraqi Kurdistan through the lens of oil-based rentierism, despite the fact that previous dips in oil prices have never substantively diminished the capacity of the parties to maintain patronage networks. In the absence of sustained pressure from the public or international community, the political order will continue to rest upon a two-party patronage system, leaving the region vulnerable to instability.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2020–07
  11. By: Duman, Anil
    Abstract: We develop a possibility to work index (PWI) taking the ability to work from home and workplace closures into account. By using the data from the HLFS in Turkey, we examine the individual level determinants of PWI. Our findings reveal that PWI and ability to work from home are significantly different, and essential or closed jobs are not necessarily concentrated at the bottom of the wage distribution. Therefore, from a policy perspective, PWI can be a more encompassing measure of risk and can assist the public authorities to design better targeted social policies. Our results also point out that wage inequality is likely to deteriorate as a result of the supply shocks from confinement policies. However, the overall negative distributional effects of lockdown and disparity between employees in different economic activities become more substantial with duration. These suggest that in order to avoid major increases in earning inequalities and related social problems, governments would be better off with shorter and stricter lockdowns.
    Keywords: workplace closures,wage loss,wage inequality,teleworking,developing countries
    JEL: D33 E24 J21 J31
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Krishnan,Nandini; Russo Riva,Flavio Luiz; Sharma,Dhiraj; Vishwanath,Tara
    Abstract: The Syrian crisis has led to rapid and large-scale population displacement. This paper uses several sources of data, including the United Nations Higher Commissioner for Refugees'registration database and multi-country, multi-topic surveys collected in 2015-16, to characterize service delivery in the context of a rapid influx of displaced populations. The study encompasses infrastructure services, such as electricity and garbage disposal, and social services, such as health and education, and considers both measures of access to services and their perceived quality.
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry,Educational Sciences,Energy Policies&Economics,Health Service Management and Delivery,Environmental Engineering,Health and Sanitation,Water and Human Health,Small Private Water Supply Providers,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Sanitation and Sewerage,Engineering,Sanitary Environmental Engineering
    Date: 2020–07–21
  13. By: Hertog, Steffen
    Abstract: Like other Gulf Cooperation Council countries, Kuwait shares its wealth generously with its population. Yet the way in which it does so is inefficient, inequitable and economically distortive. This is true both for the country’s conventional social safety mechanisms and for two large-scale ‘quasi-welfare’ policies: the provision of cheap or free energy and large-scale public sector employment for citizens. Current wealth sharing policies are fiscally unsustainable given current demographic trends, disproportionately benefit richer households and deeply distort markets for energy and labour. Against this background, this paper analyses a number of alternative mechanisms of social safety and wealth sharing that could be less distortionary and more conducive to private job generation for nationals. It focuses in particular on the idea of a ‘resource dividend’: an unconditional cash grant for adult nationals that could be provided in lieu of other, more unequal, discretionary and distortive forms of subsidies and rent sharing. While the case for a resource dividend has been made in previous research, this paper goes beyond conceptual discussion and illustrates in detail how such a dividend could be financed, what its distributional consequences would be and how it should be combined with other welfare policies to minimise distortions and maximise political feasibility. The paper develops concrete scenarios illustrating how different types of households and businesses would be impacted and discusses the administrative arrangements likely to be required by resource dividend and social safety reform.
    JEL: E6 R14 J01 J1
    Date: 2020–07–01
  14. By: Skelton, Mac; Ali Saleem, Zmkan
    Abstract: Since 2003, analysts have conceptualized Iraqi politics from the standpoint of the national scene in Baghdad. From this perspective, power dynamics in Iraq are understood through the lens of a national quota-based system (called muhassasah in Arabic) that distributes ministries and oil revenues across the country’s political groups according to ethno-sectarian allotments. Ignored in this national-level approach are the distinct arenas of political competition beyond the capital, where both national and subnational political actors struggle for control over local oil and gas fields, border crossings, and government contracts. This report focuses on three of Iraq’s most strategically important governorates, Nineveh, Basra, and Diyala. Since 2003, political parties and their corresponding armed forces – in addition to international actors such as the US military – have vied for influence in the three provinces through locally distinct forms of clientelism and violence. The report tracks the key shifts in each political marketplace between 2003 and the present, paying particular attention to the evolving usages of violence and flows of political finance. Political power at the local level is constituted and maintained both through coercion and transactional deals. Opportunistic alliances often cut across ethno-sectarian lines, defying assumptions around post-2003 identity-based politics. The primacy of purchasing loyalties over providing services has led to poor governance and pervasive instability. In the short and medium term, the political marketplaces of Nineveh, Basra and Diyala are likely to witness particularly turbulent dynamics due to the global crash in oil prices related to the COVID-19 pandemic, driving the parties and armed groups controlling the three governorates to compete more uncompromisingly over non-oil forms of revenue generation. In light of such developments on the horizon, the newly installed government in Baghdad has an ever-decreasing set of options at its disposal. The report concludes with both country-wide and locally-specific policy implications.
    JEL: E6 R14 J01
    Date: 2020–06
  15. By: Burke,Andrew; Cuadra,Ernesto Pancracio; Mahon,Tony; Moreno Olmedilla,Juan Manuel; Thacker,Simon
    Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the World Bank?supported Teacher Education Improvement Project for Grades 1-4 Class Teachers in the West Bank and Gaza (2008-19) and has important policy implications for similar initiatives in other developing economies. A professional development index of teaching competences was created and used to redesign, develop, implement, and evaluate pre-service and in-service programs in line with international good practice. By linking pre-service to in-service, the index is innovative in capturing the continuum of a teacher's professional development. The index as well as all elements of the pre-service and in-service programs were developed by Palestinians with consultant assistance. This developmental process strengthened the capacity of those involved and ensured understanding and ownership of outputs. The project resulted in an increase of fully qualified teachers from 54 percent in 2011 to 92 percent in 2018. In 2019, five of six university pre-service programs were granted unconditional accreditation by representative panels chaired by international experts. The project won the United Kingdom's prestigious Times Higher Education Award for International Impact, 2018 due to its innovative approaches and potential for replication in other countries. The model of reform developed in the project is currently influencing the development of strategies for the coherent and systemic reform of teacher education in World Bank?supported projects in The Gambia and Zambia.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Educational Institutions&Facilities,Effective Schools and Teachers,Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–07–22
  16. By: Kai Barron (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin); Heike Harmgart (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London); Steffen Huck (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin); Sebastian Schneider (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: We measure the prevalence of discrimination between Jordanian host and Syrian refugee children attending school in Jordan. Using a simple sharing experiment, we find only little discrimination. Among the Jordanian children, however, we see that those who descended from Palestinian refugees do not discriminate at all, suggesting that a family history of refugee status can generate solidarity with new refugees. We also find that parents’ narratives about the refugee crisis are correlated with the degree of discrimination, suggesting that discriminatory preferences are being transmitted through parental attitudes.
    Keywords: Discrimination, refugees, children, experiment, integration
    JEL: C91 D90 J15 C93 J13
    Date: 2020–06
  17. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Sudan discusses that regime change has created a window of opportunity for fundamental reforms to address major macro imbalances and lay the groundwork for inclusive growth. The economy is shrinking, fiscal and external imbalances are large, inflation is high, the currency is overvalued, and competitiveness is weak. The humanitarian situation is dire with large numbers of internally displaced people and refugees. US sanctions on trade and financial flows were revoked in October 2017, but Sudan remains on the state sponsors of terrorism list, which effectively discourages external investment and blocks progress toward both heavily indebted poor countries debt relief and the clearance of large arrears to the IMF. In this context, staff engagement has intensified to render the necessary policy and technical assistance to help the authorities seize this once-in-a-generation opportunity for reforms. There is broad agreement between the authorities and the IMF staff about the key reform priorities, however, the authorities have yet to put together a fully coherent and viable plan that enjoys broad public support and can plausibly attract adequate donor financing.
    Keywords: Social safety nets;Balance of payments;Central banks;Public financial management;Multiple currency practices;ISCR,CR,fuel subsidy,percent,Proj,percent of GDP,alternative scenario
    Date: 2020–03–10
  18. By: Sharp, Deen
    Abstract: In Lebanon, there has been a furious and continuing debate over how the reconstruction, with the urban development corporation Solidere at its core, has been undertaken. In the course of the 2019 protests–what many Lebanese are calling a revolution–and the economic implosion in 2020, the Solidere project that led the national reconstruction process continues to occupy a central place of contestation in the nation. For many in the country, the reconstruction that ostensibly followed the Ta’if Peace Accord has left its own scars of violence and dispossession on the country’s inhabitants. This paper reconceptualises the idea of reconstruction as something that happens in the aftermath of conflict. It traces how the construction of the built environment can also be part of conflict. In so doing, this essay illuminates how in Lebanon the reconstruction process was embedded within the dynamics of the Civil War and one that also exceeds it. The reconstruction was not a process that emerged in the aftermath of the conflict but fully embedded within it. Lebanon’s reconstruction involved the consolidation of social power by a narrow elite and urban violence in both periods of open conflict and peace.
    Keywords: reconstruction; Lebanon; Beirut; Solidere; urban violence
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–08
  19. By: Muhammet Berigel (Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University); Onur Ad?yaman (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy, Science and Industry; Eastern Black Sea Development Agency); Hasan Karal (Fatih Education Faculty, Trabzon University); Adnan Baki (Fatih Education Faculty, Trabzon University); Taner Altun (Fatih Education Faculty, Trabzon University); Merve Y?ld?z (Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon); Furkan Kalyoncu (Fatih Education Faculty, Trabzon University)
    Abstract: In this study, it is aimed to compose a conceptual framework for literature and institutions which aims to create an adaptive assessment test for measuring skill levels of low-qualified adults. Determining the skill level of individuals to design and develop the adaptive assessment tools correctly and effectively is a very important step. The composed adaptive assessment model has mainly two parts; 1-) Demographic Features including General Demographics and Skill Based Demographics, 2-) Skill Based elements including literacy, numeracy, and digital skills. The conceptual framework creates an infrastructure to integrate sections of adaptive evaluation systems such as entry point, item pool, stopping rules, time issues, content sampling, exposure controls evaluation rules, test organization, scoring method and algorithm.
    Keywords: Conceptual Framework, Web Based Assessment Tool, Skill Assessment, Low Qualified Adults
    JEL: I21 I29 C51
  20. By: Kalaitzi, Athanasia Stylianou; Chamberlain, Trevor William
    Abstract: This study examines the causal effects of traditional UAE exports on economic growth over the period 1981-2012, using a neoclassical production function augmented with fuel-mining exports and imports of goods and services. To investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between fuel-mining exports and economic growth, the study applies the Johansen cointegration test, while the direction of the short-run causality is examined by applying the Granger causality test in a vector error correction model framework. In addition, a modified Wald test in an augmented vector autoregressive model, developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), is used to investigate the existence of a long-run causality between the variables. The cointegration analysis confirms the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables, while fuel-mining exports are found to have a negative impact on economic growth. Moreover, the study finds that fuel-mining exports do not cause economic growth in the short-run or the long-run.
    Keywords: causality; economic growth; exports; UAE
    JEL: O47 F43 C32
    Date: 2020–05–01
  21. By: Kalaitzi, Athanasia; Chamberlain, Trevor W.
    JEL: F10 O40
    Date: 2020–06–11
  22. By: Almoayad,Safa Ali Qassim; Favari,Eliana; Halabi,Samira; Krishnaswamy,Siddharth; Music,Almedina; Tandon,Sharad Alan
    Abstract: Using a high-frequency survey in the Republic of Yemen, this paper demonstrates how school attendance responds to a series of conflict-related shocks. First, there are plausibly exogenous changes in violence that have limited impacts on school attendance but do affect other dimensions of well-being. And second, consequences of conflict aside from living in close proximity to violence can impact attendance. The importance of a wide variety of conflict shocks suggests that an understanding of all shocks is needed before attributing the cause of attendance changes in such tumultuous settings, and these results have implications for the delivery of education assistance in conflict settings.
    Date: 2020–07–22
  23. By: Winter, David; Muhanna-Matar, Aitemad
    Abstract: This paper explores radicalization and deradicalization by considering the experiences of six young Tunisian people who had become Salafist Muslims. Their responses to narrative interviews and repertory grid technique are considered from a personal construct perspective, revealing processes of construing and reconstruing, as well as relevant aspects of the structure and content of their construct systems. In two cases, their journeys involved not only radicalization but self-deradicalization, and their experiences are drawn upon to consider implications for deradicalization.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2018–12–28
  24. By: Akli Akerkar (Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The history of the rural development in Algeria shows instability. There is at least one land reform every decade. However, due to an excess of state control, agro-climatic constraints, historical and social issues and handicaps suffered by the organizational and technical aspects, the results of these policies, are below the expected objectives. The implementation of the NPARD was supposed to cause a disruption with the old policies, through a participative approach and through financing arrangements to the farmers, thus allowing the reactivation of the agricultural production. This article aims to assessing the impact of this program on farms in the province of Bejaia.
    Abstract: L'histoire du développement agricole en Algérie a été marquée par une instabilité. Il ne se passe pas une décennie sans que ne soit annoncée une nouvelle réforme agraire. Cependant, l'excès du dirigisme étatique, les contraintes agro-climatiques, les pesanteurs historiques et sociales ainsi que les handicaps inhérents aux aspects organisationnels et techniques, font que les résultats de ces différentes politiques, sont en deçà des objectifs escomptés. La mise en oeuvre du PNDAR, devait provoquer une rupture, en adoptant une démarche participative et en mettant à la disposition des exploitants agricoles un dispositif de financement institutionnel adéquat. Cet article a pour objectif l'évaluation de l'impact de ce programme sur les exploitations agricoles dans la wilaya de Bejaïa.
    Keywords: agricultural policies,evaluation,Bejaïa,NPARD,NFARD,farms,food security,exploitations agricoles,FNRDA,PNDAR,évaluation,politiques agricoles,sécurité alimentaire
    Date: 2020

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