nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2020‒01‒20
nine papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Long Arm of the Arab State By Tsourapas, Gerasimos
  2. Terror and Tourism: The Economic Consequences of Media Coverage By Besley, Timothy; Fetzer, Thiemo; Mueller, Hannes
  4. The reform of the local administration in Algeria between actual challenges and future prospects By Djamel Eddine BENAMIER
  5. Regional disparities in development in Morocco: Statistical analyses using dispersion indicators and multidimensional techniques By Bakour, Chafik; Abahamid, Mohamed Yassine
  6. The impact of Cognitive Dissonance on Young Entrepreneurs By Sabrina Elbachir
  7. The Reality of Synergy between Colleges of Education and the Ministry of Education from the Perspective of Educational Leaders By Sultan Ghaleb Aldaihani; Shahd AlShemery
  8. The Future of Oil and Fiscal Sustainability in the GCC Region By Tokhir N Mirzoev; Ling Zhu; Yang Yang; Tian Zhang; Erik Roos; Andrea Pescatori; Akito Matsumoto
  9. U.S. Monetary Policy Spillovers to GCC Countries: Do Oil Prices Matter? By Olumuyiwa S Adedeji; Erik Roos; Sohaib Shahid; Ling Zhu

  1. By: Tsourapas, Gerasimos (University of Birmingham)
    Abstract: Under what conditions do authoritarian states exercise control over populations abroad? The securitisation of cross-border mobility has been a common theme in examining immigration policies in the Global North. The securitisation of emigration and diasporas in non-democratic contexts remains neglected; this is particularly true with regard to Arab states’ extraterritorial authoritarian practices. This article argues that authoritarian states develop a range of migration policies that are driven by the contradictory pressures of economic and political imperatives or, put differently, an "illiberal paradox": if a state does not expect economic gains from cross-border mobility, it is more likely to securitise its emigration policy; otherwise, it is more likely to securitise its diaspora policy. The article illustrates this trade-off via a most-similar comparison of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia, and Morocco. Drawing on Arabic and non-Arabic primary and secondary sources, it sketches a novel area of research on migration and security.
    Date: 2019–03–26
  2. By: Besley, Timothy (London School of Economics); Fetzer, Thiemo (University of Warwick); Mueller, Hannes (IAE - CSIC)
    Abstract: This paper studies the economic effects of news-coverage of violent events. To do so, we combine monthly aggregated and anonymized credit card data on tourism spending from 114 origin countries and 5 tourist destinations (Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel and Morocco) with a large corpus of more than 446 thousand newspaper articles covering news on the 5 destination countries from a subset of 57 tourist origin countries. We document that violent events in a destination are followed by sharp spikes in negative reporting at origin and contractions in tourist activity. Media coverage of violence has a large independent effect on tourist spending beyond what can be accounted for by controlling for the incidence of violence. We develop a model in which tourist beliefs, actual violence and media reporting are modelled together. This model allows us to quantify the effect of violent events and reporting.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Leonid R. Sykiainen (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article studies the role of Islamic legal doctrine (Fiqh) as a source of contemporary law in Arab countries. The continuing Islamization of their legal systems includes the codification of Fiqh, which has acquired the role of the material (historic) source of law. Fiqh also plays the role of the official (judicial) source of contemporary law in Arab countries. In Saudi Arabia, it is still the primary source of law. Fiqh plays an active role as a subsidiary source of contemporary law, above of all, in private law
    Keywords: Fiqh, Sharia, material source of law, judicial source of law, subsidiary source of law, codification, legal system
    JEL: K K
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Djamel Eddine BENAMIER (University Mohamed BOUDIAF of M'Sila)
    Abstract: The local administration in Algeria is currently facing major challenges that have resulted from a number of social, economic and political developments. It has touched on several aspects of our lives. It has focused mainly on the change in society and the economy and the repercussions of globalization, the latest of which is the global economic and financial crisis. The role of these institutions and adapting their work to meet these challenges through reform. This reform process is among the new measures and measures to improve the management and management of local communities and to activate their role for economic and social development on a local scale, where this is done on two levels; the first covers the administrative side, and the second related to the financial side.In this paper we provide a brief explanation of the reform process, the most important challenges faced by local administration, the prospects for their development and the improvement of their administrative and financial performance to carry out their roles at the level of comprehensive national development and improving citizens' lives.
    Keywords: Reform, local administration, Algeria, administrative reform, financial reform.
    JEL: Z00
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Bakour, Chafik; Abahamid, Mohamed Yassine
    Abstract: Regional disparities constitute a real socio-economic problem, reflecting an inequitable distribution of resources and opportunities on the population of the same country, with disastrous economic, social and political consequences. The objective of this article is to extend the discussion on regional disparities, by focusing on the socio-economic dimensions, we have opted for unidimensional statistical approaches by highlighting the distribution and dispersion of a set of socio-economic indicators covering education and employment, health, housing conditions and poverty and living standards; and multidimensional techniques that allowed us to design a synthetic regional development indicator, classify the regions according to the level of development, highlight the gaps and finally draw a development map in Morocco. The analysis of regional disparities through the distribution of the values of the elementary indicators, then the composite social development index, and the regional development mapping shows that, despite the progress made, the regions have not benefited in the same proportions, and the size of the gaps recorded between the best performing regions and the worst performing regions confirms the structural nature of these disparities.
    Keywords: Keyword: spatial disparities, inequalities, regional development, dispersion indicator, multidimensional analysis, education, health, employment, development index
    JEL: C1 C81 D63 I0 I24 I3 O18 O20
    Date: 2019–10–18
  6. By: Sabrina Elbachir (University of Mascara)
    Abstract: Cognitive dissonance is a protective mechanism that we use to justify our actions or behaviors. This happens because our mind tries to make sure that our actions conform to our beliefs, attitudes and expectations of ourselves. In other words, our natural tendency is to perceive our actions and behaviors as being consistent with our self-image. This paper aims to a better understanding of the theory of cognitive dissonance in the context of business sciences, and more specifically, in the discipline of entrepreneurship. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of young entrepreneurs in the western region of Algeria, the results show the impact of cognitive dissonance on the decisions taken by them during the management of their businesses..
    Keywords: Cognitive dissonance, entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship
    JEL: M13 G11
    Date: 2019–10
  7. By: Sultan Ghaleb Aldaihani (Kuwait University); Shahd AlShemery (Ministry of Education)
    Abstract: This study aimed to understand the reality of synergy between the colleges of education and the Ministry of Education from the perspective of educational leaders. The study simple consisted of 450 from the teaching staff of the Colleges of Education in Kuwait. The researcher adopted the analytical descriptive approach by design an instrument. The most important results indicate: the important if colleges of education and the Ministry of Education cooperate in educational projects to achieve sustainable development in the field of education; the that females are more supportive of special proposals to increase the level of synergy between colleges of education and the Ministry of Education. The researcher points out that there are no differences in the other fields; means that shorter experiences are more supportive of synergy between colleges of education and the Ministry of Education than intermediate experiences; and positive correlation between the area of the ?objectives of synergy between colleges of education and the Ministry of Education.
    Keywords: Synergy ,Colleges of Education, Ministry of Education, Educational Leaders
    Date: 2019–10
  8. By: Tokhir N Mirzoev; Ling Zhu; Yang Yang; Tian Zhang; Erik Roos; Andrea Pescatori; Akito Matsumoto
    Abstract: The oil market is undergoing fundamental change. New technologies are increasing the supply of oil from old and new sources, while rising concerns over the environment are seeing the world gradually moving away from oil. This spells a significant challenge for oil-exporting countries, including those of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) who account for a fifth of the world’s oil production. The GCC countries have recognized the need to reduce their reliance on oil and are all implementing reforms to diversify their economies as well as fiscal and external revenues. Nevertheless, as global oil demand is expected to peak in the next two decades, the associated fiscal imperative could be both larger and more urgent than implied by the GCC countries’ existing plans.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy;Oil exporting countries;Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC);Fiscal policy;Oil-exporting countries
  9. By: Olumuyiwa S Adedeji; Erik Roos; Sohaib Shahid; Ling Zhu
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence that the size of the spillovers from U.S. monetary policy to non-oil GDP growth in the GCC countries depends on the level of oil prices. The potential channels through which oil prices could affect the effectiveness of monetary policy are discussed. We find that the level of oil prices tends to dampen or amplify the growth impact of changes in U.S. monetary policy on the non-oil economies in the GCC.
    Date: 2019–12–27

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