nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2019‒07‒29
fourteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Access to environmental information: a driver of accountable governance in Morocco and Tunisia? By Houdret, Annabelle; Pasqua, Irene; Meknassi, Saâd Filali
  2. The Impacts of Domestic and Foreign Direct Investments on Economic Growth: Fresh Evidence from Tunisia By Bouchoucha, Najeh; Bakari, Sayef
  3. Impact of CSR practices on the commercial performance of tourism companies: Case of hotel establishments in Fez By Aziz Hmioui; Lhoussane Alla; Badr Bentalha
  4. A Look to Cash Waqfs as an Indicator of Ottoman Financial Mentality By Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem
  5. A Comparative Performance Evaluation of Islamic and Conventional Mutual Funds in Saudi Arabia By Ahmad, Shabbir; Alsharif, Danyah
  6. التصدیر من أجل النمو: تحدید القطاعات الرائدة في مصر وتونس باستخدام منھجیة فضاء المنتجات By El-Haddad, Amirah
  7. Aperçu des programmes de protection sociale non contributive du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord examinés sous l'angle de l'enfance et de l'équité By Anna Carolina Machado; Charlotte Bilo; Fábio Veras Soares; Rafael Guerreiro Osorio
  8. Résumé Analytique - Le droit des enfants à la protection sociale au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord : une analyse des cadres juridiques du point de vue des droits des enfants By Charlotte Bilo; Anna Carolina Machado
  9. Résumé Analytique Espace budgétaire pour la protection sociale des enfants dans la région MENA By Carolina Bloch; Charlotte Bilo; Imane Helmy; Rafael Guerreiro Osorio; Fábio Veras Soares
  10. Résumé Analytique - Mettre en place des systèmes nationaux de protection sociale capables de répondre aux chocs au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord By Raquel Tebaldi
  11. L’accès à l’information environnementale: vecteur d’une gouvernance responsable au Maroc et en Tunisie? By Houdret, Annabelle; Pasqua, Irene; Meknassi, Saâd Filali
  12. Sumário Executivo ? Espaço fiscal para políticas de proteção social sensíveis às crianças na região MENA By Carolina Bloch; Charlotte Bilo; Imane Helmy; Rafael Guerreiro Osorio; Fábio Veras Soares
  13. Sumário Executivo - Construindo Sistemas Nacionais de Proteção Social Responsivos a Choques na região do Oriente Médio e Norte da África (MENA) By Raquel Tebaldi
  14. Sumário Executivo - Direito das Crianças à Proteção Social no Oriente Médio e Norte da África: Uma análise de arcabouços jurídicos a partir de uma perspectiva de direitos da criança By Charlotte Bilo; Anna Carolina Machado

  1. By: Houdret, Annabelle; Pasqua, Irene; Meknassi, Saâd Filali
    Abstract: In Tunisia, Morocco and other North African countries, en¬vironmental problems increasingly lead to political protest. Industrial pollution and a lack of clean drinking water adversely impact the living conditions and income op¬portunities of already marginalised groups and trigger unrest. Environmental governance in the region is often highly centralised, and takes no consideration of the needs of the citizens in the use of natural resources. In a political context that remains unstable following the 2011 uprisings, the double challenge of mounting environmental problems and related social unrest calls for new approaches. Reinforcing accountable environmental governance could help, not only by addressing environmental problems and needs, but by contributing to the overall transformation of societal relationships towards more democratic (i.e. transparent, accountable and participative) governance in the longer term. Access to environmental information plays a crucial role in this regard: only if citizens know about availability, quality and use of natural resources, can they make informed choices and claim their rights. When public institutions address these rights, they can increase sustainable wealth for present and future generations. Institutions charged with strengthening accountability can also include citizens in their monitoring exercises, and help to hold public and private actors legally responsible for their decisions and behaviour. Related international standards can inform such reforms: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Rio Declaration and the Aarhus Convention confirm the importance of access to environmental information. At national levels, environmental charters and Morocco’s and Tunisia’s new constitutions stress the need for participatory and accountable governance. As recent assessments in Morocco and Tunisia reveal, governments and development partners can support access to environmental information and thereby accountable governance. First, they can do this by strengthening accountable environmental governance and access to environmental information across sectors. This includes engaging democratic institutions in environmental issues and building up related capacities and know-how, supporting accountability organisations and rules, and improving citizens’ and the administrations’ understanding of new rights. It also entails empowering communities and forging new cross-sectoral coalitions, besides integrating the countries into international initiatives for accountable governance. Second, governments and development cooperation can support accountability in the environmental sector, including by taking advantage of international initiatives, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Climate mitigation and adaptation policies also provide opportunities for strengthening accountable environmental governance. Moreover, policy-makers need to be more aware of the links between environmental governance and its potential impact on human rights and political stability. Access to environmental information, related legal frameworks and institutional capacities also need further backing, including support to articulate related claims. Finally, comprehensive and transparent environmental and social impact assessments of public and private projects, and engaging protest movements in constructive dialogues with the administration and the private sector can help in preventing and addressing related social unrest.
    Keywords: Governance,Umwelt, Ökosysteme und Ressourcen
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Bouchoucha, Najeh; Bakari, Sayef
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the impact of domestic investment and Foreign Direct Investment on economic growth in Tunisia during the period 1976–2017. This study is based on the Auto-Regressive Distributive Lags (ARDL) approach that is proposed by Pesaran et al (2001). Bound testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. According to the results of the analysis, domestic investment and foreign direct investment have a negative effect on economic growth in the long run. However, in the short run, only domestic investment causes economic growth. The findings are important for Tunisian economic policy makers to undertake the effective policies that can promote and lead domestic and foreign investments to boost economic growth.
    Keywords: Domestic Investment; Foreign Direct Investment; Economic Growth; Tunisia; ARDL.
    JEL: C13 E22 F13 F14 O11 O20 O47 O55
    Date: 2019–06
  3. By: Aziz Hmioui (E.N.C.G - Ecole nationale de commerce et de gestion - Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University); Lhoussane Alla (ENSA, Fès); Badr Bentalha (E.N.C.G - Ecole nationale de commerce et de gestion)
    Abstract: The purpose of our communication is to analyse the impact of the adoption and embedding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices on the business performance of tourist establishments, in this case hotels. As a response to the pressures of both stakeholders, and in particular customers, in this case tourists, whose behaviour is more committed and responsible, CSR practices evolve along a continuum that ranges from a simple marketing discourse to a truly responsible and modern management. In Morocco, where the tourism sector is constantly developing at the international level and is strongly connected to good management practices, particularly in terms of social responsibility, tourist establishments are called upon to comply with these new requirements in terms of sustainable tourism. While we are now seeing a shift in the managerial practices of Moroccan hotels towards greater social responsibility, it remains to be seen how such practices contribute to improving the commercial performance of these entities. Thus, the problem we propose to study is as follows: What is the degree of commitment of Moroccan hotels to social responsibility and what is the impact on their commercial performance? To address this issue, and after a literature review on the concept and approaches to CSR and business performance, we will conduct an empirical study on CSR practices and their impact on business performance in hotels in Fez.
    Abstract: L'objet de notre communication est d'analyser l'impact de l'adoption et l'ancrage des pratiques de la responsabilité sociale des entreprises (RSE) sur la performance commerciale des établissements touristiques, en l'occurrence les hôtels. Etant une réponse tout à la fois aux pressions des parties prenantes, et notamment les clients, ici les touristes, dont les comportements sont davantage engagés et responsables, les pratiques de la RSE évoluent dans un continuum allant d'un simple discours marketing à un véritable management responsable et moderne. Au Maroc, où le secteur touristique ne cesse de connaître un épanouissement marquant au niveau international ainsi qu'une forte connexion avec les bonnes pratiques de management et notamment en matière de responsabilité sociale, les établissements touristiques sont appelés à se conformer à ces nouvelles exigences en matière de tourisme durable. Si aujourd'hui nous constatons une évolution des pratiques managériales des hôtels marocains vers plus de responsabilité sociale, il reste à s'interroger sur la contribution de telles pratiques à l'amélioration de la performance commerciale de ces entités. Ainsi, la problématique que nous proposons étudier est la suivante : Quel est le degré d'engagement des établissements hôteliers marocains dans des marches de responsabilité sociale et quel en est l'impact sur leur performance commerciale ? Pour traiter cette problématique, et après une revue de littérature sur le concept et les approches de la RSE et de la performance commerciale, nous allons procéder à une étude empirique sur les pratiques de la RSE et leur impact sur la performance commerciale dans les établissements hôteliers de Fès.
    Keywords: CSR,sustainable tourism,commercial performance,RSE,tourisme durable,performance commerciale
    Date: 2017–07–02
  4. By: Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem
    Abstract: In spite of the fact that the waqfs have existed with the history of humankind and are helpful in all social communities, they have a different and important place in Islamic societies. The waqfs have made assistance and solidarity between individuals organized and institutionalized. Especially in Islamic societies, a great importance has been attached to waqfs. The waqfs that helped institutionalize the concept of infaq met many needs of the community. One of the Islamic states where the waqfs are very active was the Ottoman Empire. The size of the waqf services in the Ottomans expanded so much that, besides the human services, waqfs for injured birds and sick animals were established. The fact that the waqfs are so widespread in the state has made it possible to refer the Ottoman Empire as a waqf civilization. One of the waqf types operating in the Ottoman Empire was the cash waqfs (CWs) which had cash money as capital. The CWs operated its capital with various Islamic finance methods. Revenues from the operating money were used in the direction of waqf purpose. The CWs provided the vital necessities of the society such as education and religion in the period they were active in the Ottoman Empire. Another function of these waqfs was to operate as a micro-credit mechanism. Through these waqfs, the surplus and the accumulated savings in the hands of the asset owners were made available to merchants, farmers, craftsmen, and artisans. Hence, these waqfs have served as resource transfer channels as well as functioning as a charity in the society. The main goal of CWs, which is the pioneer of modern Islamic financial institutions, is different from the goal of Islamic interest-free financial institutions. The CWs did not transfer the profits they got to the waqf founder or owner. The income obtained was spent to fulfill the charitable services. Therefore, these institutions created an altruistic finance model operating within the borders of Islamic prohibitions and orders. This model has its own principles. In our study, the financial mentality of the Ottoman society in the context of the CWs and how this mentality shaped the CWs will be discussed. The basic principles of this mentality and model will be emphasized.
    Keywords: Cash Waqfs; Ottoman Empire; Islamic Finance; Philanthropy; Altruistic Finance Model; basic principles of cash waqfs
    JEL: G21 N20 P45 Z12
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Ahmad, Shabbir; Alsharif, Danyah
    Abstract: Abstract Purpose The literature on the comparative performance of Islamic and conventional mutual funds provides conflicting results. Some studies find superior performance of Islamic mutual funds (IMF) to conventional mutual funds (CMF) whereas others conclude to the contrary. This study aims to contribute to the debate on the comparative performance of Islamic and conventional mutual funds in Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach This study participates in the ongoing debate by analyzing the performance of IMF and CMF based on risk-adjusted returns measures such as the Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, and Jensen’s Alpha. Furthermore, we examine the selectivity and the market timing skills of IMF and CMF using Treynor and Mazuy model. Five-year monthly data from 2013 to 2017 for forty mutual funds located in Saudi Arabia are used for analysis. Findings We find that IMF and CMF have almost similar performance on the basis of Treynor ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. However, results from the Sharpe ratio indicate that Islamic funds perform better than their conventional counterpart. The study also finds that the selectivity and the market timing abilities of both Islamic and conventional mutual funds outperform the market portfolio. Superior selectivity skills of IMF to the CMF and similar timing ability of both types of fund managers is also observed. Practical implications Islamic mutual funds are less risky than conventional mutual funds and they provide better hedging prospects for stockholders in general Originality/value This study aims to contribute to the debate on the comparative performance of Islamic and conventional mutual funds using the latest data and applying the equality of means and the Random effect model, which no other study has used in the context of Saudi Arabia.
    Keywords: Islamic Mutual Funds, Performance Evaluation, Saudi Mutual Funds, Risk Adjusted Measures, Selectivity and Market Timing Abilities, Random Effect Model.
    JEL: G11
    Date: 2019–01
  6. By: El-Haddad, Amirah
    Keywords: Strukturwandel, wirtschaftliche Entwicklung und Beschäftigung
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Anna Carolina Machado (IPC-IG); Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG); Rafael Guerreiro Osorio (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "L'Aperçu des programmes de protection sociale non contributive du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord examinés sous l'angle de l'enfance et de l'équité est l'un des quatre produits axés sur le savoir et consacrés à la protection sociale non contributive dans la région du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord (région MENA, de l'anglais Middle-East and North Africa) conjointement élaborés par le Centre International de Politiques pour la Croissance Inclusive (IPC-IG) et le Bureau régional pour le Moyen-Orient et l'Afrique du Nord de l'UNICEF (MENARO, de l'anglais Middle East and North Africa Regional Office)". (...)
    Keywords: Aperçu, programmes, protection sociale, non contributive, Moyen-Orient, Afrique, Nord, examinés, angle, enfance, équité
    Date: 2018–06
  8. By: Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Anna Carolina Machado (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Malgré les importants progrès réalisés pendant la dernière décennie au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord (région MENA, de l'anglais Middle East and North Africa) en matière de réduction de l'extrême pauvreté et d'amélioration des indicateurs de santé, d'éducation et de survie des enfants, des inégalités persistent au sein de la région. Les pays affectés par des conflits et des crises humanitaires (comme l'Irak, la Libye, la Syrie et le Yémen) ont par exemple vu reculer leurs indicateurs de bien-être des enfants (UNICEF 2017a). Dans la région, la pauvreté des enfants reste d'ailleurs une préoccupation majeure : dans onze pays arabes, un enfant sur quatre vit en situation de pauvreté multidimensionnelle extrême, selon une récente étude (LAS et al. 2017)".
    Keywords: Résumé Analytique, droit, enfants, protection sociale, Moyen-Orient, Afrique du Nord, analyse, cadres juridiques, point de vue
    Date: 2018–12
  9. By: Carolina Bloch (IPC-IG); Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Imane Helmy (IPC-IG); Rafael Guerreiro Osorio (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "La pauvreté des enfants reste un sujet de préoccupation au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord (région MENA, de l'anglais Middle East and North Africa). Si des progrès significatifs ont été enregistrés en matière d'extrême pauvreté, de santé, d'éducation et de survie des enfants, ils y demeurent inégaux : les pays à revenus élevés ont en effet avancé plus rapidement que les pays à revenu moyen inférieur, tandis que les pays frappés par des crises humanitaires ont vu s'inverser leurs indicateurs de bien-être des enfants". (...)
    Keywords: Résumé Analytique, Espace budgétaire, protection sociale, enfants, MENA
    Date: 2019–08
  10. By: Raquel Tebaldi (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "La région du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord (région MENA, de l'anglais Middle-East and North Africa) se heurte à des défis de taille découlant de chocs multiples et d'urgences complexes. Les pays de la région se trouvent en effet exposés à des risques de catastrophes naturelles telles que des tremblements de terre, des inondations ou des sécheresses ; de violents conflits en confrontent également certains, comme la Syrie, à des difficultés inédites de par l'échelle des déplacements humains qu'ils génèrent ; au Yémen, l'interruption de la prestation de services causée par le conflit exacerbe enfin la prévalence de la malnutrition et des maladies transmissibles à travers le pays". (...)
    Keywords: Résumé Analytique, mettre, systèmes, nationaux, protection sociale,chocs, Moyen-Orient, Afrique du Nord
    Date: 2019–04
  11. By: Houdret, Annabelle; Pasqua, Irene; Meknassi, Saâd Filali
    Abstract: En Afrique du Nord, les problèmes environnementaux sont une source croissante de contestation politique. La pollution et la rareté des ressources se répercutent négativement sur les conditions de vie et les revenus de groupes déjà vulnérables, et causent des protestations. La gouvernance environnementale est un processus souvent très centralisé qui ne tient pas compte des besoins des citoyen(ne)s. Dans un contexte politique plus fragile depuis 2011, le double défi posé par l’aggravation des problèmes environnementaux et l’agitation sociale qui en résulte exige de nouvelles approches. Face à ces défis, une gouvernance environnementale responsable aiderait non seulement à traiter les problèmes environnementaux et les besoins des populations, mais contribuerait aussi à la transformation des relations sociétales vers une gouvernance plus démocratique (c.-à-d. transparente, responsable et participative). L’accès à l’information environnementale joue un rôle crucial à cet égard : seuls des citoyen(ne)s au fait de la disponibilité, de la qualité et de l’utilisation des ressources naturelles, peuvent débattre, prendre des décisions éclairées et revendiquer leurs droits. Les institutions chargées de renforcer la transparence peuvent contribuer à ce que les acteurs publics et privés rendent compte de leurs décisions. Les normes internationales connexes peuvent informer ces réformes (Déclaration universelle des droits humains, Déclaration de Rio et Convention d’Aarhus). À l’échelon national, les chartes et lois environnementales et les nouvelles constitutions du Maroc et de la Tunisie promeuvent une gouvernance participative et responsable. De récentes évaluations menées dans ces deux pays indiquent que les gouvernements et les partenaires de développement devraient : Renforcer la gouvernance environnementale responsable à travers la promotion de l’accès à l’information environnementale. Cela inclut la participation des institutions démocratiques aux questions environnementales et le renforcement des capacités connexes, l’appui aux organisations chargées de la redevabilité, et une meilleure compréhension des nouveaux droits par les citoyen(ne)s et les administrations. Par ailleurs, les communautés doivent avoir les moyens d’agir et d’établir de nouvelles coalitions intersectorielles, en plus d’intégrer ces pays dans des initiatives internationales pour une gouvernance responsable. Appuyer l’obligation de rendre compte dans le secteur de l’environnement. Des initiatives internationales telles que les Objectifs de Développement Durable (ODD) et les politiques d’atténuation et d’adaptation aux effets des changements climatiques peuvent ici insuffler un nouvel élan. En outre, les décideurs doivent avoir davantage conscience des liens entre la gouvernance de l’environnement et son incidence potentielle sur les droits humains et la stabilité politique. L’accès à l’information environnementale, les cadres juridiques y relatifs et les capacités institutionnelles requièrent eux aussi un soutien accru. Enfin, des études transparentes d’impacts environnementaux et sociaux de projets ainsi que l’intégration des mouvements de contestation, de l’administration et du secteur privé dans des dialogues constructifs peuvent contribuer à prévenir et traiter les contestations.
    Keywords: Umwelt, Ökosysteme und Ressourcen,Governance
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Carolina Bloch (IPC-IG); Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Imane Helmy (IPC-IG); Rafael Guerreiro Osorio (IPC-IG); Fábio Veras Soares (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "A pobreza infantil ainda continua um problema sério no Oriente Médio e no norte da África (Middle East and North Africa ? MENA). Embora a região tenha alcançado progresso significativo na redução da pobreza extrema e na melhoria nos indicadores de saúde e educação, bem como nas taxas de sobrevivência infantil, tal progresso tem sido irregular. Países com uma renda maior avançaram mais que aqueles com renda média, e aqueles países impactados por conflitos humanitários sofreram retrocessos em indicadores de bem-estar infantil". (...)
    Keywords: Sumário Executivo, Espaço fiscal, políticas, proteção social, sensíveis, crianças, MENA
    Date: 2019–08
  13. By: Raquel Tebaldi (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "A região do Oriente Médio e Norte da África (MENA) confronta-se com desafios significativos, resultantes de múltiplos choques e emergências complexas: os países da região enfrentam vários riscos em termos de desastres naturais, incluindo terremotos, enchentes e secas; os conflitos violentos, como na Síria, colocam desafios sem precedentes relacionados à escala do deslocamento humano; e a quebra da prestação de serviços causada por conflitos leva ao aumento da prevalência de desnutrição e doenças transmissíveis no Iêmen". (...)
    Keywords: sumário executivo, construindo, Sistemas, Nacionais, Proteção Social, Responsivos, Oriente Médio, Norte da África, MENA
    Date: 2019–04
  14. By: Charlotte Bilo (IPC-IG); Anna Carolina Machado (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: "Embora na última década a região do Oriente Médio e Norte da África (MENA) tenha realizado importantes avanços nas áreas de redução da pobreza extrema e na melhoria de indicadores de saúde, educação e sobrevivência infantil, este progresso manteve-se desigual em toda região. Os países afetados por conflitos e emergências humanitárias (como Iraque, Líbia, Síria e Iêmen), em particular, têm visto uma reversão nos indicadores de bem-estar infantil (UNICEF, 2017a). De fato, a pobreza infantil na região continua sendo uma área de preocupação. De acordo com um estudo recente realizado em 11 países árabes, uma em cada quatro crianças sofre de pobreza aguda multidimensional (LAS et al., 2017)". (...)
    Keywords: Sumário Executivo, direito, crianças, proteção social, Oriente Médio, Norte da África, análise, arcabouços jurídicos, perspectiva
    Date: 2018–12

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