nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2019‒02‒11
thirteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Youth unemployment in the Middle East and North Africa, and the Moroccan case By Dadush, Uri
  2. Morocco; 2018 Request for an Arrangement Under the Precautionary and Liquidity Line-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Morocco By International Monetary Fund
  3. Migrant Remittances and Economic Growth: The Role of Financial Development and Institutional Quality By Imad El Hamma
  4. Conservation or deterioration in heritage sites? Estimating willingness to pay for preservation By Ali Ardeshiri; Roya Etminani Ghasrodashti; Taha Hossein Rashidi; Mahyar Ardeshiri; Ken Willis
  5. Foreign Direct Investment–CO2 Emissions Nexus in Middle East and North African countries: Importance of Biomass Energy Consumption By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel; Sinha, Avik
  6. “English skills, labour market status and earnings of Turkish women” By Antonio Di Paolo; Aysit Tansel
  7. International Migration as Driver of Political and Social Change: Evidence from Morocco By Tuccio, Michele; Wahba, Jackline; Hamdouch, Bachir
  8. Financial Inclusion of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Middle East and Central Asia By Nicolas R Blancher; Maximiliano Appendino; Aidyn Bibolov; Armand Fouejieu; Jiawei Li; Anta Ndoye; Alexandra Panagiotakopoulou; Wei Shi; Tetyana Sydorenko
  9. Tables de mortalité d’expérience incorporant une échelle de projection : adaptation aux cas des retraités en Algérie By FLICI, Farid; SENOUCI, Khadidja; HANNANI, Yasmine
  10. Promouvoir le développement de clusters de tourisme au Maroc By Alain Dupeyras; Amal Chevreau; Jane Stacey; Anna Bolengo; Nathalie Fabry; Sylvain Zeghni; Pascal Pierra
  11. Comment Israël a évité l’hyperinflation ? Le succès du plan de stabilisation (1985) à la lumière de la théorie post-keynésienne By Jonathan Marie; Sébastien Charles
  13. الجامعة الجزائرية وتحديات تكوين الكفاءات في عصر اقتصاد المعرفة By DEHANE, Mohammed

  1. By: Dadush, Uri
    Abstract: Youth unemployment, and unemployment, in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) countries are among the highest in the world. The tendency to generalize, however, is inappropriate as different groups of countries exhibit vastly different labor market outcomes and causes vary. The standard way of thinking about youth unemployment - i.e. demand for labor driven by economic growth and supply driven by demographics - is of limited use in the MENA countries. Other factors, including sectoral composition of growth, the oil and gas endowment, a large pool of underutilized workers, cultural factors, and mismatch appear to play a more important role, as the case study of Morocco illustrates. The prospects for reducing youth unemployment over the next few years are not good. Policy-makers need to pay more attention to the growth of services, especially those that are, and that tend to remain, labor intensive.
    Keywords: unemployment,youth bulge,labor demand,labor productivity,Middle East,North Africa,oil states
    JEL: J23 J48 J61 J71
    Date: 2019
  2. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Following the expiration of the third Precautionary and Liquidity Line (PLL) arrangement, in July 2018, the authorities have requested a new PLL arrangement. They did not draw on the last three arrangements and have made further progress in reducing domestic vulnerabilities in recent years, despite a sharp pick up in oil prices. In an external environment that remains subject to important downside risks, a successor arrangement will support the authorities’ policies to strengthen the economy’s resilience and promote higher and more inclusive growth.
    Date: 2019–01–24
  3. By: Imad El Hamma (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the conditional effects of remittances on economic growth in 14 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. Using unbalanced panel data over the period 1982‐2016, we study the hypothesis that the effect of remittances on economic growth varies depending on the level of financial development and institutional environment in recipient countries. We use Two‐Stage Least Squares (2SLS/IV) instrumental variables method in which we address the endogeneity of remittances. Our results reveal a complementary relationship between financial development and remittances to ensure economic growth. The estimations show that remittances promote growth in countries with a developed financial system and a strong institutional environment.
    Keywords: financial development,institutions quality,Remittances,economic growth
    Date: 2019–01–10
  4. By: Ali Ardeshiri; Roya Etminani Ghasrodashti; Taha Hossein Rashidi; Mahyar Ardeshiri; Ken Willis
    Abstract: A significant part of the United Nations World Heritage Sites (WHSs) is located in developing countries. These sites attract an increasing number of tourist and income to these countries. Unfortunately, many of these WHSs are in a poor condition due to climatic and environmental impacts; war and tourism pressure, requiring the urgent need for restoration and preservation (Tuan & Navrud, 2007). In this study, we characterise residents from Shiraz city (visitors and non-visitors) willingness to invest in the management of the heritage sites through models for the preservation of heritage and development of tourism as a local resource. The research looks at different categories of heritage sites within Shiraz city, Iran. The measurement instrument is a stated preference referendum task administered state-wide to a sample of 489 respondents, with the payment mechanism defined as a purpose-specific incremental levy of a fixed amount over a set period of years. A Latent Class Binary Logit model, using parametric constraints is used innovatively to deal with any strategic voting such as Yea-sayers and Nay-sayers, as well as revealing the latent heterogeneity among sample members. Results indicate that almost 14% of the sampled population is unwilling to be levied any amount (Nay-sayers) to preserve any heritage sites. Not recognizing the presence of nay-sayers in the data or recognizing them but eliminating them from the estimation will result in biased Willingness to Pay (WTP) results and, consequently, biased policy propositions by authorities. Moreover, it is found that the type of heritage site is a driver of WTP. The results from this study provide insights into the WTP of heritage site visitors and non-visitors with respect to avoiding the impacts of future erosion and destruction and contributing to heritage management and maintenance policies.
    Date: 2019–02
  5. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel; Sinha, Avik
    Abstract: This study examines the association between foreign direct investment (FDI) and carbon emissions for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region in 1990–2015, including biomass energy consumption as an additional determinant of carbon emissions. We apply the generalized method of moments (GMM) to validate the existence of the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH). The N-shaped association is also validated between FDI and carbon emissions. The link between economic growth and carbon emissions is inverted-U and N-shaped; that is, it satisfies the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypotheses. Biomass energy use lowers carbon emissions, and the causality analysis reveals that FDI causes CO2 emissions. Clearly, the results confirm the existence of a feedback effect between economic growth and carbon emissions. The connection between biomass energy use and CO2 emissions is also bidirectional. The empirical findings suggest policy makers to design comprehensive trade and energy policies by targeting the cleaner production practices, for not only to ensure environmental sustainability, but also to fulfil the objectives of sustainable development goals.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Carbon Emissions, Middle East and North Africa, Generalized Method of Moments, Biomass Energy
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2019–01–03
  6. By: Antonio Di Paolo (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 690 (08034), Barcelona, Spain.); Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University, ERF and IZA.)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of the level of English skills on the labour market outcomes of Turkish women, using data from the Adult Education Survey of 2007. By adopting a bivariate equation framework, we jointly model the effect of English skills on labour market status and, conditional on being a wage earner, on monthly earnings and occupational status. The multinomial equation that explains labour market status allows for a different effect of language knowledge on the probability of being employed, unemployed but actively looking for a job, an unpaid family worker or involved in household tasks. The results indicate that being proficient in English is conditionally associated with a higher probability of being employed as a wage earner and, to a lesser extent, unemployed but looking for a job, whereas it decreases the likelihood of being involved in household tasks. Moreover, there is a significant conditional correlation between having a high level of skills in English and earnings, which is only modestly reduced when job-related variables and (especially) occupation dummies are included as additional controls. Indeed, being proficient in English barely affects occupational status when selection into employment status is controlled for. Therefore, the knowledge of foreign languages (in this case English) seems to stimulate labour market participation and earnings capacity, but does not substantially affect the occupational position of women in the Turkish labour market.
    Keywords: English skills, females, labour market status, earnings, occupation. JEL classification:J16, J24, J31, O15, Z13.
    Date: 2019–01
  7. By: Tuccio, Michele; Wahba, Jackline; Hamdouch, Bachir
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the impact of international migration on the transfer of political and social norms. Exploiting recent and unique data on Morocco, it explores whether households with return and current migrants bear different political preferences and behaviours than non-migrant families. Once controlling for the double selection into emigration and return migration, findings suggest that having a returnee in the household increases the demand for political and social change, driven by returnees mostly from Western European countries, who have been exposed to more democratic norms at destination. However, we find a negative impact of having a current migrant on the willingness to change of the left-behind household, driven by migrants to non-West countries, where the quality of political and social institutions is lower. Our results are robust to also controlling for destination selectivity.
    Keywords: International migration,Political change,Transfer of norms,Morocco
    JEL: D72 F22 O15 O55
    Date: 2019
  8. By: Nicolas R Blancher; Maximiliano Appendino; Aidyn Bibolov; Armand Fouejieu; Jiawei Li; Anta Ndoye; Alexandra Panagiotakopoulou; Wei Shi; Tetyana Sydorenko
    Abstract: The importance of financial inclusion is increasingly recognized by policymakers around the world. Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financial inclusion, in particular, is at the core of the economic diversification and growth challenges many countries are facing. In the Middle East and Central Asia (MENAP and CCA) regions, SMEs represent an important share of firms, but the regions lag most others in terms of SME access to financing.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion;Middle East and Central Asia;Business enterprises;Small and Medium Enterprises; Financial Inclusion; Middle East and Central Asia
  9. By: FLICI, Farid; SENOUCI, Khadidja; HANNANI, Yasmine
    Abstract: Mortality data for Algerian retirees are not available for long periods allowing a direct application of prospective mortality models. The positioning of the experience mortality on an external reference is one of the technical solutions to circumvent data problem. Nevertheless, this procedure remains a little complicated because it requires finding an adequate external reference and to forecast the reference mortality before to be able to project the experience mortality. In this work, we propose a simpler and more efficient method. Starting from a periodic life table of retirees, for which a projection scale is applied, the projected experience mortality rates can be deduced. The results show that retired men have no significant advantages compared to the rest of the population. By contrast, at age 50, retired women can expect to live three years longer than women of the rest of the population.
    Keywords: Mortality, retirement, experience, improvement scale, Algeria
    JEL: G22 J11 J14
    Date: 2017–09
  10. By: Alain Dupeyras (OCDE - Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques); Amal Chevreau (OCDE - Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques); Jane Stacey (OCDE - Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques); Anna Bolengo (OCDE - Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Economiques); Nathalie Fabry (DICEN IDF - Dispositifs d'Information et de Communication à l'Ère du Numérique - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Sylvain Zeghni (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - IFSTTAR - Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech); Pascal Pierra
    Date: 2018–11
  11. By: Jonathan Marie (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sébastien Charles (LED - Laboratoire d'Economie Dionysien - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis)
    Abstract: Adoptant un cadre post-keynésien, l'article analyse le processus inflationniste à l'œuvre de 1948 jusqu'aux années 1980 pour, d'une part, comprendre les origines de la quasi hyperinflation du 1er semestre 1985 et, d'autre part, saisir la réussite du plan de stabilisation intervenu lors de l'été de cette même année. En 1985 le shekel semble devoir être complètement rejeté par ses utilisateurs au profit du dollar, ce qui, dans le contexte fortement inflationniste d'alors, aurait dû engendrer une hyperinflation. Ce résultat est provoqué par la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : la virulence historique du conflit de répartition, la présence de mécanismes d'indexation et la fragilité des comptes extérieurs marqués par un déficit courant structurel. Le plan de stabilisation, soutenu par l'aide financière importante des États-Unis, permet d'atténuer immédiatement la contrainte de financement externe et parvient à affaiblir durablement la virulence du conflit de répartition, écartant ainsi les risques hyperinflationnistes. L'analyse de cette trajectoire historique confirme la cohérence théorique de l'analyse post-keynésienne de l'hyperinflation.
    Keywords: analyse post-keynésienne,Israël,Hyperinflation
    Date: 2018–11
  12. By: Abdessamad Rhalimi (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est de mettre la lumière sur les difficultés rencontrées par les cadres marocaines pour articuler leurs temps sociaux et les stratégies qu'elles adoptent en vue de trouver un équilibre entre les deux sphères. Nous avons mené une recherche qualitative exploratoire auprès d'un échantillon de femmes cadres marocaines. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que malgré leur présence dans la sphère professionnelle, les cadres marocaines continuent de s'acquitter de leur principale mission dans la société : l'enfantement et le tra-vail domestique. Pour parvenir à concilier les deux sphères, ces femmes adoptent différentes stratégies. Nous avons par ailleurs évoqué quelques pratiques GRH à même de permettre aux organisations de prendre part dans cette articulation famille-travail de leurs salariées.
    Keywords: articulation,temps sociaux,genre,femmes cadres,Maroc,GRH
    Date: 2018–07–14
  13. By: DEHANE, Mohammed
    Abstract: This article aims to identify the most important challenges facing higher education institutions in general and the University of Algeria, especially in the formation and development of elite in the context of the transition to the knowledge society, considering that universities are the institutions responsible for the production of competencies needed by the job market as well as the quality. There is no doubt that the human resources required by the labor market in the age of the knowledge society are significantly different from what was required in the age of the industrial community or in the age of the agricultural community, and that overcoming these challenges is the best way to move to the knowledge economy.
    Keywords: knowledge society, knowledge economy, university tasks, elite formation.
    JEL: A2 I23
    Date: 2017–03

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