nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Effect on the Safety Culture of Occupational Accidents and Safety Behavior: The Case of Turkey By Serpil Aytac; Salih Dursun
  2. Arab Republic of Egypt; Third Review Under the Extended Arrangement Under the Extended Fund Facility, and Requests for a Waiver of Nonobservance of a Performance Criterion and for Modification of a Performance Criterion-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Arab Republic of Egypt By International Monetary Fund
  3. Generational Differences in Career Expectations: An Empirical Study among Turkish workers By Muge Leyla YILDIZ; Selay G?RAY YAKUT
  4. Inter-Spousal Communication in Consanguineous Marriages: Evidence from Egypt By Rajan, Aastha; Naufal, George S
  5. Evaluating Agricultural Price Policy through Positive Information in Iran By Aghabeygi, M.; Donati, M.; Arfini, F.; Salami, H.A.
  6. The Timing Impact of Agricultural Support Policies on Farmers’ Stated Intentions in Turkey By Demirdogen, Alper; Olhan, Emine
  7. The Arab League – an opportunity to improve the EU cheese export By Vlahovic, Branislav; Mugosa, Izabela; Radojevic, Vuk
  8. Tunisia; Third Review under the Extended Fund Facility, and Request for Waiver of Applicability and Modification of Performance Criteria By International Monetary Fund
  9. The relationship between FDI, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in Tunisia By Marwa Lazreg; Ezzeddine Zouari
  10. Organizational Commitment And Intention To Leave : The Moderating Role Of Uncertainty Avoidance By Mehlika Saraç; Reeta Raina

  1. By: Serpil Aytac (Uludag University); Salih Dursun (Karadeniz Technical University)
    Abstract: Work accidents are one of the most important problems encountered in working life. The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of safety culture on safety behaviour of employees and occupational accidents In literature, various measurement tools have been used for the evaluation of safety culture. In this study, a questionnaire was created which made use of the measurement scales in these previous studies, whilst also taking into consideration particular Turkish cultural characteristics. The dimensions of safety culture scales are as follows: Managers' commitment, priority of safety, safety training, safety communication, safety awareness and competency, employees' involvement, reporting culture. The sample of the study consisted of total 1371 working manufacturing sector in Turkey. The questionnaire was applied to all the employees during a 1-week period. The mean age of the participants was 30.36±7.69, mean working years 6.31±5.61. The data are analysed using frequency distribution, reliability analysis, correlation, t test and regression analysis.According to the results obtained with the safety culture dimensions it is a significant relationship between occupational accidents. It has also been found that safety cultures have a positive effect on the safe behavior of employees. According to results, safety culture has an important key role to create a safe and healthy working environment in workplace.
    Keywords: Safety culture, Safety behaviour, Occupational accidents, Turkey
    JEL: I18 D23 J28
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Macroeconomic conditions have continued to improve during 2017/18, with external and fiscal deficits narrowing, inflation and unemployment declining, and growth accelerating. The near-term growth outlook is favorable, supported by the recovery in tourism and rising natural gas production, while the current account deficit has fallen below 3 percent of GDP and gross international reserves stood at 7 months of prospective imports at end-May. Inflation is expected to temporarily rise in 2018/19, reflecting increases in fuel and electricity prices, but the monetary policy stance appears appropriate to contain second-round effects. The government debt ratio is projected to decline markedly in response to fiscal consolidation and high nominal GDP growth.
    Date: 2018–07–12
  3. By: Muge Leyla YILDIZ (Marmara University); Selay G?RAY YAKUT (Marmara University)
    Abstract: A new generation of employees with different needs and new expectations of management is entering the workplace. They are known by many names, but most will recognize them as the Nexters or Generation Y. It is essential to be understood about generational differences in organizations. Career expectations play a major role in determining career outcomes. It is important to understand what generations expect in their career path. This study aims to investigate career expectations of Generation X and Y in Turkish society. The sample of this study consisted of 1200 workers in differnet sectors in Turkey. The results represent the Turkish generational differences in career expectations.
    Keywords: Millenials, generation cohort, career expectations
    JEL: M12 M14 J24
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Rajan, Aastha (Texas A&M University); Naufal, George S (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between consanguinity and frequency of communication between spouses using a nationally representative sample of young married respondents in Egypt. Using a variety of estimation techniques, the results suggest that being related to one's spouse does not influence inter-spousal communication. However, we find evidence of some marriage characteristics that are associated with inter-spousal communication. The paper presents first empirical evidence which links consanguinity and communication dynamics in the household. In terms of policy implication, communication plays a critical role in marriage as it helps maintain quality relationship between spouses and directly contributes to marital satisfaction, and hence divorce rates.
    Keywords: consanguinity, communication, marriage, Egypt, Middle East
    JEL: J12 O53
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Aghabeygi, M.; Donati, M.; Arfini, F.; Salami, H.A.
    Abstract: Supplying food to a growing population has always been a concern for authorities in Iran. In this regard, agricultural sector plays an important role in food supply and food’s security by increasing agricultural production. But the most important concern in Iranian agricultural sector are the scarcity and resource constraints. Therefore, it seems that only way to increase food supply along with food security purpose is to increase productivity. One of the policy used to increase productivity is the output price policy, in particular for those strategic products that provided Iran's political security. The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of output price policy for Iranian agriculture. This latter is represented by a regional agricultural model, based on PMP, that groups the agriculture supply of 30 Iranian regions. The assessment of IAP presented in this paper confirms the biggest effects regions. It means that the effect of new IAP scenario is different in each region and each region has special cropping pattern. In this regard, policy makers should implement different sustaining policies at regional level. Also, if Iran wants to join WTO, it should be reduced or removed the amount of payments for inefficient crops.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Demirdogen, Alper; Olhan, Emine
    Abstract: The paper aims to evaluate the timing effect of support policies on farmers’ stated intentions in Turkey. Farmers are provided with a scenario in which supports would be paid immediately after the harvest rather than the current practice of being paid one year later. We ask how farmers would behave when the support payments are paid after the corn harvest. If the timing of the payment was changed, 41% of the farmers state that they would increase their land. However, if farmers compensate for the need for capital from other crops, such as citrus fruits, then the timing becomes unimportant.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018–04–26
  7. By: Vlahovic, Branislav; Mugosa, Izabela; Radojevic, Vuk
    Abstract: This paper analyses the possibility of the EU cheese export improvement by getting into the market of the League of Arab States. The most significant final dairy product is cheese. Regarding geography and continents, Europe is top cheese manufacturer in the world. The European Union (EU) has the largest share within the production structure in Europe. Arab League imports EU cheese in the amount of EUR 643.7 million, i.e. this market absorbs 39% share of total cheese value. Abovementioned indicators demonstrate that it is possible to increase market participation of the EU countries in this market in the following period.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018–04–26
  8. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The government has strengthened policy and reform implementation in recent months. All Quantitative Performance Criteria (QPCs) for end-March and three out of nine Structural Benchmarks (SBs) for the Third Review were met. One additional SB was implemented with delay. Growth picked up to 2.5 percent in the first quarter, and confidence has improved, albeit it continues to be affected by divisions in the coalition government, risks of security and migration spillovers from Libya, and higher international oil prices. Inflation has accelerated and weighs on the purchasing power notably of the less well-off, while international reserves remain below prudent levels.
    Keywords: Middle East;Tunisia;
    Date: 2018–07–10
  9. By: Marwa Lazreg (Université de Sousse); Ezzeddine Zouari (Université de Sousse)
    Abstract: Our goal in this paper is the study of the impact of FDI on poverty and sustainable development in the case of Tunisia and during the study period from 1985 to 2015. In addition, we used the test unit root of cointegration test, the model error correction of FMOLS and Granger causality. In the case of Tunisia, we find that all variables are integrated of order 1. Thus, we can use the cointegration test. Indeed, the result of the null hypothesis test of no cointegration was rejected at the 5% threshold, which explains the presence of a cointegration relationship between FDI, sustainable development and poverty. Finally, we present and interpreted the results of the estimated FMOLS model and Granger causality test to study the contribution of FDI to the poverty reduction and sustainable development in Tunisia. We find that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions. We find that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions. We found that the LIDE variable measuring foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on the GINI index. We notice the LCO2 variable that measures the CO2 emissions has a negative and significant impact on poverty as measured by the poverty gap at $ 1.91. We prove that direct foreign investments have a significant negative impact on CO2 emissions
    Keywords: cointegration,FMOLS,CO2 emissions,poverty,IDE
    Date: 2018–04–02
  10. By: Mehlika Saraç (Uluda? University); Reeta Raina (FORE School of Management)
    Abstract: Research related to Industrial and Organizational Psychology has long been criticized for limiting its scope within single cultural context and not considering culture as a critical contingency variable to explain organizational behavior and human resources management (HRM) practices. This puts constrains upon both theories and practical solutions to the organizational problems (Barrett and Bass, 1976). The values-as-moderators framework has provided interesting information leading to a better understanding of the antecedents (Farh et al., 2007; Gelade et al., 2008) and consequences (Cohen, 2006; Johnson and Chang, 2006; Wasti and Can, 2008; Yao and Wang, 2006, García-Cabrera and García-Soto, 2011) of some work related attitudes. Tendency to avoid uncertainty in organizations varies along with the tendency to avoid ambiguities in society at large, which is a major component of national culture. Hofstede conceptualize uncertainty avoidance with three components: rule orientation, employment stability and stress and defined as ?the extend to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations by establishing more formal rules, by not tolerating deviant ideas and behaviors, and believing in absolute truths and attainments of expertise? (Hofstede, 1980: 46). This study assumes that since employees high in uncertainty avoidance have greater tendency to rules, loyalty and emotional attachment to work and organization, they have strong desire to stay with the organization based on a sense of duty/ obligation or emotional attachment and they have fewer intentions to leave the organization than employees low in uncertainty avoidance. Therefore, the study attempts to investigate the moderating effect of one of the components of national culture, ?value-uncertainty avoidance? by focusing the differences between Turkey and India. Using data collected simultaneously from India and Turkey, authors conducted multi group structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to compare the relationship between organizational commitment and intention to leave across samples from two nations.
    Keywords: uncertainty avoidance, structural equation modeling, intention to quit, affective commitment, normative commitment, cross-cultural differences
    Date: 2018–07

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