nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒08‒27
fourteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Algeria; 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Algeria By International Monetary Fund
  2. Addressing Transboundary Cooperation in the Eastern Nile through the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. Insights from an E-survey and Key Informant Interviews By Berga, Helen; Ringler, Claudia; Bryan, Elizabeth; El Didi, Hagar; Elnasikh, Sara
  3. Opportunity for All; Promoting Growth and Inclusiveness in the Middle East and North Africa By International Monetary Fund
  4. Algeria; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  5. Effects of Youth Migration on Agricultural Production and Employment in the Rural Areas of Origin in Tunisia By Martín, Iván; Nori, Michele; Bacchi, Alessia
  6. China's Growing Ties with Middle East: Goals and Objectives By Golam Mostafa
  7. Expanding Youth Employment in the Arab Region and Africa By Joachim von Braun; Chiara Kofol
  8. Groundwater governance: a synthesis. [Project report of the Groundwater Governance in the Arab World - Taking Stock and Addressing the Challenges] By Molle, Francois; Closas, Alvar
  9. Groundwater governance in Tunisia. A Policy White Paper By Closas, Alvar; Imache, A.; Mekki, I.
  10. Groundwater governance in Jordan: the case of Azraq Basin. A Policy White Paper By Molle, Francois; Al Karablieh, E.; Al Naber, M.; Closas, Alvar; Salman, A.
  11. Groundwater governance in Lebanon: the case of Central Beqaa. A Policy White Paper By Molle, Francois/Nassif, M.-H./Jaber, B./Closas, Alvar/Baydoun, S.
  12. La valorisation des produits de terroir en Algérie : démarches en cours, contraintes institutionnelles et perspectives By Cheriet, Foued
  13. Pratiques managériales frauduleuses en Algérie : diversité, ampleur et perceptions des acteurs By Cheriet, Foued
  14. Essai d’évaluation de la contribution de la santé à la croissance économique en Algérie By MESSAILI, Moussa; KAID TLILANE, Nouara

  1. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: To adjust to lower oil prices since 2014, Algeria initially relied solely on exchange rate policy before putting most of the burden on fiscal consolidation. In parallel, the government initiated several structural reforms and started designing a long-term plan to reshape the country’s growth model, while the central bank was modernizing its monetary policy framework. However, confronted with slowing growth, increasing unemployment, and financing difficulties, the authorities recently chose to boost activity through increased spending in 2018, to be followed by a steep fiscal consolidation from 2019 onward. With fiscal savings depleted and reluctant to borrow externally, they turned to monetary financing. To reduce the trade deficit and foster import substitution, they hardened import barriers.
    Keywords: Middle East;Algeria;
    Date: 2018–06–13
  2. By: Berga, Helen; Ringler, Claudia; Bryan, Elizabeth; El Didi, Hagar; Elnasikh, Sara
    Abstract: The Nile is the lifeblood of northeastern Africa, and its roles for and interdependency with the national economies it traverses and binds together grow as it moves from source to sea. With rapid economic development—population growth, irrigation development, rural electrification, and overall economic growth—pressures on the Nile’s water resources are growing to unprecedented levels. These drivers of change have already contributed to stark changes in the hydropolitical regime, and new forms of cooperation and cross-sectoral collaboration are needed, particularly in the Eastern Nile Basin countries of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, and South Sudan. As direct sharing of water resources is hampered by unilateral developments, the need has increased for broader, cross-sectoral collaboration around the water, energy, and food sectors. This study is conducted to assess and understand the challenges of and opportunities for cooperation across the water-energy-food nexus nationally in Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan, as well as regionally across the Eastern Nile. To gather data, the paper uses an e-survey supplemented with key informant interviews geared toward national-level water, energy, and agriculture stakeholders, chiefly government staff and researchers. Findings from the survey tools suggest that most respondents strongly agree that collaboration across the water, energy, and agriculture sectors is essential to improve resource management in the region. At the same time, there is ample scope for improvement in collaboration across the water, energy, and food sectors nationally. Ministries of water, energy, and food were identified as the key nexus actors at national levels; these would also need to be engaged in regional cross-sectoral collaboration. Respondents also identified a wide range of desirable cross-sectoral actions and investments—both national and regional—chiefly, joint planning and operation of multipurpose infrastructure; investment in enhanced irrigation efficiency; joint rehabilitation of upstream catchments to reduce sedimentation and degradation; and investment in alternative renewable energy projects, such as wind and solar energy.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2017–11–01
  3. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This publication brings together a set of IMF papers that prepared as backgrounds for the various sessions of the conference and will help put into broader dissemination channels the results of this important conference. An official IMF publication is well disseminated into academic and institutional libraries and book channels. The IMF metadata will also make the conference papers more discoverable online.
    Date: 2018–07–12
  4. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Keywords: Algeria;Middle East;
    Date: 2018–06–13
  5. By: Martín, Iván; Nori, Michele; Bacchi, Alessia
    Keywords: International Development, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2017–09–01
  6. By: Golam Mostafa (American University in the Emirates, Dubai, UAE Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective –This study evaluates China's rapid growth of economic, trade and investment ties with key Middle Eastern countries and its long term economic, geo-political and strategic goals and objectives, as well as opportunities and limitations in the light of the relative decline of US power and influence in the region. Methodology/Technique – A qualitative research methodology is applied in the study and wide range of secondary sources including articles, papers and online resources are used, analyzed and consulted. Data on trade and investment statistics between China and major Middle Eastern countries are also tabulated and used. Findings – The study concludes that economic and trade interests as well as stable and regular oil and gas supply are the primary consideration in this burgeoning relationship. The study also finds that strategic factors like geopolitical locations, large territories with huge natural resources, rising consumer markets and potential areas of military cooperation and arms sales make the Middle East a more lucrative and attractive partner to China. Novelty –The study looks at the relationship between China and the Middle East."
    Keywords: "China; Middle East; Trade; Strategic Interests; Gulf Cooperation Council ('GCC'); One Belt One Road ('OBOR')."
    JEL: N15 N25 N45
    Date: 2017–04–26
  7. By: Joachim von Braun; Chiara Kofol
    Abstract: The low level and adverse trends of youth employment in Africa and in the Middle East in the last decade are key driving factors of poverty, stress migration, frustration and political instability. There needs to be a sense of urgency to change the situation. How can employment, especially for youth, be created rapidly in these regions? The paper discusses different policies for the generation of mass employment of both skilled and unskilled labor. The sectoral priorities differ within the regions, with rural and agricultural jobs playing a more significant role in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Both SSA and the Arab region show potentials for largescale public works programs. Un-orthodox economic policy actions are called for due to the pressing nature of the youth unemployment situation. These policies should aim at generating productive employment improving skills, and can be implemented both at the central and at the local level. Countries should be responsible for ownership, accountability and self-monitoring of policies and programs. Large scale international funding support should be considered when planning, implementation and supervision are actually credible and results oriented.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2017–04–12
  8. By: Molle, Francois; Closas, Alvar
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2017–11–28
  9. By: Closas, Alvar; Imache, A.; Mekki, I.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–11–28
  10. By: Molle, Francois; Al Karablieh, E.; Al Naber, M.; Closas, Alvar; Salman, A.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2017–11–29
  11. By: Molle, Francois/Nassif, M.-H./Jaber, B./Closas, Alvar/Baydoun, S.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2017–11–28
  12. By: Cheriet, Foued
    Abstract: Our research aims to analyze the ongoing processes of valorization of local products in Algeria. Indeed, since 2008, the country has engaged in a process of analysis of the existing and selection of local products in order to develop signs of quality and origin. This process has accelerated in recent years, with two elements: the launch in 2013 of an ambitious Algeria-EU twinning project, with a strong allocation to support the development of local products in Algeria; And the installation in July 2015 of the ministerial committee for products labeling. Based on the results of previous academic research (Salhi, 2009 and 2013, Hadjou and Cheriet, 2013, Lamani 2014) and documents emanating from Algerian institutions, we analyze the existing process, its difficulties in terms of implementation and operational constraints faced by several actors in terms of involvement and replication. Finally, we propose some elements of discussion and perspectives to reinforce the processes in progress. French abstract: L’objectif de cette recherche est de dresser un bilan des démarches en cours de valorisation des produits de terroir en Algérie. En effet, depuis 2008, le pays s’est engagé dans un processus d’analyse de l’existant et de sélection de produits de terroir en vue de développer des signes de qualité et d’origine. Ce processus s’est accéléré depuis quelques années, avec deux éléments : le lancement en 2013 d’un ambitieux projet de jumelage Algérie –UE, avec une forte dotation pour appuyer les démarches de la valorisation des produits de terroir en Algérie ; et l’installation en juillet 2015 du comité interministériel chargé de la labellisation. En nous appuyant sur les résultats de recherches académiques antérieures (Salhi, 2009 et 2013, Hadjou et Cheriet, 2013, Lamani 2014) et des documents émanant des institutions algériennes, nous analysons dans cette recherche le processus existant, ses difficultés en termes de mise en place et d’opérationnalisation, et les contraintes rencontrées par les opérateurs en termes d’adhésion et de réplication. Enfin, nous proposons quelques éléments de discussion et des perspectives pour renforcer les démarches en cours.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2017–02
  13. By: Cheriet, Foued
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze the diversity and breadth of managerial fraud practices through the involved agents perceptions’. For this, we exploited the results of two surveys of 28 private enterprises and public officials in nine different regions in Algeria. Our results showed widespread practices of corruption and commercial or tax fraud, with an institutionalization of practices, and the existence of rational process of innovation in the fraud. These fraud practices appear to be an efficient response of businesses to adapt organization to a complex administrative context, in an unstable economic environment and an abundance of public financial funds.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Industrial Organization, Public Economics
    Date: 2017–10–11
  14. By: MESSAILI, Moussa; KAID TLILANE, Nouara
    Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine the contribution of health (through public health expenditure, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality and crude death rates) to economic growth Algeria in the period 1974-2013, in the augmented production function with health capital framework. We use for our empirical investigation, the ARDL approach to cointegration to estimate the long and short run relationships. The results of long and short-run estimates of four models clearly show that public spending on health, life expectancy and crude mortality rates have a positive and significant impact on real GDP, while the infant mortality rate is not statistically significant. In addition, long-term estimates also show that education has positive and significant impact; however, it is not significant for the short-term estimates. Furthermore, our estimates also show that gross fixed capital formation and export hydrocarbon revenues have significant impact on real GDP. Résumé : L’objectif de cette présente étude est d’examiner la contribution de la santé (à travers les dépenses publiques de santé, l’espérance de vie à la naissance, le taux de mortalité infantile et le taux brut de mortalité) à la croissance économique en Algérie durant la période 1974-2013, dans le cadre d’une fonction de production augmentée de capital santé. Nous utilisons, pour notre investigation empirique, l’approche ARDL (AutoRegressive Distributed Lags) de cointégration afin d’estimer les relations de long et de courts termes. Les résultats des estimations de longs et courts termes des quatre modèles montrent clairement que les dépenses publiques de santé, l’espérance vie et le taux brut de mortalité ont un impact positif et significatif sur le PIB réel, tandis que le taux de mortalité infantile n’est pas statiquement significatif. En outre, les estimations de long terme montrent aussi que l’éducation a un impact positif et significatif, par contre elle est non significative à court terme. Par ailleurs, nos estimations, de court et de long terme, montrent aussi que la formation brute du capital fixe et les recettes d’exportation des hydrocarbures ont un impact significatif sur le PIB réel.
    Keywords: santé, croissance économique, ARDL, Algérie
    JEL: C32 H51 I15 I18 O11
    Date: 2018–07–17

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