nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒07‒23
thirteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Macroeconomic Conditions and Child Schooling in Turkey By Gunes, Pinar; Ural Marchand, Beyza
  2. Immigration, Housing Rents, and Residential Segregation: Evidence from Syrian Refugees in Turkey By Balkan, Binnur; Tok, Elif Ozcan; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  3. Money Function and Money Banking by Ibnu Taimiyah By Khalamillah, Fahmi
  4. Oil rents and institutional quality: empirical evidence from Algeria By Chekouri, Sidi Mohamed; Benbouziane, Mohamed; Chibi, Abderrahim
  5. Financial Development-Environmental Degradation Nexus in the United Arab Emirates: The Importance of Growth, Globalization and Structural Breaks By Shahbaz, Muhammad; Haouas, Ilham; SBIA, Rashid; Ozturk, Ilhan
  6. The Old and New Forms of Political Filmmaking in Turkey By Asl? Daldal
  7. Misperceived Social Norms: Female Labor Force Participation in Saudi Arabia By Leonardo Bursztyn; Alessandra L. González; David Yanagizawa-Drott
  8. How do sovereign wealth funds pay their portfolio companies’ executives? Evidence from Kuwait By Alhashel, Bader; Albader, Sulaiman H.
  9. A study on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions among Saudi students By Mohammad Naushad
  10. Articulation des temps sociaux des femmes cadres au Maroc : quel rôle pour la GRH ? By Abdessamad Mohammed Rhalimi
  11. La mesure du chômage au Maroc : rien n’est moins sûr By Y. Tamsamani, Yasser
  12. Le Nouveau Management Public au Maroc, quels apports ? By Kaoutar Lahjouji; Kaoutar El Menzhi
  13. Uluslararası Ticarette Satın Alma Gücü Paritesinin Geçerliliği Sorunu: Türkiye için Zaman Serisi Analizi By Bilgin, Cevat

  1. By: Gunes, Pinar (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Ural Marchand, Beyza (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of macroeconomic shocks on child schooling in Turkey using household labor force surveys from 2005-2013. We use variation in local labor demand as an instrumental variable, particularly regional industry composition and national industry employment growth rates. The results demonstrate that child schooling is pro-cyclical in Turkey, with the most acute effects among children with less educated parents and living in rural areas. Finally, as hypothesized, we find asymmetric effects on child schooling based on skill composition of economic growth. Higher unemployment among unskilled workers increases schooling, whereas higher unemployment among skilled workers decreases schooling.
    Keywords: Schooling; Unemployment; Business Cycles; Turkey
    JEL: J13 J24 O15
    Date: 2018–07–14
  2. By: Balkan, Binnur (Central Bank of Turkey); Tok, Elif Ozcan (Central Bank of Turkey); Torun, Huzeyfe (Central Bank of Turkey); Tumen, Semih (TED University)
    Abstract: The massive inflow of Syrian refugees is argued to drastically affect various social and economic outcomes in the hosting countries and regions. In this paper, we use micro-level data to investigate whether the Syrian refugee inflows have affected the market for housing rentals in Turkey. The unexpected arrival of a large number of refugees due to civil conflict in Syria is used to construct a quasi-experimental design. Since the construction of new housing units takes a long time, refugee inflow resembles a positive demand shock to the sector. We find that the refugee inflows have led to an increase in the rents of higher-quality housing units, while there is no statistically significant effect in the rents of lower-quality units. This finding supports a residential segregation story, which suggests that the refugee wave has increased the demand for native-dominant neighborhoods with better amenities especially among natives. We argue that negative attitudes towards refugees – potentially due to refugee-native conflict along several dimensions – may be generating this result.
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, immigration, housing rents, quasi-experimental design, Turkey
    JEL: C21 F22 R21 R23
    Date: 2018–06
  3. By: Khalamillah, Fahmi
    Abstract: Ibn Taimiyah Is an Islamic thinker and scholar of Harran, Turkey, According to Ibn Taimiyah in terms of money, he said that the main function is as means demand value and as a medium to facilitate the exchange of an item. The method of research in this article using a descriptive method that aims to discuss the function of money and money trading according to Ibn Taimiyah. The results of this study show that Islam has its own concept of the main function of money only as a means of exchange in transactions.
    Keywords: Ibn Taimiyah, Money, Trade
    JEL: B20 E40 E51
    Date: 2018–03–23
  4. By: Chekouri, Sidi Mohamed; Benbouziane, Mohamed; Chibi, Abderrahim
    Abstract: This paper examines the interaction between natural resource abundance and institutional quality in Algeria, using two measures of institutional quality (corruption and democratic accountability), and a measures for resource endowment (oil rents as a percentage of GDP). Our results indicate that an increase in oil rents significantly increase corruption in Algeria, while the interaction effect between oil rents and democratic accountability is positive and statistically significant, which means that enhancing democratic institutions can reduce corruption. It is also revealed that the manufactures exports significantly decline in the aftermath of oil rents shock, a pattern consistent with the Dutch Disease phenomenon. On the one hand, these findings confirms that Algeria’s institutional framework demonstrates a high degree of perceived weakness, and on the other hand, enhancing these institutional environment would reduce corruption, and increase the impact of resource abundance on economic development.
    Keywords: Resource Curse, Oil rents, Corruption, Institutional Quality, Algeria.
    JEL: O13 O17 Q38 Q43
    Date: 2017–01–05
  5. By: Shahbaz, Muhammad; Haouas, Ilham; SBIA, Rashid; Ozturk, Ilhan
    Abstract: The financial development-environmental degradation nexus is revisited by incorporating economic growth, electricity consumption and economic globalization into the CO2 emissions function. The study period spans 1975QI-2014QIV in the United Arab Emirates. We have applied structural break and cointegration tests to examine unit root and cointegration between the variables. The Toda-Yamamoto causality test is employed to investigate the causal relationship between the variables, and the robustness of causality linkages is tested by applying the innovative accounting approach. Our empirical analysis shows cointegration between the series. Financial development increases CO2 emissions. Economic growth is positively linked with environmental degradation. Electricity consumption improves environmental quality. Economic globalization affects CO2 emissions negatively. The relationship between financial development and CO2 emissions is U-shaped and inverted N-shaped. Furthermore, financial development causes environmental degradation and environmental degradation causes financial development in the Granger sense.
    Keywords: Financial development, Environment, Growth, Electricity, Globalization
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2018–06–04
  6. By: Asl? Daldal (Yildiz Technical University, IIBF, Dept of Politics)
    Abstract: There are many ways of analysing films from a ?political? perspective. One common approach is to look at the ?content? of the film and classify it as ?political? if the film talks about a certain political event. This is an insufficent way of looking at films, as ?politics? can involve not only the ?content? of the film, but its very ?form?, philosophical depth, socio-political background, production conditions, audience relationship, marketing and so on. That?s why ?independent? cinema today is almost synonymous with ?progressive? or ?political? cinema even though the film may not center around an obvious political event. This paper aims at examining the ?political cinema? of Turkey starting after the 1960 Coup d?Etat. The short lived ?Social Realist? Movement had an overt political overtone as well as Y?lmaz Güney, who after 1970, made films focusing on the agonies of the working class. Reminiscent of Italian neo-realism with their minimalist styles, mostly non professional or lesser known actors and on location shooting, these films were clearer examples of a ?political? cinema in Turkey. After 1990s though, a novel look at ?socially engaged? cinema started to emerge as independent films replaced the old ?Ye?ilçam? productions. Ye?im Ustao?lu, Dervi? Zaim, Nuri Bilge Ceylan and Zeki Demirkubuz were among the most prominent filmmakers who had an ?indirect? relationship with politics. Nuri Bilge Ceylan, for example, hardly had anything overtly political in his films although his extreme emphasis on avoiding any contact with the ?film market? clearly indicated a subtle political choice. After the first ?wave? of independen cinema in Turkey which culminated with the international success of Distant at Cannes in 2003, a second wave emerged with younger filmmakers (including many female directors) who focused on the ?micro? political discourses of those marginalised from the ?decent? life of the ?neo-bourgeois?. Among them, Hüseyin Karabey, Orhan Eskiköy, Özgür Do?an, Pelin Esmer, Belmin Söylemez reflected those who had an ?accented? (in Hamid Naficy?s terms) lifestyles that, in a postmodern guise, pronounced a new political discourse mostly based on ?identity? problems.
    Keywords: Independent Cinema, Turkish Cinema, Political Cinema
    JEL: Y90
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Leonardo Bursztyn (University of Chicago, Department of Economics); Alessandra L. González (The University of Chicago); David Yanagizawa-Drott (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Through the custom of guardianship, husbands typically have the final word on their wives’ labor supply decisions in Saudi Arabia, a country with very low female labor force participation (FLFP). We provide incentivized evidence (both from an experimental sample in Riyadh and from a national sample) that the vast majority of young married men in Saudi Arabia privately support FLFP outside of home from a normative perspective, while they substantially underestimate the level of support for FLFP by other similar men – even men from their same social setting, such as their neighbors. We then show that randomly correcting these beliefs about others increases married men’s willingness to let their wives join the labor force (as measured by their costly sign-up for a job-matching service for their wives). Finally, we find that this decision maps onto real outcomes: four months after the main intervention, the wives of men in our original sample whose beliefs about acceptability of FLFP were corrected are more likely to have applied and interviewed for a job outside of home. Together, our evidence indicates a potentially important source of labor market frictions, where job search is underprovided due to misperceived social norms.
    Keywords: social norms, female labor force participation, Saudi Arabia
    JEL: C90 D83 D91 J22 Z10
    Date: 2018–07
  8. By: Alhashel, Bader; Albader, Sulaiman H.
    Abstract: Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are major players in the global markets. This paper examines the possible value SWFs bring to their domestic holdings by examining the impact of SWF ownership on firms’ executive compensation. Using data on Kuwaiti SWFs, we find that having an SWF as an ultimate owner enhances the pay–performance sensitivity (PPS) to levels matching those in more developed markets. This pay–performance enhancement increases as the rights of the SWF to manage and oversee the firm’s cash-flow increase. Moreover, having an SWF as the firm’s ultimate owner alleviates the adverse effects of the divergence in cash-flow and control rights. This evidence supports the notion that SWFs create value for their target investments through activism, monitoring and corporate governance enhancements.
    JEL: F3 G3
    Date: 2018–06
  9. By: Mohammad Naushad (Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University)
    Abstract: The present study has developed and tested a model based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with addition of some psychological variables to figure out the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions of Saudi undergraduate business students. A sample of 550 students were taken. Responses were collected by a self administered questionaire and analysed by using a univariate statistics and Partial Least Square (PLS) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The study has emerged with behavioral and personality antecedents (Attitude, Subjective Norm, Internal locus of control, need for achievement and propensity to take risk) of entrepreneurial intent among Saudi students. The results underpin the idea that personality factors along with the behavioral factors strengthen the predictibility of intentions to be involved in an entrepreneurial behavior.
    Keywords: Saudi students,entrepreneurial intentions,Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB),Partial Least Square (PLS),Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)
    Date: 2018–03–30
  10. By: Abdessamad Mohammed Rhalimi (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: L’objectif de cet article est de mettre la lumière sur les difficultés rencontrées par les cadres marocaines pour articuler leurs temps sociaux et les stratégies qu’elles adoptent en vue de trouver un équilibre entre les deux sphères. Nous avons mené une recherche qualitative exploratoire auprès d’un échantillon de femmes cadres marocaines. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que malgré leur présence dans la sphère professionnelle, les cadres marocaines continuent de s’acquitter de leur principale mission dans la société : l’enfantement et le travail domestique. Pour parvenir à concilier les deux sphères, ces femmes adoptent différentes stratégies. Nous avons par ailleurs évoqué quelques pratiques GRH à même de permettre aux organisations de prendre part dans cette articulation famille-travail de leurs salariées.
    Keywords: articulation, temps sociaux, genre, femmes cadres, Maroc, GRH
    JEL: J71 M12
    Date: 2018–06
  11. By: Y. Tamsamani, Yasser
    Abstract: The Moroccan unemployment figures tell a tale of a statistical misery that hides another one's but more real and painful. First, the purpose of this essay is to highlight the fact that these figures are a product of preemptive arbitrations, in terms of definition and calculation methodology, aimed at putting in perspective their scope and adeptness to cover the subject of unemployment and its multitude of facets. Subsequently, the essay surmises the necessity to strengthen unemployment statistical information with the introduction of the unemployment halo calculation, and its systematic communication, as well as standard simulations of unemployment rates targeted for higher activity levels. The unemployment halo is estimated here at 5.2-11.7 Million people, according to statistical analysis geared towards stay at home wives, and the unemployment rate rises to 30 % for a similar activity ratio that the developed countries. Finally, this essay contends for the right of access to raw survey information, well before the definition, and application, of unemployment criteria in order to allow complementary measures emanating from alternative definitions to emerge.
    Keywords: Survey Data, Measuring Unemployment, Unemployment Halo, Morocco
    JEL: C82 C83 J64 O55
    Date: 2018–06–04
  12. By: Kaoutar Lahjouji (Université Mohammed V, FSJES - Faculté des Sciences juridiques - Université Mohamed V - Souissi); Kaoutar El Menzhi (Université Mohammed V, FSJES - Faculté des Sciences juridiques - Université Mohamed V - Souissi)
    Abstract: Les organisations publiques, y compris les universités, ont fait preuve, pendant longtemps, d'énormes déficiences. A partir des années 80, l'amélioration de leur performance est donc devenue un enjeu majeur faisant appel à certaines réformes de la gestion publique regroupées sous l'expression du " Nouveau Management Public" ou la "nouvelle gestion publique". Il s'agit d'une nouvelle approche importée du secteur privé devant permettre de dépasser les défaillances, en termes de performance et de rendement, que connaît le secteur public. L'ère du Nouveau Management Public (NMP) a commencé en mobilisant les réformes britanniques et américaines comme un phénomène ou un mouvement unifié qui a ensuite été exporté dans le monde entier. L'esprit du Nouveau Management Public est d'apporter de nouvelles notions comme l'efficacité, l'efficience et la pertinence. En d'autres termes, développer une culture de performance et d'évaluation dans le secteur public. Cependant, et après 30 ans, le NMP soulève aujourd'hui, la question de son utilité et son apport à l'organisation publique. Dans le contexte marocain, certaines réformes ont été entreprises en s'inspirant des apports du NMP. A travers cette communication, nous essayerons, dans une première partie de présenter une analyse historique du Nouveau Management Public de façon globale. Nous présenterons également une revue sur les apports et les principes de ce Nouveau Management Public. Dans une deuxième partie, nous procéderons à une réflexion sur les réformes entreprises au Maroc dans le cadre du Nouveau Management Public.
    Date: 2018–05–28
  13. By: Bilgin, Cevat
    Abstract: Hypothesis of purchasing power parity basically depends on the presumption of unique price in international trade. The price of a good is the same all over the world when it is converted to a common currency. In other words, one unit of national currency has the same purchasing power everywhere in the world. The other form of purchasing power parity (PPP) does not depend on the assumption of unique price, instead it is based on the argument that exchange rates changes by the amount of differences in inflations of the involved countries. In this article, the validities of these two forms of PPP for Turkey have been evaluated by imposing time series applications on the quarterly data for the period of 1986Q1-2017Q4. For the sake of 2001 economic crisis, the sample period has been divided into two subperiods; 1986Q1-2001Q3 and 2001Q4-2017Q4. The unit root and cointegration tests have been applied to both of the subperiods. The statistical evidence supporting the absolute form of PPP could not have been gained. On the other hand, for both of the subperiods, the validity of relative version of PPP has been approved by the application results.
    Keywords: International Trade, Purchasing Power Parity, Exchange Rate, Inflation, Unit Root, Cointegration
    JEL: C39 C51 F14
    Date: 2018–04–04

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