nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒07‒16
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Time Use Elasticity of Substitution Estimates Conditional on Working Time Available By Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes; Okay Gunes
  2. Combating domestic violence against women in Turkey. The role of women's economic empowerment By Aurélien Dasre; Angela Greulich; Inan Ceren
  3. Oil Prices and GCC Stock Markets: New Evidence from Smooth Transition Models By Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh; Sami Ben Naceur; Oussama Kanaan; Christophe Rault
  4. The Interplay of Space and Gender in the City of Mostaganem, Algeria By Fatima Zohra Benneghrouzi; Mimouna Zitouni
  5. Measuring the Relative Domestic Production Scarcity of Time Spent in Domestic Activities for Turkey By Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes; Okay Gunes
  6. Analysis of Households' Decision Using Full Demand Elasticity Estimates: an Estimation on Turkish Data By Okay Gunes
  7. The Role of Agricultural Sector Productivity in Economic Growth: The Case of Iran's Economic Development Plan By Morteza Tahamipour; Mina Mahmoudi
  8. On Target? The Incidence of Sanctions Across Listed Firms in Iran By Draca, Mirko; Garred, Jason; Stickland, Leanne
  9. A Legal Effect of European Union's Business Law Policy: Single Member Companies in Turkish Law By Salih Tayfun ?nce
  10. Vers une croissance plus inclusive en Tunisie By Christine de la Maisonneuve; Hedi Larbi; Raja Dridi

  1. By: Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Okay Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We introduce the demand elasticity of available working time into the model of domestic production in order to show that the limits on discretionary times use may alter the estimates of time use elasticity of substitution good. Our elasticity estimation result for food is 0.50 in Turkey for 2007, which ranges from 0.22 to 0.56 in the literature. However, the elasticity of substitution for food rises up to 0.92 when one considers working time available with all consumption groups, suggesting that households may overcome time scarcity and increase working time by reducing time spent in the leisure, transportation, other and personal care and health categories. This process, in turn, yields good intensive consumption in Turkey. We obtain more robust estimation results by using the opportunity cost of time measurement proposed by Gardes (2016) for Turkish households in 2007. In this work, the Time Use Survey for 2006 is matched with the 2007 Household Budget Survey.
    Abstract: Nous introduisons l'élasticité de la demande de temps de travail disponible dans le modèle de la production domestique afin de montrer que les limites de l'utilisation du temps discrétionnaire peuvent modifier les estimations de l'élasticité de substitution de l'utilisation du temps. Notre estimation de l'élasticité pour les aliments est de 0,50 en Turquie pour 2007, qui varie de 0,22 à 0,56 dans la littérature. Cependant, l'élasticité de substitution pour le bien alimentaire s'élève à 0,92 lorsque l'on considère le temps de travail disponible pour tous les groupes de consommation, ce qui suggère que les ménages peuvent surmonter la rareté du temps et augmenter le temps de travail en réduisant le temps consacré aux loisirs et aux soins personnels et à la santé. Ce processus, à son tour entraîne une consommation intensive de produits de marché en Turquie. Nous obtenons les résultats d'estimation plus robustes en utilisant la méthode du coût d'opportunité du temps proposé par Gardes (2016) pour les ménages turcs en 2007. Dans ce travail, nous avons utilisé l'appariement statistique des enquêtes turques sur l'emploi du temps pour 2006 avec l'enquête sur le budget des ménages de 2007.
    Keywords: Household production,Time use elasticity of substitution,Rubins' matching statistics,Working Time Available,Production domestiques,l'élasticité de substitution de l'utilisation du temps,l'appariement statistiques,Temps de travail disponible
    Date: 2017–02
  2. By: Aurélien Dasre (CRESPPA - Centre de recherches sociologiques et politiques de Paris - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Angela Greulich (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Inan Ceren (SIES - Systèmes d'information et des Etudes Statistiques - French Ministry of Education and Research)
    Abstract: This paper identifies motors and barriers for combatting domestic violence against women in Turkey – a country where modernism and conservatism are in constant interplay. We combine information from the Demographic Health Surveys and the Turkish Domestic Violence Survey and distinguish between controlling behavior, physical and sexual violence. Our empirical analysis tests how far a woman's intra-household decision making power (as measured by her education, her activity status, her income etc.) bears the potential to reduce her risk of experiencing domestic violence in Turkey. The analysis takes into account contextual factors as well as partner and household characteristics. We find that women's participation in the labor market does not, on its' own, reduce women's risk of experiencing intimate partner violence, but an egalitarian share of economic resources between spouses in likely to protect women against domestic violence. This finding has two important implications: First, higher education enabling women to access formal wage employment allows women not only to gain economic independence, but also to freely choose their partner. Second, unstable economic conditions that harm earning opportunities for men are an important risk factor for couples to experience conflits that can result in domestic violence against women. Against the background of the recent economic crisis that comes hand in hand with a backlash of gender and family norms in Turkey, our results highlight the need of policy action in this field.
    Keywords: economics,Violence against women,gender
    Date: 2017–11
  3. By: Nidhaleddine Ben Cheikh; Sami Ben Naceur; Oussama Kanaan; Christophe Rault
    Abstract: Our paper examines the effect of oil price changes on Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock markets using nonlinear smooth transition regression (STR) models. Contrary to conventional wisdom, our empirical results reveal that GCC stock markets do not have similar sensitivities to oil price changes. We document the presence of stock market returns’ asymmetric reactions in some GCC countries, but not for others. In Kuwait’s case, negative oil price changes exert larger impacts on stock returns than positive oil price changes. When considering the asymmetry with respect to the magnitude of oil price variation, we find that Oman’s and Qatar’s stock markets are more sensitive to large oil price changes than to small ones. Our results highlight the importance of economic stabilization and reform policies that can potentially reduce the sensitivity of stock returns to oil price changes, especially with regard to the existence of asymmetric behavior.
    Keywords: GCC stock markets, oil prices, smooth transition regression models
    JEL: G12 F30 Q43
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Fatima Zohra Benneghrouzi (Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem); Mimouna Zitouni (University of Mohamed Ben Ahmed, Oran 2)
    Abstract: This paper probes the following questions: 1 to what extent do the conceptualisation and implementation of space/place express and sustain certain hegemonic hierarchies that normalise socio-cultural divisions in Arab Algerian environment of Mostaganem City? 2 What tools are utilised as means of space exclusion? 3 Is there a possibility of recreating new spaces for women, by making them occupy existing men’ spaces or revalorise unexploited spaces? 4 And ultimately, how much disempowering space is for women? In relation to these questions, three postulations are advanced: 1 The Arab Algerian culture is drastically male-oriented and space appropriation only validates such culturally hammered circumstance. 2 Harassment by verbal violence is the main and most forceful tool of space exclusion. 3 Masculine hegemony has it that no possibility of space re valorisation is now opportune.
    Keywords: gender, culture, disempowerment, Mostaganem, space/place exclusion, hegemony, harassmen
    Date: 2018–05
  5. By: Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Okay Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we specify and estimate the "domestic production scarcity of time use" as the time use demand elasticity of commodity use in domestic activity. We integrate domestic production technology as the good intensity of time use into scarcity in time use and monetary expenditure which enables us to better differentiate for which consumption groups households have a more complementary than substitutable nature with regards to domestic production. We match the Time Use Survey for 2006 with the Household Budget Survey for the years between 2007 and 2013 (inclusive) by using a new matching method proposed by Rubin (1986).
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous spécifions et estimons la « rareté de l'emploi du temps dans la production domestique » comme l'élasticité de la demande du temps pour des produits utilisés dans l'activité domestique. Nous intégrons la technologie de production domestique, comme l'intensité de produit par le temps utilisé, dans la rareté de temps et les dépenses monétaires qui nous permettent de mieux différencier pour quels groupes de consommation les ménages ont un caractère plus complémentaire que substituable par rapport à leurs productions domestiques. Les inputs monétaires et temporels dans les dépenses de consommation des ménages sont obtenues par l'appariement statistique des enquêtes turques sur l'Emploi du Temps 2006 avec l'enquête sur le Budget des Familles pour les années 2007 et 2013 en utilisant une nouvelle méthode d'appariement proposée par Rubin (1986).
    Keywords: Household production technology,Matching statistics,Time use elasticity of substitution,La technologie de production domestique des ménages,l'appariement statistiques,l'élasticité de substitution de l'utilisation du temps
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Okay Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Households' consumption patterns are deciphered through estimates of demand elasticities based on the domestic production decisions determined by constraints on time use and monetary budgets for different subpopulations. We first estimate the shadow wage rates of the households and later estimate the full demand elasticities which are computed using full prices proposed by Gardes (2016) derived through the hypotheses of complementarity or substitutability existing between monetary and time expenditures. Detailed results are obtained for the whole population by breaking the dataset into age groups and into households according to poverty level, as determined by the OECD-modified equivalence scale.
    Abstract: Les schémas de consommation des ménages sont déchiffrés à partir d'estimations de l'élasticité de la demande en fonction de décisions de production domestique déterminées par les contraintes sur l'utilisation du temps et les budgets monétaires pour les différentes sous-populations. Nous estimons d'abord les taux salariaux fictifs des ménages et ensuite nous estimons les élasticités complètes de la demande qui sont calculées en utilisant l'approche de prix complets proposés par Gardes (2016) dérivés par les hypothèses de complémentarité ou de substituabilité existant entre les dépenses monétaires et temporelles. Des résultats détaillés sont obtenus pour l'ensemble de la population et pour les sous-populations selon les groupes d'âge et le niveau de pauvreté déterminé par l'échelle d'équivalence de l'OCDE.
    Keywords: Time allocation,domestic production,full prices,opportunity cost of time,demand elasticities,Rubins' matching statistics,L'allocation du temps,la production domestique,les prix complets,le coût d'opportunité du temps,les élasticités de la demande,l'appariement de Rubin
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Morteza Tahamipour; Mina Mahmoudi
    Abstract: This study provides the theoretical framework and empirical model for productivity growth evaluations in agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors in Iran's economic development plan. We use the Solow residual model to measure the productivity growth share in the value-added growth of the agricultural sector. Our time series data includes value-added per worker, employment, and capital in this sector. The results show that the average total factor productivity growth rate in the agricultural sector is -0.72% during 1991-2010. Also, during this period, the share of total factor productivity growth in the value-added growth is -19.6%, while it has been forecasted to be 33.8% in the fourth development plan. Considering the effective role of capital in the agricultural low productivity, we suggest applying productivity management plans (especially in regards of capital productivity) to achieve future growth goals.
    Date: 2018–06
  8. By: Draca, Mirko (University of Warwick); Garred, Jason (University of Ottawa); Stickland, Leanne (National Audit Office, UK GovernmentAuthor-Name: Warrinnier, Nele; Faculty of Economics and Business, KU Leuven)
    Abstract: A central premise of current international sanctions policy is targeting, that is, concentrating the impact of sanctions on specific, politically influential groups in the sanctioned country. However, many economic factors make it difficult for senders of sanctions to hit these targets. We offer evidence on the efficacy of targeting in the case of Iran, where sanctions aimed to affect a well-defined set of political entities through their economic interests. Our identification strategy focuses on the process of negotiations for sanctions removal. We find that stock returns of firms owned by targeted political groups and firms unrelated to these groups both react positively to information indicating progress in diplomatic negotiations. However, these effects are significantly larger for firms owned by targeted groups. This evidence suggests that good news about sanctions relief yielded particularly large economic benefits for targeted political entities, consistent with the ‘income targeting’ goal of sanctions policy against Iran.Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Salih Tayfun ?nce (Istanbul Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakif University Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: The concept of single-member company has been studied in the doctrine by lawyers and economists for more than hundred years. Single-member companies have become widespread by virtue of the European Union?s legal instructions and mostly subsequent acceleration of states? legislation efforts in order to allow foundation of single-member companies pursuant to their national laws. The dangers which single-member companies may generate are matters of discussion as well as the possible benefits of single-member companies to the national and international markets. Authorization of a single-member company foundation is one of the most important changes that were brought by Turkish Commercial Code with its entry into force in 1 July 2012. It is understandable from analysis of company foundation statistics provided by official authorities that incorporation of a company by a single member is widely embraced by market players. Presently, the European Union labours with a directive proposal which aims formation of new and more practical single-member company type. The outcome of these economic policy borne legal efforts will have significant effects on Turkey as a current member of the European Customs Union and a candidate country for the European Union, and foreign investors who plan to invest in Turkey.
    Keywords: Single-member Company, One-man Company, Limited Liability Company, Joint Stock Company, Turkish Business Law, European Union Business Law, Commercial Law, Company Law.
    JEL: K20 K22 M20
    Date: 2017–10
  10. By: Christine de la Maisonneuve; Hedi Larbi; Raja Dridi
    Abstract: Le niveau de vie moyen des Tunisiens a augmenté de façon continue depuis plusieurs décennies tandis que la pauvreté et les inégalités ont largement diminué grâce à la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes sociaux. L’accès aux infrastructures de base telles que l’eau potable ou l’électricité a également été développé. Néanmoins, le taux d’emploi demeure faible, surtout pour les femmes; environ un tiers des jeunes est au chômage et le travail informel est répandu. Il est urgent de promouvoir des formations répondant aux besoins des employeurs et de favoriser l'emploi des femmes. L’allégement des cotisations sociales pesant sur le travail salarié permettra la création d’emplois de qualité. La mise en oeuvre de la stratégie d’inclusion financière facilitera l’accès au financement. Les disparités régionales en termes de chômage et de niveau de vie entre les régions côtières et les régions de l’intérieur sont importantes. Une nouvelle politique de développement régional, valorisant les atouts spécifiques de chaque région autour du développement de pôles urbains, est nécessaire. La Constitution de 2014, qui prévoit l’accroissement de l’autonomie et des compétences des collectivités locales, représente une opportunité pour réaliser cet objectif. This Working Paper relates to the 2018 OECD Economic Survey of Tunisia ( y-tunisia.htm).
    Keywords: chômage, décentralisation, développement régional, emploi des femmes, emplois de qualité, inclusion financière, informalité, inégalités, urbanisation, éducation
    JEL: E24 E26 I2 I3 J16 J21 J24 R1 R5
    Date: 2018–07–11

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