nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒05‒28
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Heterogeneous Sectoral Growth Effects of FDI in Egypt By Shimaa Elkony; Hilary Clistina Ingham; Robert Allan Read
  2. Pre-service classroom teachers' scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward science By Sule Bayraktar
  3. The Role of the Legislative and Regulatory Framework in Improving the Investment Climate in the Middle East and North Africa Countries (MENA), in the Reconstruction Phase - Descriptive Study By Ahmad JURATLI
  4. Rethinking value creation from the resource based view: the case of human capital in moroccan hotels By Youssef Ifleh; Mohamed Lotfi; Mounime Elkabbouri
  5. Water Content in Trade: A Regional Analysis for Morocco By Eduardo A. Haddad; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub, Vinicius A. Vale
  6. Why are Refugee Children Shorter than the Hosting Population? Evidence from Camps Residents in Jordan By Rashad, Ahmed; Sharaf, Mesbah; Mansour, Elhussien
  7. Hostility and Controversies upon Recommending the Teaching of a Standard Variety via a Colloquial Variety at Primary School Level By Mimouna Zitouni

  1. By: Shimaa Elkony; Hilary Clistina Ingham; Robert Allan Read
    Abstract: This paper is one of the first to investigate the sectoral dimension/perspective of FDI spillovers. It examines empirically the heterogeneous technology effects and efficiency gains of FDI across economic sectors in Egypt between 1990 and 2007. The results reveal many aspects of the aggregation bias of cross-country studies. In aggregate, inflows of FDI have no significant impact upon growth in Egypt; instead, growth is driven by government investment. The disaggregated analysis however, reveals that FDI has distinct sector-specific effects on the Egyptian economy that derive exclusively from investment in the Telecommunication & Information Technology. FDI in Services however, generates negative growth effects. The sectoral growth effects of FDI also depend upon the region of origin. Although the growth impact of FDI in Telecommunications from both the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) and Western economies is positive, the finding is primarily driven by investment from the latter nations. Further, there is some evidence to support the view that FDI into the Manufacturing & Petroleum sector from the MENA region has adverse growth effects. There is also limited evidence to suggest that ‘market-seeking’ Western (European and US) capital flows into the Services sector have conspicuous ‘crowding-out’ effects.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Sectoral Spillovers, Egypt
    JEL: F23 O11 O14 O47
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Sule Bayraktar (Giresun University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service classroom teachers? scientific epistemological beliefs and their attitudes towards science. Sample of the study consisted of 98 students pursuing their third year in primary teacher education department of Faculty of Education at Giresun University which is located at Northeastern part of Turkey. Data for the study was collected through the use of ?Scientific Epistemological Beliefs Scale? and ?Attitudes toward science scale?. Scientific epistemological beliefs scale was developed by Elder (1999) and adapted into Turkish by Acat, Tüken & Karada? (2010). Attitudes toward science were assessed by utilizing an attitude scale consisted of 34 items which was constructed by using items from various attitude scales. Data was analyzed through statistical techniques such as means, t-test and regression analysis. Findings of the study showed that pre-service classroom teachers? scientific epistemological beliefs differentiated for the dimensions of the scale from naive to sophisticated beliefs. There was not a significant difference between male and female pre-service teachers in terms of scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward science. The results of the study also showed that there is a positive correlation between the scientific epistemological beliefs and attitudes towards science.
    Keywords: scientific epistemological beliefs, attitudes toward science, pre-service teachers
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2018–04
  3. By: Ahmad JURATLI (Szent Istvan University - PhD School of Management and Business Administration)
    Abstract: The importance of investment appears in the development and support of the country?s economy, where developing countries sought to attract investments, Which necessarily required a package of reforms, Which began with a set of laws that set the general investment policy in many developing countries, Which aimed at investment environment attractive to investment, But the conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa region did not help achieve the desired vision that was planned.This study aims to identify and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the investment climate, In addition to studying the legal and regulatory environment related to investment, and its role in supporting the investment climate in the reconstruction phase.The importance of this study emerged in the positive role which played by the investment process in economic development in general, and determines the elements of the investment environment from the legislative and administrative aspects, It is, therefore, necessary, Intensify efforts to develop the investment climate in the next stage of reconstruction.The problem of the study is reflected in the importance of developing investment laws, Because it is the most important factor in attracting investments, and because the effectiveness of investment promotion laws have a positive and direct impact in creating the investment environment.The study confirmed, after reviewing previous studies, the need to amend the current investment promotion laws in most developing countries, simplify and standardize investment laws, add organize this lows under one investment umbrella,The study also found the volume of investment in the reconstruction phase will depend on the development that can happen in the investment laws.
    Keywords: Legislative and Regulatory Framework, Investment Climate, Investment, and Investors, Middle East & North Africa Countries (MENA) -, Reconstruction Phase.
    JEL: A10 A11 A20
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Youssef Ifleh; Mohamed Lotfi; Mounime Elkabbouri
    Abstract: The growth of the modern knowledge-based economy is becoming less and less dependent on tangible assets and more on intangible ones. In this context, the role of human capital in the value creation process has become central. Despite the large amount of scientific work on human capital phenomena, little research has revealed the role of human capital in the process of creating value. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the impact of human capital on value creation within 31 classified hotels in Morocco for the period 2013-2015. This paper is organized into four sections. First, we return to the main conceptualization of value creation. The goal of this first section is to synthesize prior work on this construct and highlight the main role of the resource based view (RBV) in explaining it. This view presents the point that links value creation to human capital given that this latter concept is one of the most resources of the firm. Next, we present the main definition of human capital. To do so, we make use of concepts from psychology, economy and strategic human resource management. Then, we shed light on the existing relationship between the two concepts of our research. Finally, we present the methodology of this research as well as the results. The required data to calculate value creation is obtained mainly from the annual reports of Moroccan hotels. Whereas, human capital is assessed by a questionnaire using the scale of Subramaniam and Youndt (2005). Data is examined using linear regression by PASW statistics software. The results of this study give a more concrete picture on the creation of value in this context and refute any link between these two concepts.
    Date: 2018–05
  5. By: Eduardo A. Haddad; Fatima Ezzahra Mengoub, Vinicius A. Vale
    Abstract: This paper reports the results of an application using an interregional input-output matrix for Morocco together with regional information on water consumption by sectors. We develop a trade-based index that reveals the relative water use intensities associated with specific interregional and international trade flows. We estimate, for each flow associated with each origin-destination pair, measures of trade in value added and trade in water that are further used to calculate our index. We add to the existing literature on virtual water flows by encompassing the subnational perspective in the case study of a country that shows a “climate divide†: while a great part of the southern territory is located in the Sahara Desert, with serious water constraints, the northern part is relatively more privileged with access to this natural resource. Furthermore, we compare that Trade-Based Index of Water Intensity to similar metrics related to the use of other natural resources.
    Keywords: Water accounting; integrated ecologic-economic modelling; interregional input-output.
    JEL: Q25 Q56 C67 D57 R15
    Date: 2018–05–21
  6. By: Rashad, Ahmed (Government of Dubai); Sharaf, Mesbah (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Mansour, Elhussien (New School for Social Research)
    Abstract: The literature on children’s health inequalities in refugee camps in Jordan remains sparse. We noticed a marked height difference between Palestinian children living in the refugee camps and children of the remaining population in Jordan. Children living in refugee camps are significantly shorter than the rest of the children in the hosting population. This paper explores the drivers of the height gap, measured by the height for age z-score, among children residing in refugee camps and the non-camp residents. A Blinder- Oaxaca decomposition is used to quantify the sources of the inequalities between the two groups into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants, and another part that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants of the child nutritional status. Our results suggest that the endowment effect dominates the coefficients effect. More specifically, the height gap is mainly driven by wealth disparities between the two groups. Poverty alleviation programs such as conditional cash transfers and microfinance to camps’ residents are likely to reduce the child malnutrition gap.
    Keywords: Child malnutrition; Refugees; Camps; Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition; Jordan
    JEL: I14 J13 J15
    Date: 2018–05–21
  7. By: Mimouna Zitouni (University of Mohamed Ben Ahmed Oran 2, Algeria)
    Abstract: In 2015, speculations have raised to debate recommendations suggested, among others, at the Algerian National Conference on the Evaluation and Implementation of School Reforms to recommend the teaching of Standard Arabic through Algerian Colloquial Arabic –Darija- at primary school level. Since independence, in 1962, Algeria has witnessed an Arabization policy whereby the Arabic language was imposed as the sole official and national language at political, economic and most importantly education level. The aim of this work is to shed the light on the pedagogical and socio-linguistic motives nourishing the possibility of implementing a vernacular variety– which has no morpho-syntactical and phonological representation - as a vehicle for knowledge transmission, literacy and education in the Algerian primary school level. Focus will also be put on highlighting emerging vectors of controversies and hostilities against the project that are deeply rooted in the historical, political and identity-based reality of the country.
    Keywords: Speculations, Algerian Colloquial Arabic, The Darija, the Educational System, Algeria
    Date: 2018–03

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