nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒04‒30
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Determinants of Environmental Degradation under the Perspective of Globalization: A Panel Analysis of Selected MENA Nations By Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
  2. A Suggestion on Mortgage Financing of Islamic Banks: Diminishing Musharakah By Dinc, Yusuf
  3. Deconcentration, political and fiscal decentralization, in Morocco By Maria EL KHDARI
  4. Bi-Demographic Changes and Current Account using SVAR Modeling: Evidence from Saudi Economy By Hassan Ghassan; Hassan Al-Hajhoj; Faruk Balli
  5. The Moroccan university as a project-oriented institution By Amine Abderma; Benesrighe Driss; M'Hamed Jbira
  6. Spatial Dispersion of Retail Margins: Evidence from Turkish Agricultural Prices By Hakan Yilmazkuday
  7. Decentralization, spending efficiency and pro-poor outcomes in Morocco By Maria EL KHDARI; Babacar SARR
  8. Do emigrants self-select along cultural traits? Evidence from the MENA countries By Frédéric Docquier; Aysit Tansel; Riccardo Turati
  9. The Framework of Risk Management in A Real Estate Development Project With A Focus on Macroeconomics Aspects: A Case of Mixed-Use Real Estate Project in Ankara Province By Akin Ozturk; Harun Tanrivermis; Yunus Emre Kapusuz
  10. Project management in Moroccan higher education : An explanatory approach according to the Grant and Pennypacker scale By Amine Abderma; Rachid Hilal; Driss Beneserighe

  1. By: Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: This paper has examined the determinants of environmental degradation under the perspective of globalization in the case of selected MENA nations (Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Qatar, Lebanon, Egypt, Bahrain, Iran, Morocco, Israel, Kuwait, Oman and Tunisia) over the period of 1980 to 2013. ADF - Fisher Chi-square, Im, Pesaran and Shin W-stat, Levin, Lin & Chu t*, and PP-Fisher Chi-square unit root tests are used for analyzing the stationarity of the variables. This study uses Panel ARDL approach for analyzing the co-integration among the variables. The causality between the variables is checked with the help of Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald Tests. The estimated results of the study show that consumption of energy, economic growth, globalization and density of population have significant and positive relation with quality of environment in case of MENA nations. The results of this study show that most of the independent variables have causal relation with environmental degradation over the selected time period. The study concludes that inverted U-shaped KEC is not existed in the case of MENA nations.
    Keywords: economic development, population density, Globalization, environmental degradation
    JEL: O1 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2018–01
  2. By: Dinc, Yusuf
    Abstract: Participation banks can produce house financing based on mortgage in Turkey. Mortgage of participation banks of Turkey is a type of Murabaha financing. Murabaha financing model is based on buying in advance and selling on credit terms. Other financing models of interest-free banking are not applied to mortgages of participation banks in Turkey. Diminishing Musharakah is an interest-free financing model for any type of credits and also applied to mortgages in the world. In this essay Diminishing Musharakah is argued as a unique financing model of interest-free banking. Also applicability of Diminishing Musharakah for Turkish participation banks’ mortgages is evaluated. The findings that were obtained in Turkey may be generalized for the other regions of the world.*
    Keywords: Diminishing musharakah, mortgage, Islamic banking, participation banking, Sukuk.
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2016–12–12
  3. By: Maria EL KHDARI
    Abstract: The paper examines how the Government of Morocco has addressed the issue of decentralization in recent years and how these processes have evolved and affected fiscal and public policies. More specifically, this paper analyzes the current legislative and institutional provisions governing administrative, political and fiscal decentralization in Morocco and presents a detailed analysis of the decentralized tax system. It analyses the role of each tier and the political, administrative and fiscal prerogatives of their respective councils. It appears from this analysis that the Moroccan system is still largely centralized. First, through the continued control of the central government via the tutelle. Second, because of the low financial autonomy of the local governments which remain widely dependent on intergovernmental transfers. Finally, it appears that the shared management of local taxation by different tiers of government can result in a lack of communication and information sharing as well as a lack of commitment from those that manage the collection on behalf of others. The regional level should be given more power to oversee and harmonize the prerogatives of each level of subnational government.
    Keywords: Deconcentration, Political decentralization, Fiscal decentralization, Local taxes, Local governments, Morocco.
    JEL: D72 H7 H2 H1
    Date: 2018–04
  4. By: Hassan Ghassan (Umm Al-Qura University); Hassan Al-Hajhoj (King Faisal University- Saudi Arabia); Faruk Balli (Massey University at Albany)
    Abstract: The paper aims to explore the impacts of bi-demographic structure on the current account and growth. We use a Structural VAR modeling to track the dynamic impacts between the underlying variables of Saudi economy. New insights are developed in studying the relation between population growth, current account and economic growth inside the neoclassical theory of population. The long-run net impact on economic growth of the bi-source of population growth is negative due to lower skills of the immigrant labor endowment. This empirical outcome also confirmed in some previous papers as Dolado et al. (1994), Ortega and Peri (2009). Besides, the negative long-run contribution of immigrant workers to the current account growth largely exceeds that of the native population because of the increasing levels of remittance outflows. Discordantly to previous literature conducted at level country as Dustmann et al. (2005) or at panel data level as Boubtane et al. (2013), we find that a positive shock in the migration flows leads to a negative impact on native active age ratio. Thus, the immigrants appear to be more substitutes than complements for native workers.
    Keywords: J15, J23, F41, F22,JEL Class C51,Current Account Balance,SVAR Model,Growth,Bi-population,Hybrid population, Current account, Growth, Structural modeling,2
    Date: 2018–03–25
  5. By: Amine Abderma (Laboratoire des sciences de gestion - UNIVERSITE HASSAN Ier - Faculté des sciences juridiques, économiques, et sociales, Settat); Benesrighe Driss (Laboratoire des sciences de gestion - UNIVERSITE HASSAN Ier - Faculté des sciences juridiques, économiques, et sociales, Settat); M'Hamed Jbira (Laboratoire des sciences de gestion - UNIVERSITE HASSAN Ier - Faculté des sciences juridiques, économiques, et sociales, Settat)
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to trace in the first place an argued history of the major projects and projects of reform of Moroccan higher education. Then trying to draw up a targeted description of the mechanisms of governance in the different levels of decision-making highlighted in this same department, with the aim of providing elements of answer to the following question: Multi-project management in the Moroccan university, does it represent a strategic choice or a managerial reality?
    Abstract: L'objet de cet article est de tracer dans un premier lieu un historique argumenté des grands projets et chantiers de réforme de l'enseignement supérieur marocain. Ensuite nous dresserons un descriptif ciblé des mécanismes de gouvernance dans les différents niveaux de décision de ce département, et ce dans le but de fournir des éléments de réponse à la question suivante : Le management multi projet dans l'université marocaine, représente t'il un choix stratégique comme perspective ou un ensemble de pratiques courantes ?
    Date: 2018–03
  6. By: Hakan Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: The farmer share of retail prices is shown to be about 16 percent, corresponding to about 84 percent of a distribution share, on average across agricultural products and regions within Turkey. The share of transportation costs in retail prices is only about 7 percent, while the share of retail margins is about 77 percent of retail prices. The dispersion of retail prices across regions is shown to be mostly due to local wages and variable markups, while the contribution of traded-input prices is relatively small. Accordingly, the high dispersion of farmer prices across locations is not reflected in the dispersion of retail prices due to the high contribution of retail margins. These retail margins are also shown to account for about one third of the consumer welfare dispersion across regions and more than half of the consumer welfare dispersion across products.
    Keywords: Agricultural Prices, Farmer Share, Distribution Share, Retail Margins, Consumer Welfare Dispersion
    JEL: L81 Q11 R12
    Date: 2018–04
  7. By: Maria EL KHDARI; Babacar SARR
    Abstract: This paper studies how decentralization affects poverty, vulnerability, and inequality in Morocco, in the context of ongoing regionalization reforms. We use different non-parametric approaches to assess spending efficiency of Moroccan municipalities and regions over the period 2005-2009. The results indicate that the efficiency of spending in improving pro-poor outcomes is dependent on the fiscal autonomy of subnational governments. While the impact of transfer dependency is not statistically significant, more granular data show that formula-based (unconditional) transfers significantly improve spending efficiency when the opposite is true for ad-hoc (conditional) transfers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of political decentralization and find that local spending is less efficient in regions where municipal governments have a greater responsibility for spending compared to the regional government. This finding also holds in more fragmented regions with a high number of municipalities. Finally, we test whether there is an electoral budget cycle in Morocco and find that spending efficiency decreases the year of local elections, but increases with the level of education of elected officials.
    Keywords: Decentralization, Morocco, Poverty, Vulnerability, Inequality, Public spending efficiency, Data envelopment analysis, Partial Frontier Analysis.
    JEL: H7 C14 H5 C23 I3
    Date: 2018–04
  8. By: Frédéric Docquier (FNRS - Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique [Bruxelles], IRES Department of Economics, Université Catholique de Louvain, FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Aysit Tansel (METU - Middle East Technical University [Ankara]); Riccardo Turati (IRES Department of Economics, Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates whether emigrants from MENA countries self-select on cultural traits such as religiosity and gender-egalitarian attitudes. To do so, we use Gallup World Poll data on individual opinions and beliefs, migration aspirations, short-run migration plans, and preferred destination choices. We find that individuals who intend to emigrate to OECD, high-income countries exhibit significantly lower levels of religiosity than the rest of the population. They also share more gender-egalitarian views, although the effect only holds among the young (aged 15 to 30), among single women, and in countries with a Sunni minority. For countries mostly affected by Arab Spring, since 2011 the degree of cultural selection has decreased. Nevertheless, the aggregate effects of cultural selection should not be overestimated. Overall, self-selection along cultural traits has limited (albeit non negligible) effects on the average characteristics of the population left behind, and on the cultural distance between natives and immigrants in the OECD countries.
    Keywords: International migration,self-selection,cultural traits,gender-egalitarian attitudes,religiosity,MENA region
    Date: 2018–03–26
  9. By: Akin Ozturk; Harun Tanrivermis; Yunus Emre Kapusuz
    Abstract: Risk expresses the change in the expected values and is the key factor in making decision on large-scale investments with fixed capital. However, unlike uncertainties, risks can be foreseen and incorporated into project plans. The real estate development risks in academic studies vary according to classification types and approaches. Basically, risks are divided into four main groups, which are environmental risks, economic risks, sector-specific risks, and project-specific risks. Costs have recently been following a certain trend in Turkey and housing supply has been increasing based on the increasing demand. There is a requirement for risk management in the real estate development process to keep the risks under control and prevent undesired consequences. The steps to be taken in risk management can be listed as identification of risks, analyzing risks, development of response strategies, and monitoring procedures. In this study, a macroeconomic risk management framework for a mixed-use real estate project that had been started in 2010 was established and the identification, quantification, analyzes of the risks were made. The scenario-sensitivity method was used to analyze the risks. Retrospective response planning (avoid, mitigate, accept and transfer) scenarios were developed and their impact was evaluated for the selected project. In addition, if-then analyzes were used to investigate the actual and target values were and reasons thereof were investigated. According to the research results, macroeconomic variables such as real estate rent index, exchange rates, interest rates, and economic outlook were effective in the deviations from the expected values.
    Keywords: macroeconomic indicators; real estate development projects; Risk Analysis; Risk Management; risk management strategies
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2017–07–01
  10. By: Amine Abderma (UH1 - Université Hassan 1er - Univ. Hassan I Settat, Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Hassan I); Rachid Hilal; Driss Beneserighe
    Date: 2018–03

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