nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒04‒02
twelve papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Fertility and the Puzzle of Female Employment in the Middle East By Majbouri, Mahdi
  3. Divorce and Gold Coins: A Case Study of Iran By Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Hassan F. Gholipour
  4. Oil Rents Shocks and Inequality in Iran By Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Tim Krieger
  5. Practices of the social responsibility in the listed Moroccan companies: an analysis of Carroll's model (1991) and application to the Moroccan case. By Anas Yassine; Abdelmadjid Ibenrissoul
  6. A post-separation Social Accounting Matrix for the Sudan: By Siddig, Khalid; Elagra, Samir; Grethe, Harald; Mubarak, Amel
  7. The (Arab) Agricultural Investment for Development Analyzer (AIDA): An innovative tool for evidence-based planning: By Raouf, Mariam; Kassim, Yumna; Kurdi, Sikandra; Mogues, Tewodaj; Mahmoud, Mai; Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James; Wiebelt, Manfred; Breisinger, Clemens
  8. Phasing out energy subsidies as part of Egypt’s economic reform program: Impacts and policy implications: By Breisinger, Clemens; Mukashov, Askar; Raouf, Mariam; Wiebelt, Manfred
  9. The effect of World War I on Iran situation By Fayyaz Zahed; Neda Moradi
  10. EU Diplomacy and the Iran Nuclear Deal: Staying power? By Blockmans, Steven; Viaud, Astrid
  11. The role of agriculture and agro-processing for development in Jordan: By Figueroa, Jose Luis; Mahmoud, Mai; Breisinger, Clemens
  12. L'émergence d'une économie solidaire au Maroc. le cas des Chiffonniers de la ville d'Ait Melloul. By Mohamed Adrdour; Mohamed Oudada; Abdelaziz Elouardi

  1. By: Majbouri, Mahdi (Babson College)
    Abstract: Female labor force participation rates across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have remained low for over four decades, despite the fact that in the same period, women's education rapidly increased and fertility rates substantially decreased. This surprising phenomenon has remained a puzzle. This study tries to provide a better understanding of this puzzle by testing whether there is a causal impact of the number of children on mother's labor supply. It uses twins at first birth as an instrumental variable to estimate the causal impact of fertility on participation of mothers in the labor market, free of bias. It finds that having more children does not reduce women's employment. The paper discusses the implications of this interesting result in understanding the puzzle of female participation in MENA and in designing policies to increase women's work.
    Keywords: female labor force participation, fertility, instrumental variable, Middle East and North Africa, twins
    JEL: J13 J22 O53
    Date: 2018–02
  2. By: U?ur Burç Y?ld?z (?zmir Katip Çelebi University)
    Abstract: Turkey?s accession to European Union membership appears to be impossible for several important reasons. Thus, instead of full membership, Turkey may look for alternative options to benefit from the European Union integration project. One option could be the Continental Partnership, proposed by the Brussels-based Bruegel think tank. This article investigates the feasibility of this offer for Turkey. It is argued that this new method of cooperation provides significant economic benefits since the European Union would grant free movement of basic agricultural products and free movement of services and capital, abolish Schengen visas for Turkish businessmen and company managers for three months and include Turkey in the Common Commercial Policy, which is closely related to the Single Market project. Participating in the intergovernmental Continental Partnership Council would also bring Turkey significant political benefits by protecting its commercial, security and defense policy interests before new European Union legislations are adopted.
    Keywords: Continental Partnership, Turkey, European Union, United Kingdom, Brexit.
    JEL: F50
    Date: 2017–10
  3. By: Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Hassan F. Gholipour
    Abstract: The increasing divorce rate has become a major social concern for policy makers in the Islamic government of Iran. The price of gold coin is an important factor in cost-benefit analysis for individuals in their marriage and divorce decisions in Iran. Dowries (Mehrieh) are usually in the form of gold coin and a wife has a legal right to them upon both parties signing the marriage contract. Increasing the price of gold coin may intensify the internal stress and struggles within families, leading to a higher probability of divorce. We investigate the long-run relationship between real price of gold coin and divorce rate for the case of Iran over the period 1980-2014. Controlling for other factors, our regression results show that there is a positive and significant long-run relationship between real price of gold coin (as well as unanticipated changes in real price of gold coin) and marital instability.
    Keywords: divorce, gold price, cointegration regression, Iran
    JEL: D10 O10 E30 E60
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Tim Krieger
    Abstract: We study the short and long run responses of income inequality to positive per capita oil and gas rent shocks in Iran. Using historical data from 1973 to 2012 and vector autoregression (VAR)-based impulse response functions, we find a positive and statistically significant response of income inequality to oil rent booms within 4 years of the shock. In addition, the Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) results show that in the long run, a 10-percent increase in oil and gas rents per capita leads to an approximately 1.4-percent increase in income inequality. The results are robust to controlling for different channels potentially affecting the income distribution in Iran. Our analysis can help policymakers evaluate and accommodate the possible positive or negative effects on inequality in Iran resulting from the 2016 lifting of the embargo against the country.
    Keywords: oil rents, inequality, VAR, ARDL, sanctions, Iran
    JEL: Q33 Q38 D63
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Anas Yassine (MSFGR - Laboratoire Management, Systèmes Financiers et Gestion des Risques [Casablanca] - Université Hassan II Casablanca - UH2C (MOROCCO)); Abdelmadjid Ibenrissoul (Laboratoire Ingénierie Scientifique des Organisations (ISO) Université Hassan II Casablanca)
    Abstract: This present article deals the concept of the social responsibility in the companies in Morocco. The objective of this study is to analyze the perceptions of the managers about the social responsibility inside the companies where they are working. To make this study happen, we made an investigation on seventy four managers who are working in the companies quoted on the stock exchange. We send them an email containing a questionnaire where we asked them thirty seven questions with five rating answers (Likert scale). Our scale is basing on the theoretical model of the social responsibility of Carroll. The results of our study give us two findings. The first one suggest that the managers working in the quoted companies don't have the same perceptions about the corporate social responsibility. The second one shows that the companies that are working in the services sector are more into respecting the laws and ethical values more than the industrial companies.
    Abstract: Le présent article traite le concept de la Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises (RSE) dans le contexte marocain. L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser la perception des cadres sur la responsabilité sociale des entreprises dans lesquelles ils travaillent. Pour ce faire, nous avons mené une enquête auprès de soixante-quatorze cadres marocains travaillant au sein des entreprises cotées. Les sujets ont été sollicités par un courrier électronique, en leur envoyant un questionnaire qui se composait de 37 items présentés sous la forme d'une échelle de réponse à cinq points (échelle de Likert). Notre échelle de mesure a été conçue en s'appuyant sur le modèle théorique de la responsabilité sociale de Carroll (1991). Les résultats de notre étude révèlent deux constats, l'un, suggère que les cadres marocains travaillant au sein des entreprises cotées n'ont pas la même perception sur la RSE, l'autre, met en exergue le fait que les entreprises qui opèrent dans le secteur des services se montent plus regardantes sur le respect des lois et des valeurs éthiques plus que les entreprises industrielles.
    Keywords: ethical values,CSR,managers,listed companies,perception,RSE, entreprises cotées, cadres, perception, valeurs éthiques
    Date: 2018–01–02
  6. By: Siddig, Khalid; Elagra, Samir; Grethe, Harald; Mubarak, Amel
    Abstract: The 2012 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the Sudan, with a special focus on agriculture, water, and energy, is built using data from domestic sources in the Sudan, including the Central Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, and the Central Bank of Sudan, besides other external sources. Major data sets used include the 2012 National Accounts and Trade Statistics of the CBS, the 53rd Annual Report of the Central Bank of the Sudan, the 2011 Labor Force Survey, the 2009 Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the 2009-2012 Agricultural Production Cost Survey, and the 2005 Industrial Survey. Data from external sources are used to complement national sources. These sources include IMF studies on government finances, FAO reports and data on agriculture, and ILO reports on labor. The SAM distinguishes between agricultural activities based on modes of irrigation, energy based on its major source, and water based on modes of production and types of uses. Land is divided into irrigated and non-irrigated, while natural water resources are added in a separate account. Households are categorized by state, location (rural and urban), and income quintiles. Labor accounts are differentiated based on location (rural and urban), skill level, and gender.
    Keywords: SUDAN; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agriculture; water; energy; data collection; data; aggregate data; economic indicators; databases; Social Accounting Matrix (SAM); E16 General Aggregative Models: Social Accounting Matrix
    Date: 2018
  7. By: Raouf, Mariam; Kassim, Yumna; Kurdi, Sikandra; Mogues, Tewodaj; Mahmoud, Mai; Randriamamonjy, Josée; Thurlow, James; Wiebelt, Manfred; Breisinger, Clemens
    Abstract: This paper describes an innovative agricultural and rural economic planning tool that will help governments and analysts in the design of agricultural investment plans: the (Arab) Agricultural Investment for Development Analyzer (AIDA). A policy challenge for all governments, including those in the Middle East and North Africa, is determining the appropriate allocation and quality of public spending to foster agricultural and rural economic growth, employment creation, and poverty reduction. The AIDA economic planning toolkit has been built using an economy-wide and minimalistic investment data approach to assist governments in meeting this planning challenge. Centered on the use of economy-wide Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models, it allows for a comprehensive planning approach to ensure that the level and allocation of investment in the agriculture and rural sectors is sufficient for achieving desired targeted outcomes. It does this by linking agricultural and rural spending to economic growth, job creation, and household poverty, given resource and market constraints, as well as considering trade-offs and opportunity costs associated with different investment options. Such a holistic system approach enables the ranking of possible interventions and allocations of public funds amid possible changes in public policy to help in designing national agriculture plans and targets.
    Keywords: MIDDLE EAST; NORTH AFRICA; AFRICA; agricultural development; economic development; economic policies; agricultural policies; agricultural planning; public investment; rural development; rural development; agricultural investment plans; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Breisinger, Clemens; Mukashov, Askar; Raouf, Mariam; Wiebelt, Manfred
    Abstract: In order to address long-standing economic challenges, in 2016 the Government of Egypt (GOE) put in place a major economic reform program to restore macroeconomic stability and to promote inclusive growth. As a result, there are early signs that the economy is rebounding and Egypt’s economic outlook is becoming more favorable. However, it is less clear how the ongoing reform program is affecting households, especially the poor. To shed light on this question, this paper uses an economy-wide model to estimate the distributional impacts of the energy subsidy cuts in 2014, 2016, and 2017, the currency devaluation at the end of 2016, and the expected complete phasing out of energy subsidies over the coming years.
    Keywords: EGYPT; ARAB COUNTRIES; MIDDLE EAST; NORTH AFRICA; AFRICA; subsidies; energy policies; energy; economic growth; household consumption; devaluation of currency; low income groups; impact assessment; energy subsidies; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model; energy prices; social protection
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Fayyaz Zahed (Central Tehran Branch.Islamic Azad University); Neda Moradi (islamic azad and research branch tehran)
    Abstract: AbstractThe World War I had a considerable influence on the history of many non-European countries specially Iran. Iran hoping that not to involve in this world war, neutralized in the war at the behest of November 1st in, but abjuring it by hostile countries, Iran was changed into an extended from for imperialist powers. Consequently was invaded by Britain, Russia, Ottoman and Germany from the south, north, and west. The World War I caused numerous problems for Iran. Increasing external pressures, the weekness of central government and subsequently, cabinets instability and economic crises added to the complexity of the situation. Despite Iran's efforts to keep himself from the battle of which had no proportion and no effect on it, the juggernaut strikes inflicted on political stability and consistency of the government and incurred formidable losses on the economy of this country. October revolution which at first seemed to improve the situation of Iran, caused Britain totalitarianism and changing negative balance. This created a long- term gap in Iran political arena and finally lead to 22th feb coup, and also overthrowing Qajar regime and replacing it with Reza Pahlavi. The event that changed the procedure of constitutional revolution and Iran Policies landscape.
    Keywords: Keywords: World War I, Iran, Qajar, violations of neutrality, political and economic crises.
    Date: 2017–10
  10. By: Blockmans, Steven; Viaud, Astrid
    Abstract: The nuclear deal with Iran is often hailed as one of the few diplomatic successes of EU foreign policy. While the convening power of the European Union in ‘the making of’ phase of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) has indeed been critical and well documented, there has so far been no independent assessment of the EU’s facilitating and mediating role in the implementation of the nuclear agreement. This Policy Insights paper by Steven Blockmans and Astrid Viaud seeks to plug that gap. It analyses the tasks entrusted to the EU as the coordinator of the Joint Commission, the executive body overseeing the implementation of the agreement, evaluates how the EU has performed its duties and assesses whether the economic benefits that the EU derives from the lifting of nuclear-related sanctions and the opening of the Iranian market risk undermining its role as an honest broker. This paper finds that the EU is accepted in the Joint Commission as a primus inter pares among the five permanent members of the Security Council, Germany and Iran. But two years since the signing of the nuclear deal, the real stress test is about to come. How the EU will cajole the administration of President Trump to keep the US wedded to the JCPOA will determine the future effectiveness of the nuclear deal, and also colour the legacy of the EU and its High Representative as a diplomatic actor on the global stage.
    Date: 2017–07
  11. By: Figueroa, Jose Luis; Mahmoud, Mai; Breisinger, Clemens
    Abstract: This paper aims to support the implementation of the strategic development plans of Jordan by analyzing the role of agriculture and farmers in the Jordanian economy, the role that productivity and structural change can play for fostering agricultural growth, and the role agro-processing may play in Jordan’s economic development. We argue that the development of the agro-processing sector often has stronger backward and forward linkages with the agricultural sector than other sectors and, thus, plays an important role for rural transformation.
    Keywords: agriculture; economic development; agricultural development; rural development; agricultural sector; agricultural productivity; refugees; employment; agricultural policies; economic growth; JORDAN; WESTERN ASIA; ASIA; MIDDLE EAST; agro-processing; high value crops
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Mohamed Adrdour (Université Ibn Zohr (MOROCCO)); Mohamed Oudada (Université IBN ZOHR [Agadir]); Abdelaziz Elouardi (Université IBN ZOHR [Agadir])
    Date: 2016–11–23

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