nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2018‒02‒12
eight papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The use of social accountability mechanisms by Syrian diaspora organizations providing aid in the Syrian crisis By Mounah Abdel-Samad; Shawn Flanigan
  2. On the guidelines of good planning : The case of the Arab region By Grand, Nathalie; Kamaly, Ahmed
  3. MOBBING IN A CROSS-SECTIONAL NATIONAL SAMPLE: The Turkish Case By Jale Minibas-Poussard; Meltem İdiğ-Çamuroğlu
  4. Impact of Macroeconomic and Demographic Variables on the Stock Market: Evidence from Tunisian Crisis By Ben Yaala, sirine; Henchiri, jamel E.
  5. Triple Helix Model’s (THM) impact on enhancing creativity and skills within UAE public and private sectors By Salem, Fatima
  6. Documentation note ESCWA'S national plans database By Grand, Nathalie; Lorenz, Adam; Woodford, Georgina
  7. The impact of assistance on poverty and food security in a protracted conflict context: the case of West Bank and Gaza Strip By Donato Romano; Gianluca Stefani; Benedetto Rocchi; Claudio Fiorillo
  8. A Look to The Ottoman Cash Waqfs As Altruistic Finance Model By Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem

  1. By: Mounah Abdel-Samad; Shawn Flanigan
    Abstract: This paper presents data from a study of Syrian diaspora organizations providing assistance to conflict-affected Syrians in Europe, the Middle East, and North America. Using interview data from leaders in three Syrian diaspora non-profit organizations, this paper examines the social mechanisms used to ensure accountability within the challenging environments where the organizations operate. We find that Syrian diaspora organizations benefit from informal social accountability mechanisms that derive from individuals’ social network ties. Personal, social forms of accountability are particularly valuable to these organizations because these mechanisms help circumvent uncertainty and challenges in the operational environment. These findings reflect an important theme in the extant literature on diaspora philanthropy: diaspora members may have an advantage over other actors because of dense personal networks that make them adept at identifying dependable partners and enforcing agreements even in places where banking and legal systems are fragile. The leaders in our study rely on trusted individuals as a mechanism to ensure financial accountability and to assess the trustworthiness of potential partners on the ground inLebanon, Syria, and Turkey.
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Grand, Nathalie; Kamaly, Ahmed
    Abstract: The paper uses a structured database of national planning that ESCWA is compiling to identify the well-known and lesser-known features of development planning in the Arab region. The paper first explores international best practices and reflects on country-specific context to develop a typology of good planning criteria for the Arab region. Based on this typology, the paper offers preliminary stylized facts about planning and compares individual planning initiatives across the region. Above all, the findings indicate the region is suffering with the following difficulties: (1) a lack of structure among individual planning documents, (2) a weak relation to international frameworks, (3) the paucity of specific measurable indicators that would help to effectively monitor achievements, (4) many countries did not publish any planning documents targeting the long-term and medium-term development of their whole economy at all or (5) did not make them readily available on-line, which points towards insufficient transparency and impaired participation. Finally, the paper envisions a way forward for integrative planning in the Arab region while linking it to the 2030 Agenda.
    Keywords: Arab countries; integrative planning; development planning; database; stylized facts; good practice
    JEL: C18 C82 O2 O21 O53 P52
    Date: 2017–12–14
  3. By: Jale Minibas-Poussard (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Meltem İdiğ-Çamuroğlu
    Abstract: In this empirical study we examined mobbing settings and outcomes with a data set from a cross-sectional occupational sample collected in ten cities in Turkey (N=853). The prevalence of mobbing in this sample was 23%, while victimization was 17% only. The most frequent aggressive behaviors were threats to the victim's personal and occupational reputation such as having been denied a praise or promotion, having had one's contributions ignored by others, having been given unreasonable workloads above competence or simple and meaningless work below competence. Perpetrators were mostly superiors. Analyses revealed that oppressive management was the most influential factor for mobbing in work environment.
    Keywords: Mobbing,Individual Behavior,Organizational Behavior
    Date: 2016–12–01
  4. By: Ben Yaala, sirine; Henchiri, jamel E.
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze the long-run as well as the short-run relationship between macroeconomic, demographic variables and the Tunisian stock market for the period subsequent to the financial crisis. Monthly data over the period 2008-2014 and ARDL model have been employed. Results indicate that the Tunisian stock market index, macroeconomic and demographic indicators are cointegrated and, therefore, a long-run relationship exists between them. The long-run coefficients suggest that budget deficit, inflation rate and the number of unemployed graduates had a negative effect, otherwise, money supply and the number of non-resident entries had a positive effect on the Tunisian stock market. Moreover, results from the error correction model show that the Tunisian stock market index is influenced positively by money supply and second order difference of the number of unemployed graduates and negatively by first and second order difference of money supply, inflation rate, first order difference of number of non-resident entries and the number of unemployed graduates.
    Keywords: macroeconomic variables, demographic variables, Tunisian stock market, ARDL
    JEL: G1 G11 G14
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Salem, Fatima
    Abstract: Organizations and businesses cannot depend completely on their own to generate new ideas for innovation and development in present knowledge based societies. Consequently, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) announced 2015 as the Year of Innovation and excellence awards have been established aiming to boost cooperation between various sectors in the country. Therefore, the concept of the Triple Helix (university–industry–government) was found as a model of innovation. The aim of this research is to establish the impact of a Triple Helix approach on enhancing creativity and skills within UAE public and private sectors. It explores the concept of the Triple Helix Model (THM) in the context of the UAE public and private sectors focusing on its existence, implementation, barriers and drivers. Methods of analysis include both qualitative and quantitative approach in which a conceptual framework was derived from the literature review, a survey was developed and distributed to a sample of employees from different organizations, and follow-up interviews were carried out with key stakeholders (in which their departments are implementing/ involved in the THM). The findings exposed the stakeholders’ perception about the importance of the concept and each actor’s role in the THM, the limited utilization of the concept among the organizations, and the challenges in terms of relational barriers and knowledge sharing. The research findings reveal that TH approach has a positive influence on enhancing creativity and skills within UAE sectors and several recommendations have been proposed such as leadership involvement and support, designing organizational innovation strategy, and the addition of society helix.
    Keywords: Triple Helix Model, Innovation, Challenges, United Arab Emirates
    JEL: G28 L80 L84 L88 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2017–02–10
  6. By: Grand, Nathalie; Lorenz, Adam; Woodford, Georgina
    Abstract: The Database of National Planning (DNP) compiled by the Economic Governance and Planning Section at UN-ESCWA provides standardised indicators about development planning practices in the Arab region in order to facilitate policy analysis and scholarly work. The goal of the DNP is to assess current policy practices in the Arab region against international standards of ‘good planning’, and facilitate identification of potential for improvement of planning practices. The database may also be used to monitor countries’ achievements towards their stated goals, mainstream international agendas in Arab countries’ planning thus informing the public debate and contributing toward aligning people’s expectations. The paper describes the framework used to ensure comparability of individual planning initiatives across the region. It provides detailed description of data gathering, and data treatment methodology. It explains the database structure and operations. It exemplifies ways to compute composite assessment indicators, currently based on the degree of ‘quality’ and ‘sophistication’ of planning in the Arab region. Finally, the paper explicitly reports the limitations of the database for meaningful analyses and cross-country comparisons and way forward. Currently, the National Planning Database contains selected planning data series for seventeen of ESCWA’s member states and Algeria; however, there is no information available for Syria, Comoros, Djibouti and Somalia. The qualitative and quantitative information compiled comes from Arab countries’ planning documents readily accessible online. The methodological paper is intended to be a living guide, whereby additional or updated information can be added when available and as appropriate.
    Keywords: Arab countries, Database compilation, Planning approach, Development planning, Methodology
    JEL: C1 C18 C8 C82 O2 O21 O5 O53
    Date: 2017–12–21
  7. By: Donato Romano; Gianluca Stefani; Benedetto Rocchi; Claudio Fiorillo (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: This paper assesses what is the impact of assistance on the wellbeing of Palestinian households, using in an original way standard econometric techniques coupling the classical counterfactual framework of the impact evaluation analysis – specifically, using a difference-in-difference approach that allows the treatment of sample selection bias – with instrument variable econometric modelling – specifically a fixed effect IV model that gets rid of endogeneity problems. Using data from the last two rounds (2013 and 2014) of the Palestinian Socio-Economic and Food Security (SEFSec) survey, we estimate the impact of assistance to West Bank and Gaza Strip households on their poverty and food security status. Results suggest that whereas in the case of poverty reduction there is a clear positive impact of the intensity of assistance, in the case of food security results show mixed evidence. Specifically, the intensity of assistance affects positively the frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetable, cereals, tubers and pulses while it seems to have a negative impact on the consumption of other food groups such as meat, milk, oil and sugar.
    Keywords: Q18, I32
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem
    Abstract: Although the waqfs have existed with the history of humanity and are useful in all societies, they had different role and place in Islamic societies. The waqfs have made institutionalized cooperation and solidarity among people. Especially in Islamic societies, great importance has been attached to waqfs. The waqfs that helped institutionalize the concept of infaq met many needs of the community. One of the Islamic states where the foundations are very active was the Ottoman Empire. The size of the waqf services in the Ottoman Empire expanded so much that, besides the human services, waqfs for injured birds and sick animals were established. The fact that the waqfs are so widespread in the state has made it possible to refer to the Ottoman Empire as a waqf civilization. One of the waqf types operating in the Ottoman Empire was the cash waqfs (CWs) which were made up of cash in the capital. The CWs operated the cash that made up its capital with various Islamic finance methods. Revenues from the operating money were used in the direction of waqf purpose. The CWs provided the vital necessities of the society such as education and religion in the period they were active in the Ottoman Empire. Another function of these waqfs was to operate as a micro-credit mechanism. Through these waqfs, the surplus and the accumulated savings in the hands of the asset owners were made available to merchants, farmers, craftsmen, and artisans. Hence, these waqfs have served as resource transfer channels as well as functioning as a charity in the society. The ultimate goal of CWs, which is the pioneer of modern interest-free financial institutions today, is different from these institutions. The CWs did not transfer the profits they got to the waqf founder or owner. The income obtained has been spent to fulfill the charitable services in the direction of the waqf purposes. Therefore, these institutions created Altruistic Finance Model operating within the borders of Islamic prohibitions and orders. In our study, the financial mentality of the Ottoman society in the context of the CWs and how this mentality shaped the CWs will be discussed.
    Keywords: Cash Waqfs, Ottoman Empire, Islamic Finance, Philanthropy, Altruistic Finance Model
    JEL: G21 N20 P45 Z12
    Date: 2017–05

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