nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2017‒11‒19
eight papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Impact of Citrus Exports on Economic Growth: Empirical Analysis from Tunisia By Bakari, Sayef
  2. Environmental Degradation, Energy consumption, Population Density and Economic Development in Lebanon: A time series Analysis (1971-2014) By Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
  3. Minorities, Human Capital and Long-Run Development: Persistence of Armenian and Greek Influence in Turkey By Cemal Eren Arbatli; Gunes Gokmen
  4. Biased Policy and Political Behavior By Avi Ben-Bassat; Momi Dahan
  5. The Distributional Impact of Fiscal Policy in Jordan By Shamma A. Alam; Gabriela Inchauste; Umar Serajuddin
  6. Israel's High Fertility Rate and Anemic Skill Acquisition By Assaf Razin
  7. اتجاهات المستهلكين الجزائريين نحو التسوق عبر الانترنت: دراسة ميدانية By Metali, Dr
  8. 중동지역의 전력산업 정책과 국내기업 진출 확대방안 (Electricity Industrial Policies in the Middle East and Their Implications for Korean Companies) By Lee, Kwon Hyung; Son, Sung Hyun; Jang, Yun Hee; Ho, Ryou Kwang

  1. By: Bakari, Sayef
    Abstract: The contribution of this paper is investigating the impact of citrus exports on economic growth on Tunisia since it never been treated before. In order to achieve this purpose, annual data were collected from the reports of Tunisian Central Bank for the periods between 1970 and 2016 was tested by using co integration analysis of Error Correction Model. According to the result of the analysis, citrus exports have not any influence on economic growth in the long term. However, empirical results show that there is a positive unidirectional causality from citrus exports to economic growth in the short run. These results provide on evidence that citrus exports, thus, are not seen as source of economic growth in Tunisia and suffer a lot of problems and poor economic strategy. For this reason, it is very important to make new reforms and to create robustness strategies to refine investment and trade strategy in this sector, so it can support Tunisian economic flourishing.
    Keywords: Citrus Exports, Economic Growth, Cointegration, ECM, Tunisia
    JEL: F11 F13 F14 O47 O55 Q1 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: This study has investigated the impact of energy consumption, financial development, economic development, population density and secondary school education on environmental degradation in Lebanon over the period of 1974 to 2014. ADF unit root test and ARDL bound test method of co-integration have been used for empirical analysis. The results show that energy consumption, financial development and population density have positive and significant relationship with environmental degradation in Lebanon. The results show that economic development has positive but insignificant relationship with environmental degradation. The results show that secondary school education has negative and significant relationship with environmental degradation in Lebanon. The estimated results show that for reducing environmental degradation, the Lebanese government should increase energy efficient methods of production as well as increase the educational level.
    Keywords: economic development, population density, environmental degradation
    JEL: O1 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Cemal Eren Arbatli; Gunes Gokmen
    Abstract: We study the long-term economic legacy of highly-skilled minorities a century after their wholesale expulsion. Using mass expulsions of Armenian and Greek communities of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century as a unique natural experiment of history, we show that districts with greater presence of Armenian and Greek minorities at the end of the 19th century are systematically more densely populated, more urbanized, and more developed today. Results are robust to accounting for an extensive set of geographical and historical factors of development and minority settlement patterns. Matching type estimators, instrumental variable regressions, and a sub-province level case study corroborate our findings. Importantly, we provide evidence on the channels of persistence. Armenian and Greek contribution to long-run development is largely mediated by their legacy on local human capital accumulation. In comparison, the mediating effect of minority asset transfer on development appears less important.
    Keywords: human capital, economic development, expulsion, minorities, ethnicity, Armenians, Greeks, persistence
    JEL: O10 O43 P48 N40 Z12
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Avi Ben-Bassat; Momi Dahan
    Abstract: Unlike the previous literature on mass policy feedback, the present paper argues that a negative message embodied in public policy may foster or dampen political participation depending on social group affiliation. The policy change we use to examine the effect of biased policy (a negative message) on political behavior is the removal of elected mayors that were replaced by an appointed committee in a large number of Arab and Jewish municipalities in Israel which was skewed significantly towards Arab municipalities. We show that Arab voters in intervened municipalities are more likely to show up in the ballot boxes in national elections and they tend to vote more for Arab parties. In contrast, the political participation of Jewish citizens is lower in municipalities with an appointed council without noticeable effect on vote choice.
    Keywords: policy feedback, political participation, vote choice
    JEL: D70 D72 D74
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Shamma A. Alam (Dickinson College); Gabriela Inchauste (Poverty and Equity Global Practice at the World Bank); Umar Serajuddin (World Bank’s Development Data Group)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of Jordanian government’s fiscal policies on poverty and inequality in the country. The CEQ methodology is applied o analize all the key fiscal policies employed by the government, such as direct taxes (personal income taxes); indirect taxes (sales taxes); direct transfers; indirect subsidies (subsidies for food, oil, electricity, and water); and in-kind benefits (benefits for education and health). The results indicate that the Jordan’s policies are mostly progressive and equalizing, primarily through direct taxes, direct transfers, indirect subsidies, and in-kind benefits. Moreover, the results show that the combination of tax and expenditure policies is poverty-reducing. However, the indirect tax system, in its current form, is slightly regressive and inequality-increasing, as the poor are paying a greater fraction of their income than the rich as sales tax.
    Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal incidence, social spending, inequality, poverty, taxes, Jordan
    JEL: H22 I38 D31
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Assaf Razin
    Abstract: The exceptionally high fertility among ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Arab minority, increasing portions of the population, is the main reason for Israel’s flagging labor-force participation. In addition, high fertility diminishes Israel’s skill attainment of the labor force. A rise in income inequality in all advanced economies, which in the last two decades has taken a sharp upward turn in Israel, has a potential for setting off social- divide and political polarization.
    JEL: D10 H10 J24 O40
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Metali, Dr
    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to examine the attitudes of Algerian consumers toward online shopping, and whether these attitudes vary by demographics. Data were collected via an online questionnaire within Algeria between January and March 2014. The sample consists of (530) Algerian Internet users (aged 18 and over). The results showed that most Algerian consumers do not intend to buy goods and services online, despite the increasing number of Internet users. And lastly, the study suggests that there is no significant difference in consumer attitudes among demographics, with the exception of occupation, where the results showed that students and merchants are more likely to adopt online shopping.
    Keywords: Internet users, e-marketing, consumers' attitudes, online shopping, online shopping intention
    JEL: M3 M31
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Lee, Kwon Hyung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Son, Sung Hyun (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Jang, Yun Hee (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Ho, Ryou Kwang (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korea Abstract: 본 연구의 목적은 최근 중동국가들이 전력부문에서 추진하고 있는 주요 산업정책과 관련 부문에서의 기업 진출사례를 살펴보고, 이를 바탕으로 국내기업의 전력산업 진출 확대를 위한 정책 방향과 효과적인 지원방안을 제시하는 것이다. 2장에서는 중동지역의 전력 수급 구조 및 특성을 파악하고 이에 따른 중동국가들의 주요 정책과제를 도출하였다. 전력 수요 측면에서 중동지역은 빠른 인구증가, 1인당 소득증대, 전력 다소비산업 육성 등의 요인으로 다른 지역에 비해 높은 소비 상승률을 유지해왔으며, 전력 보조금에 따른 저렴한 전기요금으로 1인당 전력 소비량이 상대적으로 높게 나타나고 있다. 공급 측면에서는 석유 및 천연가스를 연료로 하는 화력 발전의 비중이 크고, 노후화된 발전 인프라로 인해 송배전 손실량이 많다는 특성을 보였다.3장과 4장에서는 사우디아라비아, UAE 및 이집트 등 3개국을 중심으로 전력부문의 특성과 정책을 심층적으로 분석하고 기업 진출 확대를 위한 시사점을 도출하였다. 3장에서는 발전 인프라 확충 및 발전원 다변화 정책을 중심으로 살펴보았다. 4장에서는 송배전망 현대화 및 스마트 그리드 도입, 에너지소비효율 개선 등 을 위한 정책 및 기업 진출사례를 분석하고 국가별 유망 진출 분야 및 시사점을 도출하였다. 5장에서는 국내기업의 중동지역 전력산업 진출 확대를 위한 지원방안을 제시하였다. English Abstract: The aim of the research is to suggest policy implications for Korean companies that want to expand their business in the Middle Eastern electricity industry, examining industrial policies in the generation, transmission, distribution, and energy efficiency sectors. Chapter 2 touches upon supply and demand of electricity in the region and their characteristics, deriving some policy trends such as diversification of power sources, improvement of the efficiency of electricity consumption and supply, and more involvement of the private sector in electricity businesses. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with sectoral policies in the cases of Saudi Arabia, UAE and Egypt. Policies in the generation sector have been examined in Chapter 3. The three countries are pushing ahead with policies to modernize transmission and distribution lines, introduce smart grid technology and improve the efficiency of energy consumption shown in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 suggests government policies that help Korean companies expand their market in the Middle Eastern electricity industry.
    Keywords: Electricity Industrial Policies; Middle East; Korean Companies
    Date: 2017–09–29

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