nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2017‒09‒17
thirteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The role of the relational dimension on customer loyalty: The case of the telecommunications sector in Morocco By Mustapha Khouilid; Abdellah Echaoui; Lala Sara Yousfi
  2. Remittances and the real effective exchange rates in MENA countries: What is the long run impact? By Mariem Brahim; Nader Nefzi; Hamed Sambo
  3. Coercive state, resisting society, political and economic development in Iran By Mehrdad Vahabi
  4. Green Advertising and Environmentally Consumption: The Level of Awareness and Moroccan Costumer’s Perception By Salwa Mkik; Mustapha Khouilid; Amina Aomari
  5. The response of income inequality to positive oil rents shocks in Iran: Implications for the post-sanction period By Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Krieger, Tim
  6. Expansion of photovoltaic technology (PV) as a solution for water energy nexus in rural areas of Iran: Comparative case study between Germany and Iran By von Heyking, Carl-Anton; Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali
  7. Responding to Refugee Crises in Developing Countries: What Can We Learn From Evaluations? By Héloïse Ruaudel; Susanna Morrison-Métois
  8. The Reality of Computerized MIS in the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education in Gaza Strip By Mazen J. Al Shobaki; Samy S, Abu Naser
  9. Les déterminants du misalignement du taux de change réel : Analyse empirique pour le cas de la région MENA By Slimani, Slah; Ben allem, Khaoula
  10. Estimation de la croissance potentielle de l’économie marocaine By Omar , Chafik
  11. Analyse de la concurrence bancaire au Maroc : Approche de Panzar et Rosse By Sara, BENAZZI; Imane, ROUIESSI
  12. La recherche marocaine en contrôle de gestion ; les auteurs, les institutions et les méthodes de recherche By Ahsina, Khalifa
  13. évaluation de l’espace budgétaire au Maroc : une analyse empirique à travers l’approche de l’effort fiscal By AMEDJAR, Abderrahim; CHAKHAT, Zakaria; EL BARROUZ, Bilal

  1. By: Mustapha Khouilid (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Mohamed V - Souissi); Abdellah Echaoui (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Mohamed V - Souissi); Lala Sara Yousfi (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Mohamed V - Souissi)
    Abstract: Nowadays, commercial enterprises confront a clientele increasingly informed and therefore demanding and volatile, especially in the telecoms sector in Morocco. For that purpose, the customer capital becomes a central concern of these companies. Furthermore, the solution that seems most effective to deal with these challenges is to set up a relational dimension. In order to verify the impact of the relational dimension of marketing on customer loyalty, an empirical study was conducted with 138 customers of Moroccan telecom operators (Maroc Telecom, Meditel and Wana Corporate). The results of this study confirm that all elements of relational marketing have a positive and significant effect statistically on customer loyalty. Found and develop a customer capital is the aim of any business. To this end, Moroccan telecom operators must establish trust with customers, to notify their customers of any information deemed useful and satisfy their expectations while being close to the customer as well as personalizing the customer-company relationship.
    Abstract: Le capital client est devenu au cœur des préoccupations des entreprises en général, et des entreprises commerciales en particuliers qui font face à une typologie de clientèle de plus en plus informée et donc plus exigeante et volatile, surtout pour le secteur des télécommunications au Maroc. La mise en place d’une dimension relationnelle semble être la solution la plus pertinente pour faire face à ces enjeux. Une étude empirique a été réalisée auprès de 138 clients des opérateurs de télécommunications marocains (Maroc Telecom, Meditel, et Wana Corporate). Le but de cette enquête est d’étudier l’impact de la dimension relationnelle du marketing sur la fidélité des clients. Les résultats montrent que tous les éléments du marketing relationnel ont un impact positif et significatif statistiquement sur la fidélité des clients. Ainsi, pour construire et développer un capital client, les opérateurs téléphoniques au Maroc ont intérêt à instaurer un climat de confiance avec la clientèle, à informer leurs clients de toute information jugée utile, et à satisfaire leurs attentes tout en étant proche du client et en personnalisant la relation Client-Entreprise.
    Keywords: proximity of access to clients,Communication,Customer relationship customization,Relationship marketing,Customer loyalty,proximité d’accès aux clients.,Fidélisation des clients,Marketing relationnel,Personnalisation de la relation client
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Mariem Brahim (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN)); Nader Nefzi (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN)); Hamed Sambo (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of remittances on real effective exchange rate in MENA countries using an autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) model and three estimators, namely the Pooled Mean Group estimator, the Mean Group estimator and the dynamics common correlated effects estimator. We use data from 9 countries of MENA region for the 1980-2015 period. On the long-run, we find that migrants’ remittances towards the whole MENA countries negatively and significantly affect the real effective exchange rate. Indeed, the increase in remittances leads to a depreciation of the real exchange rate, meaning that remittances do not deteriorate the price competitiveness of the recipient countries in the long-run. Therefore, remittances do not cause the Dutch disease’s risk in MENA countries.
    Keywords: Migration, Remittances, Real effective exchange rate, Dutch Disease, Monetary policy, MENA, ARDL
    JEL: F22 F24 F31
    Date: 2017–08
  3. By: Mehrdad Vahabi (Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (CEPN))
    Abstract: In my studies, I have explored the political economy of Iran and particularly the relationship between the state and socio-economic development in this country. The importance of the oil revenue in economic development of contemporary Iran has been underlined since the early seventies and a vast literature on the rentier state and authoritarian modernization has scrutinized the specificities of the political and economic natural resource ‘curse’ in Iran. A new critical social history of the oil industry has recently endeavored to reconsider the spread effects of this industry on the emergence of new cities and labor activities. In this sense, the impact of oil revenue on economic development should be mitigated: it has not been only a ‘curse’ but also a ‘blessing’. The precious results of natural resource curse or blessing notwithstanding, this approach is insufficient to explain why some predatory states reliant on natural resources could contribute to economic development while others hinder such development. Two recent examples provide a salient illustration: why did the Shah’s regime which was dependent on oil revenues enhance economic development during 1962-1974, while Ahmadinjead’s two terms presidency (2005-2013) imped economic growth despite the quadrupling of oil revenues? In this essay, I will first introduce my theoretical framework and distinguish two types of predatory states, i.e. inclusive and exclusive (section 1). I will then apply this framework to explain oil and economic development (section 2). Section 3 will be devoted to the Shah’s regime as an inclusive predatory state, and section 4 to Ahmadinjead’s presidency as an illustration of an exclusive predatory state. A short conclusion will follow.
    Keywords: Capital flight; Captive, Intermediary and Fugitive assets; Confiscatory regimes; Inclusive and Exclusive Predatory States; Islamic Republic of Iran; Land Reform; Oil revenues; the Shah regime
    JEL: D74 H1 L32 N15 O11 O12 O14 O15 O53 Q15 Q34
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Salwa Mkik (Université Mohammed V de Rabat); Mustapha Khouilid (Université Mohammed V de Rabat); Amina Aomari (Université Mohammed V de Rabat)
    Abstract: The main intention to write this article is to determine the level of awareness and perception of Moroccan consumers through evaluating their connection to the environment, trust in green advertising promoted by companies and willingness to purchase green products. A survey was conducted to gather responses from online respondents using the social media website. Two hundred and two respondents have responded to the one week survey time, to a 24 questions questionnaire. The findings show that generally, the Moroccan consumers have some environmental awareness and a significant positive influence towards green advertising on their behaviour. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings will be discussed.
    Keywords: Environmental consumption,Green advertising,Consumer behaviour,Environmental awareness,Environmental concerns
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Krieger, Tim
    Abstract: We study the short and long run responses of income inequality to the positive oil and gas rents per capita shocks in Iran from 1973 to 2012. Using vector autoregression (VAR)-based impulse response functions, we find a positive and statistically significant response of income inequality to oil rents booms within 4 years after the shock. The Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) results show that a 10 percent increase in oil and gas rents per capita leads to 1.1 percent increase in income inequality in the long run. The results are robust after controlling for income-distribution channels in Iran. Our analysis can help policy makers to evaluate and accommodate the possible positive or negative effects of lifting sanctions on inequalities in Iran.
    Keywords: oil rents,inequality,VAR,ARDL,sanctions,Iran
    JEL: Q33 Q38 D63
    Date: 2017
  6. By: von Heyking, Carl-Anton; Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali
    Abstract: Iran is suffering from groundwater resources depletion through the excessive subsidized electricity for water pumping and the resulting disproportionate water consumption in agriculture. The creation of an alternative income sources for farmers and elimination of heavy subsidies for groundwater pumping simultaneously is a possible option for dealing with this threat. By expanding photovoltaic technology (PV) in rural areas, farmers can have an alternative source of income by supply and sale of renewable energy through feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism. The latest decision of the Ministry of Energy in Iran in 2016 for purchasing electricity which is generated by low capacity PV owners can be a solution for the above mentioned problem. This study undertakes a comparison between Germany and Iran of the development of decentralized power system and PV expansion by private owners. In direct comparison to Germany, Iran has a far higher solar radiation and significant potential for the generation of electricity through PVs. This study illuminates both countries' costs of conventional/renewable electricity power, their changing FiT's for renewable power and the renewable energy laws. Comparing the price development shows that a lucrative business arises by selling electricity for the Iranian owners of PV whereas in Germany the trend of self-consumption is clearly preferred. Innovative policies are needed to tackle infrastructural and economic challenges to exploit this potential in Iran.
    Keywords: Iran,Germany,photovoltaic technology (PV),groundwater depletion,electricity subsidy,feedintariff (FiT),decentralized power system,renewable energy laws
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Héloïse Ruaudel; Susanna Morrison-Métois
    Abstract: Displacement is at a historic high, with over 65 million individuals currently displaced. The world is facing a refugee crisis that is unprecedented in scale. A large number of evaluations look at different aspects of programming in response to refugee crises in developing countries. This paper covers the key areas and priority topics related to forced displacement identified by the Development Assisstance Committee Temporary Working Group on Refugees and Migration. It draws from evaluation findings to highlight key lessons and recommendations for positive change going forward. Key topics covered in the paper include: lessons on bridging the gap between humanitarian and development programming; efforts to strengthen international response to protracted crises; lessons on whole-of-government approaches in refugee contexts; learning from work in urban settings; improving access to employment and quality education; new financing mechanisms for refugee crises in middle income countries; and lessons on financing in response to the Syria crisis. The paper highlights the evaluation work of DAC members and aims to help strengthen the evidence base to improve response to situations of displacement in developing countries.
    Keywords: Afghanistan, conflict and fragility, donors, drivers of conflict, education, evaluation, financing mechanisms, forced displacement, fragile states, funding channels, humanitarian and development nexus, Jordan, Lebanon, policy coherence, population movements, protracted displacement, refugee children, refugee crises in middle income countries, refugee crisis, refugee employment, refugees, resilience protracted crises, root causes of conflict, secondary displacement, Somalia, South Sudan, stabilisation, Syria, urban settings, whole-of-government
    JEL: F51 F53 F55 I31 J61 L31 L38 O15 O19 R23
    Date: 2017–09–13
  8. By: Mazen J. Al Shobaki (Al-Azhar University, Gaza); Samy S, Abu Naser (Al-Azhar University, Gaza)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the reality of computerized Management Information Systems in the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education. The authors used the descriptive analytical method and the questionnaire method to collect the data. (247) questionnaires were distributed on the study sample and (175) questionnaires were collected back with a recovery rate of (70.8). The study showed a number of results, the most important of which are: there are no statistically significant differences between the responses of the sample members on the relationship of the management information systems to the quality of the administrative decisions in the Ministry of Education and Higher Education, due to the variables (gender, scientific qualification, age, career level). Statistics on the relationship of management information systems to the quality of administrative decisions in the Ministry of Education and Higher Education due to variable years of service. The study concluded that: Emphasize that in order for the Ministry of Education and Higher Education to be able to cope with the rapidly changing external environmental changes and the limited time available for the collection and analysis of information, this means that administrative information systems should be used. The need to work on increasing coordination between the various departments of the ministry because of its great impact on the success of the ministry in achieving its objectives. The importance of involving employees in making any changes and taking their suggestions about the system. The need for management to use external information to provide advice in the area of MIS as required.
    Keywords: computerized management information systems,Ministry of Education and Higher Education,Palestine
    Date: 2017–09–03
  9. By: Slimani, Slah; Ben allem, Khaoula
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explain the magnitude of the misalignment of the real exchange rate and its determinants for the MENA countries. Misalignment is defined as the deviation of the real exchange rate from its equilibrium level, unlike volatility which is defined as fluctuations that are very frequent but do not persist. Through this study, an attempt is made to broaden the traditional analysis, focusing mainly on the role of the exchange rate regimes on misalignment of the REER. On the same point of view, the roles of the persistence of misalignment, the quality of institutions, financial development and inflation in the misalignment of the real equilibrium exchange rate of the region. The results of the empirical analysis show that the most advantageous exchange rate regime for the MENA countries is the floating regime. Also, the quality of institutions, financial development and inflation are determinants of the shift of the REER from its equilibrium value.
    Keywords: reel exchange rate, MENA, misalignement, GMM
    JEL: F0 F3
    Date: 2017–01
  10. By: Omar , Chafik (Bank Al-Maghrib, Département de la Recherche)
    Abstract: Ce document de travail a pour objectif d’estimer la croissance potentielle de l’économie marocaine sur la période 1991-2016. Pour ce faire, trois méthodes ont été adoptées, à savoir le lissage statistique par le filtre HP, une approche structurelle basée sur la fonction de production et une méthode hybride exploitant les propriétés des filtres statistiques et les postulats de la théorie économique dans le cadre d’un modèle semi-structurel. Les résultats des estimations s’accordent sur une baisse de la croissance potentielle au Maroc au lendemain de la crise financière internationale et l’atonie de l’activité en Europe, renversant ainsi la tendance haussière enregistrée dès le début des années 90. La distinction entre les secteurs agricole et non-agricole dévoile une baisse généralisée du potentiel de croissance au cours des dernières années malgré une divergence par rapport aux amplitudes et aux facteurs à l’origine de ce constat. D’un côté, le ralentissement constaté dans le secteur agricole est imputable en grande partie à la contraction de la contribution du facteur travail dans la croissance potentielle. De l’autre, la baisse enregistrée dans le secteur non-agricole tiendrait davantage à l’atonie de la productivité et au fléchissement de l’investissement.
    Keywords: Croissance potentiell; filtre HP; Fonction de production; modèle semistructurel
    JEL: C51 O47
    Date: 2017–09–07
  11. By: Sara, BENAZZI (Bank Al-Maghrib, Département de la Recherche); Imane, ROUIESSI (Bank Al-Maghrib, Département de la Recherche)
    Abstract: Le présent document a pour objectif d’évaluer le degré de concurrence prévalant dans le secteur bancaire au Maroc par l’approche de Panzar et Rosse (1987). Les données utilisées couvrent la période 2000-2015. Les résultats du travail montrent que le secteur bancaire marocain affiche une concurrence monopolistique, à l’instar de plusieurs pays développés et émergents. De plus, l’analyse de l’évolution de la concurrence entre 2000 et 2015 fait ressortir une légère amélioration qui pourrait être expliquée par une conjoncture économique difficile suite à l’avènement de la crise financière de 2008, le renforcement du cadre réglementaire et l’accroissement de l’ouverture financière.
    Keywords: Banques; Concurrence; Panzar et Rosse; Structure de Marché.
    JEL: G21 L10 L11
    Date: 2017–09–06
  12. By: Ahsina, Khalifa
    Abstract: Which authors and academic institutions are most productive in management control research? These are the questions that this article seeks to answer by examining the scientific output published by the Moroccan management control review from 2009 to 2013. The following results should be highlighted: research in management control is weak. A dozen authors, produce about 50% of the research management control.
    Keywords: Management Control, Evaluation of research, scientific publications, Bibliographical approach.
    JEL: M41
    Date: 2017
  13. By: AMEDJAR, Abderrahim; CHAKHAT, Zakaria; EL BARROUZ, Bilal
    Abstract: This paper,investigate the question of the evaluation of the Moroccan fiscal space by the way of the notion of fiscal effort. This issue seems to be necessary in a context as that of Morocco where taxes generate most of the resources of the State budget. The fiscal effort is an unavoidable indicator because it simultaneously allows to assess the capacity to exploit fiscal resources and to situate actual government revenues in relation with level of levy determined by the structural factors. In order to do this, we used a random-effect model, during the 1990-2012 period, the main results: A positive fiscal effort reflects an actual levy level higher than the expected levy given the structural characteristics of the country. From this we can deduce that the revenue space is well exploited.
    Keywords: Fiscal Space;Tax Effort; Panel Data; Random Effect Model.
    JEL: H60
    Date: 2017–08–05

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