nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2017‒07‒30
twenty papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Reality Behind the Jihad in Syria: Powers, Proxies and Mercenaries By Sam Robert Benson
  2. Reviving Multilateral Security Dialogue in the MENA: Finding the Hard, but Possible, Compromise By Emilliano Alessandri
  4. Islamism in Contemporary Turkey: Spring of the locality , Winter of the Universe By Yavuz Çobano?lu
  5. Expiring neighborhood: Architecture as a tool for marketing ?home? in Istanbul/Turkey By Naime Esra Akin
  6. Analyzing Wage Differentials by Fields of Study: Evidence from Turkey By Antonio Di Paolo; Aysıt Tansel
  7. Capital accumulation and productivity gains in Morocco By Taoufik ABBAD
  8. Brazilian and Moroccan Policies for Sub-Saharan Africa: Description and Elements for Assessment By Pedro da Motta Veiga; Sandra Polónia Rios
  9. Road map for enhancing Morocco – Brazil economic relations By Sandra Polónia Rios; Pedro da Motta Veiga
  10. An Analysis of public libraries' ability to represent preschool children in terms of their missions and responsibilities By Asiye KAKIRMAN YILDIZ; Varol SAYDAM; Bahattin YALÇINKAYA
  11. The Construction of Gender in Saudi Arabia By Hanan Muhaya Alenazy
  12. A roadmap towards international quality standards for higher education sector in KSA By Maqsood Memon; S. Vijaya Gangoor
  13. Does It Matter How and How Much Politicians are Paid? By Duha T. Altindag; Elif S. Filiz; Erdal Tekin
  14. The Relationship between Energy Use, GDP, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Population, Financial Development, and Industrialization: The Case of Turkey By Esra Ball?; Salih Çam; Müge Manga; Çiler Sigeze
  15. The Use of Smartphone for Learning Activities by University Students in Kuwait By Basil Alzougool; Jarrah AlMansour
  16. Oil, Debt and Development: OPEC in the Third World By Paul Hallwood; Stuart Sinclair
  17. Effective Feedback: Students' Preferred Methods Defined By Randa Bou-Mehdi
  18. Europe’s role in North Africa: development, investment and migration By Uri Dadush; Maria Demertzis; Guntram Wolff
  19. Accumulation du capital et gains de productivité au Maroc By Taoufik ABBAD
  20. الحساب الجاري للاقتصاد السعودي عبر نموذج داخلي الزمن دلائل من منهجية نموذج التقهقر الذاتي البنيوي By Ghassan, Hassan B.; Al-Jefri, Essam H.

  1. By: Sam Robert Benson (Interregional Academy of Personnel Management)
    Abstract: Targeting Syria the so-called ?Soviet satellite? as a government or ?regimes? by the U.S. and the British administrations, the neighboring states with their interests in Syria: Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar?is not new. Battling Syria goes back precisely to the 1950s the decolonization or the postcolonial period. Then main Arab countries were in line with the colonials?the time when the CIA and MI6 started conducting covert activities in Syria ranging from plans to overthrow consequent governments to assassination plots. Macmillan and Eisenhower backed assassination plot of 3 Syrian top government officials in 1957. This started the coupe de d'état-era in Syria. The strategy was to destabilize the country and conclusively install (PPAG) Puppet-Pro-American Governments. Creating such instability had been and still is being paid for by the target countries such as the Syrians who presently became uprooted and displaced. Destabilizing Syria created chaos: not only in the Middle East and Syria, but also in the entire West itself. Europe found itself forced into paying an expensive price that was not taken into account, and will still even pay more. The Western taxpayer found himself a victim of the super power?s desperate efforts of obtaining more power and securing the flow of more oil. This paper will shed light on the facts and the actors behind the Syrian scene.
    Keywords: Syria, Jihad, Terrorism, Islam, Conflict, Isis, Daesh, IS, Islamic State, U.S., Britain, destabilization, instability.
    JEL: F50 F51 F54
    Date: 2017–05
  2. By: Emilliano Alessandri
    Abstract: While possible, prospects for repairing existing fractures through multilateral dialogue and compromise have become elusive as crises in the region persist. There are quite a few unfavorable conditions hindering the emergence of some form of multilateral security process: areas of hot conflict have widened in recent years making violence almost endemic in the region, in countries like Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Libya; the Middle East peace process is in a stalemate and already thin trust between the Israeli and Palestinian leaderships is all but gone as both have become more contested among respective constituencies and less respected abroad; in some countries, the social contract seems to be breaking after a failed Arab Spring, challenging government authority even in places like Tunisia where a fragile democratic transition audaciously continues despite growing socio-economic discontent and a deteriorating security situation; some other MENA states have become weaker as a result of chronic violence and dysfunctional governance; while non-Arab states, from Turkey to Iran, have seen an opportunity to expand their clout in a Middle East in flux, even if themselves under great pressure, extra-regional actors have never appeared more divided about the course to follow, or more distracted by other priorities.
    Date: 2017–04
    Abstract: Sponsorship; has a significant power in terms of acquisition of effective communication with the audience's sympathy and trust between institutions with the target audience. Therefore, sponsorship activities are the most important aspect of public relations.Founded in 1933 in Turkey and nowadays being a Star Alliance member, with the national quality award in aerospace industry, which is a global brand that has many international awards, Turkish Airlines flies to 275 more destinations in the world and attributes great importance to the sponsorship.In this research, Turkish Airlines' ?Batman V Superman Dawn of Justice? movie sponsorship and the aimed goals through this sponsorship are discussed. In the first part of the study, Turkish Airlines? foundation history and branding period have been discussed. Additionally other sponsorship activities of the company have been revisited. The main part of "Batman V Superman Dawn of Justice" movie sponsorship has been investigated further as the spotlight. At this point; it has been focused on movie?s adaptation to brand sponsorship, sponsorship objectives and results.In order to collect the primary data, in-dept interview will be held. Also secondary data will be collected from the marketing literature and related trade magazines, websites. The results of this sponsorship case are significant in guiding other Turkish brands during branding process.
    Keywords: Marketing communication, sponsorship, Turkish Airlines
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Yavuz Çobano?lu (Munzur Universty)
    Abstract: Today, Islamic thought in all over the world, political practices and religion based on all social relations, Solid, unshakable, unchangeable, basic ideals appear as the ideological face of a returning claim. In fact, this emergence is nothing more than a political movement that is thought to have "lagged behind" the Age of Enlightenment, in the modern era and with new means (TV, social media channels, etc.), as the earthly ideals and thoughts gradually lose ground. This political trend in the name of Islamism is also seen as the duty of God to regulate the will and will of the world and to make a "re-judge" in every field, which is also the sole purpose of human life.Turkey, which was once in a Western-style struggle for modernization, is under the influence of a similar idea of Islamism. This article will try to present an analysis of Islamic thought in Turkey through topics like democratic values and Islamic thought, how differences can live together, conflict between local values and universal values.
    Keywords: Turkey; Islamism; Democracy and Secularism
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Naime Esra Akin (Istanbul Kultur University)
    Abstract: Istanbul is one of the metropolitan areas connected to the globe in many ways. Since 1980, Turkey is open to the effects of the consumer culture. TV series, imported goods, brand names, commercials, working practices, etc. changed not only our everyday life, but our values as well. ?Competing?, ?show off? and ?money? are the basic motivation for the society instead of ?solidarity?, ?sensitivity? and ?respect?. Architecture is in use of the economy policy as one of the tools supporting the social change towards a capital oriented mass. The criterion to buy a house is its exchange value instead of its use value as a ?home?. A house is not considered as a ?home ?to enjoy our individual/family life any more. Masses are being manipulated to think the house as an asset for investment on sale. The program and the spatial organization of the houses depend on the rules of marketing, instead of beauty, strength, or use as it used to be in the history of architecture.Considering the percentage of housing in the context of the built environment, and the effect of the space on the human mind/body, it is easy to imagine this consumerist approach of housing will cause a big change on the urban dynamics. The neighborhoods in Istanbul are already under attack of the contractor companies. High-rise residences with some commercial facilities have been constructed and sold for high prices. In a short period, this pattern of production has become a conventional practice of the production of housing. This paper presents a fragment from the current everyday life in Istanbul drifting attention to the contradiction in-between the demands of the housing market and the embedded value of the societal relations at the neighborhoods. The target is showing the upcoming danger of losing the human values, values of architecture and the city as a living organism, and questioning the possibilities for a better future.
    Keywords: Istanbul, neighborhood, housing, gated community, everyday life, consumer thought, society, architecture
    JEL: R31 A12 Z00
    Date: 2017–07
  6. By: Antonio Di Paolo (Department of Econometrics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain); Aysıt Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the drivers of wage differences among college graduates who hold a degree in a different field of study. We focus on Turkey, an emerging country that is characterized by a sustained expansion of higher education. We estimate conditional wage gaps by field of study using OLS regressions. Average differentials are subsequently decomposed into the contribution of observable characteristics (endowment) and unobservable characteristics (returns). To shed light on distributional wage disparities by field of study, we provide estimates along the unconditional wage distribution by means of RIF-Regressions. Finally, we also decompose the contribution of explained and unexplained factors in accounting for wage gaps along the whole distribution. As such, this is the first work providing evidence on distributional wage differences by college major for a developing country. The results indicate the existence of important wage differences by field of study, which are partly accounted by differences in observable characteristics (especially occupation and, to a lesser extent, employment sector). These pay gaps are also heterogeneous over the unconditional distribution of wages, as is the share of wage differentials that can be attributed to differences in observable characteristics across workers with degrees in different fields of study.
    Keywords: Fields of Study, Wage Differentials, Decomposition, Unconditional Wage Distribution, Turkey
    JEL: J31 J24 I23 I26
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Taoufik ABBAD
    Abstract: The continuous and reinforced process of accumulating physical capital, in which Morocco has embarked since the early 2000s, has helped to preserve the stability of the fundamental equilibrium and cushion the economy from various external and exogenous shocks. However, these accumulation efforts have not led to a significant increase in productivity gains or to an accelerated transformation of the productive base. This Policy Brief aims to describe the underpinnings of the capital accumulation process in Morocco and highlight the chronic inhibitors that constrain the Moroccan economy to the impacts of low productivity.
    Date: 2017–07
  8. By: Pedro da Motta Veiga; Sandra Polónia Rios
    Abstract: This paper retraces Brazil and Morocco’s economic strategies towards Sub-Saharan Africa since the beginning of the century, highlighting the characteristics and evaluating the performance of the instruments used to promote the flows of trade, investment and cooperation between each of the two countries and the Sub-Saharan region. The paper also includes an assessment of these policies, as well as conclusions and recommendations.
    Date: 2017–06
  9. By: Sandra Polónia Rios; Pedro da Motta Veiga
    Abstract: There is much room for deepening Brazil and Morocco’s bilateral economic relationship, in the fields of trade and investment flows. This is the main conclusion of the assessment of both countries external economic relations and of their bilateral trade and investment flows. This policy brief aims at presenting a roadmap for fostering bilateral economic relations, focusing on the avenues for a bilateral free trade agreement and for bilateral treaties on investment promotion. This approach is based on the findings that the trade and industrial policies adopted by both countries create important obstacles to bilateral trade.
    Date: 2017–04
  10. By: Asiye KAKIRMAN YILDIZ (Marmara University); Varol SAYDAM (Marmara University); Bahattin YALÇINKAYA (Marmara University)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to emphasise that, in order for reading culture to be instilled and for reading to become a habit in Turkey, not only does reading as an activity need to be instilled in children at preschool level, but to also stress that public libraries need to adopt an active role in the embedding of the notion of the book and reading in the minds of children of preschool age. International standards state that public libraries should devote at least 25% of their collections, services and activities to children. Within the scope of this study, the efficiency of public libraries in terms of children?s services including the library as a space will be examined, in addition to determining the extent to which the preschool period is included in the planning of services. For the purposes of this study, a ?current situational analysis? comprising of 20 criteria was undertaken of public libraries operating in 30 different districts of Istanbul. Throughout this process, ?Guidelines for Library Services to Babies and Toddlers? prepared by IFLA was used as a reference for questionnaires and research documentation. The research carried out revealed that those public libraries that were effective and efficient in the districts in which they operated in were preferred by preschool children and their families. The results of the study also determined that these libraries were pioneering in terms of promoting reading as a habit and library use, because of the services and activities they provided.
    Keywords: Reading habit, public libraries, preschool period, Turkey
    Date: 2017–05
  11. By: Hanan Muhaya Alenazy (University of Leicester)
    Abstract: Gender equality is a controversial issue and has been a constant subject of debate across the world in varied domains and disciplines, particularly in the field of Higher Education (HE). Several scholars distinguish between the terms gender and sex. They believe that gender is a social construct and learnt behaviour, while sex is perceived as a biological category (McHugh 2007). Such differences in gender can be viewed as a cultural phenomenon, generating from the dominant concepts of a specific culture or era (Weiner 2010).It is argued that Muslim women are enslaved through oppression and inequality (Aquil 2012). Such inequality can be recognised in varied forms, for instance, their underrepresentation in several areas of achievement and progress particularly in acceding to senior management positions in academia. It seems that there is no exception for women in Saudi Arabia either, who might encounter such issues. Certain factors can be attributed to why women, particularly in Saudi Arabia, are not accorded career progression like their male counterparts, the primary one being the fact that 60% of Saudi women are homemakers (Alharbi 2014). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the intersection and influence of wider social discourses, religion, culture, and traditions on the role of Saudi women at work and exploring the nature and root causes of discrimination. My research methodology utilised a qualitative approach in the form of multiple case studies. This research was performed from a feminist standpoint. Feminist research brings gender to the foreground and endeavours to understand social phenomena from the perspective of women (Cohen et al. 2013). Similarly, as stated by Lather (1998) a leading scholar in feminist research, the purpose of such ideological study is to ?correct both the invisibility and distortion of female experience in ways relevant to ending women?s unequal social position?. The research sample comprised 25 participants, all female academics from five state universities, selected intentionally for this research, who had either been promoted to leadership positions or not. Additionally, there were five male participants who were considered key informants, closely connected with the formulation and implementation of policies in HE institutions in Saudi Arabia. This paper addresses the following question: To what extent are the obstacles that Saudi female academics face within the university, a reflection of the influence of wider social discourses, religion, cultures, and traditions on the role of Saudi working women?
    Keywords: Gender construction, Saudi women, wider social discourses, religion, cultures, and traditions.
    JEL: Z12 D63 Z18
    Date: 2017–07
  12. By: Maqsood Memon (Al Yamamah University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); S. Vijaya Gangoor (Dr.G.S.Vijaya2)
    Abstract: Globalization of education, job market and changing needs of the industry for graduates? qualities, attributes and skills sets has enhanced the importance of quality and innovation in teaching, learning and administration of higher education institutes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). KSA?s National Transformation Program realize the importance of quality in higher education for the transition of Saudi economy from an over-reliance on oil revenues to a more balanced and investment based model. Ensuring graduates? quality to meet the requirements of national and international job market and increasing private sector participation in education are two of the education strategic objectives of the National Transformation Program.It is mandatory for the higher education institutes in KSA to obtain institutional level accreditation from the Education Evaluation Commission for Higher Education (EEC-HE) of KSA. This paper makes an attempt in understanding the national and international quality standards in a Higher education sector; investigate the commonalities of both standards and explore the opportunities for KSA?s institutes to obtain international accreditation at program level by using national accreditation as a foundation. The study is based on extensive literature review and qualitative case analysis. The study found that the evidence of documented procedure and practices in compliance with national accreditation?s standards and criteria are very comprehensive. Implemented standards of the national accreditation (EEC-HE) provide strong foundation and evidence to meet the requirements of international accreditation such as ACBSP. International accreditation can help institute to implement world class practices in teaching, learning and administration, enhance faculty and staff morale, increase graduates? employability and acceptance in global education and job market.
    Keywords: Quality Management Systems in Higher Education. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for Higher Education. Accreditation Council for Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP).
    Date: 2017–05
  13. By: Duha T. Altindag; Elif S. Filiz; Erdal Tekin
    Abstract: An important question in representative democracies is how to ensure that politicians behave in the best interest of citizens rather than their own private interests. Aside from elections, one of the few institutional devices available to regulate the actions of politicians is their pay structure. In this paper, we provide fresh insights into the impact of politician salaries on their performance using a unique law change implemented in 2012 in Turkey. Specifically, the members of the parliament (MPs) in Turkey who are retired from their pre-political career jobs earn a pension bonus on top of their MP salaries. The law change in 2012 significantly increased the pension bonus by pegging it to 18 percent of the salary of the President of Turkey, while keeping the salaries of non-retired MPs unchanged. By exploiting the variation in total salaries caused by the new law in a difference-in-differences framework, we find that the salary increase had a negative impact on the performance of the retired MPs. In particular, the overall performance of these MPs was lowered by 12.3 percent of a standard deviation as a result of the increase in salary caused by the new law. This finding is robust to numerous specification tests. Furthermore, results obtained from an auxiliary analysis suggest that one of the mechanisms through which MPs reduce their performance is absenteeism.
    JEL: J22 J26 J33 J45
    Date: 2017–07
  14. By: Esra Ball? (Çukurova University); Salih Çam (Çukurova University); Müge Manga (Çukurova University); Çiler Sigeze (Çukurova University)
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between energy use, GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, population, financial development, and industrialization utilizing ARDL and artificial neural network for Turkey. The data covers the period from 1968 to 2013. The study performed a two stage analysis. At the first stage, we examined the long run relationship and causality between variables. The variables are found to be cointegrated. The Granger causality test results shows that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy use to both carbon dioxide emissions and industrialization. According to the artificial neural network results, the most important effect on energy use comes from GDP. The predicted energy use from 1968 to 2013 has maximum absolute error of % 11. 31 and minimum absolute error of %0.07. Neural network evidence shows that the R-square coefficient is 98% for the sample period.
    Keywords: Energy use, ARDL, Neural network, Turkey
    JEL: C10 Q43 C22
    Date: 2017–07
  15. By: Basil Alzougool (Arab Open University); Jarrah AlMansour (Arab Open University)
    Abstract: There has been a shortage of relevant studies concerning Smartphone usage in Kuwait by people in general and students in particular. The aim of this study was therefore twofold: (i) to explore the use of Smartphone for learning purposes among universities' students in Kuwait and (ii) to identify if there are any socio-demographic differences in this usage among universities' students. A questionnaire with 376 students was conducted in order to achieve the study objectives. The results showed that generally students always used their Smartphones at their homes and they sometimes used these phones in recreation places and transportation, at university, and while walking. Also, they always used their Smartphones to do ten learning activities namely checking the exams schedule, checking class timetable, checking grades, login to the university portal, using blackboard (LMS), using it to participate in the class learning groups, downloading class material, registering courses, reading tutors' announcements, and payment of fees. Moreover, social networking, learning, privacy, and safety were important reasons for owning/using Smartphones by students. Furthermore, the study found that at least one learning activity that students did using their Smartphones varies according to at least one of seven socio-demographic variables (i.e., gender, major, nationality, brand of Smartphone, using it for the first time, age range and level of study). In contrast, one demographic variable has no effect on any of the learning activities (i.e., marital status). Several recommendations were suggested based on these findings that may improve the effectiveness of Smartphone usage among universities' students in Kuwait.
    Keywords: Smartphone Use LearningKuwait
    Date: 2017–05
  16. By: Paul Hallwood (University of Connecticut); Stuart Sinclair (Lloyds Bank)
    Abstract: Our original monograph, Oil, Debt and Development: OPEC in the Third World was re-issued in 2016. As there was not enough time to write a new Preface reflecting how our ideas had stood the test of time, we offer this short paper touching on some of the book’s main themes, in particular, the nature of OPEC as a cartel, the terms of trade between oil prices and developing country non-oil primary commodity export prices, the generosity of Arab foreign aid, oil prices and oil importing countries’ foreign debts, and the importance of migrant worker remittances from Arab OPEC host countries to the main sending countries.
    Keywords: OPEC, Arab aid, oil exports, oil shock
    JEL: F5
    Date: 2017–07
  17. By: Randa Bou-Mehdi (American University of Sharjah)
    Abstract: This presentation discusses what the term "effective feedback" means in literature, and how this definition compares with how multicultural students studying at an American institution in the Middle East perceive it. By referring to students? experiences in the classroom, this presentation highlights success stories from the writing classroom in the 21st century, where technology provides students and teachers with more opportunities for both synchronous and asynchronous feedback that mimics the interaction that takes place in brick and mortar classrooms. From face-to-face student-teacher conferences to online feedback mediated by learning management systems, 60 multicultural students at an American institution in the Middle East experience it all and reflect on their preferred methods. While students appreciate their professors' use of rubrics to give them timely, objective feedback, the majority benefit from the oral feedback provided to them in class, during office hours, or during pre-scheduled teacher-student conferences.
    Keywords: writing, synchronous and asynchronous feedback, student-teacher conferences, e-rubrics, online feedback, writing workshops, reflective learning, composition
    Date: 2017–07
  18. By: Uri Dadush; Maria Demertzis; Guntram Wolff
    Abstract: Africa’s population is projected to reach almost 2.5 billion by 2050. Migration from Africa to the EU is relatively stable, at around 500,000 migrants per year, or 0.1 percent of the EU population, yet irregular immigration into the EU has increased recently. Development is often seen as the way to reduce migration but the development-migration nexus is complex. At low levels of development, migration might increase with rising GDP per capita. This applies to most of sub-Saharan Africa. By contrast, North African countries are among the continent’s more developed economies. Their geographical positions make them natural partners for the EU. The region is diverse but political instability has been a common feature that in recent years has hindered economic development. Cyclical factors and deep-rooted structural weaknesses have also contributed to weak economic performance. Conditions for business are relatively poor and trade barriers in some sectors have prevented integration either between these countries or into global value chains. We propose five ways in which EU policymakers can contribute to development in North Africa and build partnerships on trade, investment and migration.
    Date: 2017–05
  19. By: Taoufik ABBAD
    Abstract: Le processus continu et renforcé de l’accumulation du capital physique, dans lequel s’est engagé le Maroc depuis le début des années 2000, a permis de préserver la stabilité des équilibres fondamentaux et d’amortir les différents chocs exogènes, aussi bien internes qu’externes. Cependant, cet effort d’accumulation n’a pas permis d’insuffler un accroissement significatif des gains de productivité et d’accélérer la transformation de la base productive. Ce Policy Brief propose de décrire les soubassements du processus d’accumulation du capital au Maroc et de mettre en exergue les inhibiteurs chroniques qui condamnent l’économie marocaine aux affres d’une productivité faible.
    Date: 2017–07
  20. By: Ghassan, Hassan B.; Al-Jefri, Essam H.
    Abstract: The paper aims to analyze the current account of the Saudi economy using an intertemporal modeling and tested by the structural VAR methodology. By deriving the long-run current account to GDP ratio, we analyze the impacts of global and local shocks on the current account. Considering that the Saudi economy is linked to international demand for oil products and domestic demand for consumer goods and technological products, the variances in the current account and output are inevitably influenced by international shocks. The findings indicate that the long-run impact of local shocks on the current account variance exceeds by 3.92 percent its impact on the output variance, reflecting the explanation power of local dynamic shock on the current account growth. Most of the previous papers suggest that the local impact dominates the international one (Souki and Enders 2008), and few papers advocate that the global impact exceeds the domestic effect Hoffmann (2013). The shocks analysis on the Saudi current account exhibits the relative dominance of the global markets shocks, but local and mainly supply shocks have significant impacts on the current account, referring to a dual local and global influence.
    Keywords: Current account, Intertemporal modeling, Shocks, SVAR model, KSA.
    JEL: C5 F4 G1
    Date: 2016–09

This nep-ara issue is ©2017 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.