nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒10‒02
eleven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and International Trade: Evidence from Turkey. By Burcu Ozcan; Hiranya Nath
  2. Participation of Turkey in Global Value Chains: An Analysis Based on World Input Output Database By Ceren Gündoğdu; Dürdane Şirin Saracoğlu
  3. Financial Deepening-Economic Performance Nexus, An attempt to Study Granger-Causality through Spectral Time Series Analysis in MENA Countries By Badry Hechmy
  4. MEDIATEURS effects innovative behavior of the owner-manager on the relationship between human capital and the success of small and medium-sized enterprises in Tunisia By Ammar Samout; Sami Boudabous
  5. The Gap between Educational & Social Intergenerational Mobility in Arab Countries By Driouchi, Ahmed; Gamar, Alae
  6. Using Inclusive Wealth for Policy Evaluation: Application to Electricity Infrastructure Planning in Oil-Exporting Countries By Collins, Ross D.; Selin, Noelle E.; de Weck, Olivier L.; Clark, William C.
  7. Impact of the Presence of an Audit Committee on the Stock Market Performance of Tunisian Banks By Ammar Sammout; Nejia Nekâa
  8. Battling Terrorism: Iran?s Rouhani vs. Prince Muhammad Bin Nayef By Dr. Majid Rafizadeh
  9. Finansal İstikrar ve Para Vakıfları Etkisi: Rumeli Para Vakıfları Örnekleri By Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem
  10. Pensions sociales et réduction de la pauvreté. Le cas du Maroc. By Loumrhari, Ghizlan
  11. تقدير وتحليل دالة استجابة القمح في مصر By Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed; Safwat, Maha

  1. By: Burcu Ozcan (Department of Economics, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey); Hiranya Nath (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impacts of information and communication technology (ICT) on international trade between Turkey and its trading partners. Based on an extended panel gravity model, the effects of four ICT indices on Turkish bilateral exports and imports are examined with static and dynamic panel data models for the period 2000-2014. The sample includes 35 countries that import Turkish goods and 34 countries that export goods to Turkey. The results indicate that ICT has positive and significant impacts on both Turkish import and export volumes. Additionally, ICT has a larger effect on imports than on exports. Among ICT indices, ICT access has the largest effect on exports while ICT skills have the strongest impact on imports. In contrast, ICT use has the least impact on both Turkish exports and imports. These results are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods. Based on these results, some policy implications can be derived. For instance, Turkey may develop strategic trading partnerships with countries that have high levels of ICT endowments, in order to increase its overall trade.
    Keywords: : Information and Communication Technology; international trade; trade costs; gravity model; panel data models
    JEL: F10 F14 O30
    Date: 2016–09
  2. By: Ceren Gündoğdu (Republic of Turkey Ministry of Economy 06530 Ankara, Turkey); Dürdane Şirin Saracoğlu (Department of Economics, METU)
    Abstract: This study examines the trends in Turkey’s participation in Global Value Chains (GVCs), particularly through backward integration (i.e. vertical specialization-VS or the foreign content of value added in exports) between 1995 and 2011 utilizing the World Input Output Database (WIOD), and this is the first attempt to adopt WIOD for analyzing VS in Turkish exports at sectoral and trade partner dimensions. The findings show that Turkey’s VS has increased between 1995 and 2011. Considering the sectoral trends in manufacturing with respect to technological classification, especially in the 2000’s, Turkey’s VS share in mid-high and high-tech sectors has increased faster than that in mid-low as well as low tech sectors. At individual partner level, Germany, China, Italy and France play important roles in VS of Turkish exports. Although Germany sustained the largest contribution to Turkey’s VS up to 2010, in 2010 China became the top contributing country; however this contribution is chiefly in a low-tech industry such as textiles, thus is not necessarily conducive to Turkey’s upgrading her position in GVCs. In that respect, integration into the GVCs through technology-intensive sectors via the technology imported from developed countries might better help improve Turkey’s position in the world markets.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains; Backward participation; Vertical Specialization; WIOD; Turkey
    JEL: F10 F13 F60
    Date: 2016–09
  3. By: Badry Hechmy (Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management of Tunis)
    Abstract: In this paper it is considered that the series may have a repetitive or cyclical behavior across time by referring to the Fourier analysis; which is an important part in the modern treatment of Economic Time Series. The goal of this is to test the causality Granger between financial deepening and economic performance in MENA countries using the spectral analysis that is a special case of the Fourier analysis; according to different time horizons (short, medium and long term) without subdividing the study period which extends from 1970 to 2014. For reliable results, the sample was divided into two subsamples, the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which have a high income, and other countries. On high frequencies, estimates show that the real and financial sectors maintain causal relationships, showing a limit of the conventional method of causality assessment that sets in many cases a complete lack of connection between the proxies. In the long term, finance dominates in some Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries while we have the opposite effect in other countries. The main conclusion that one can reach is that the causal relationship between finance and growth is not linear, but it varies depending on the chosen time horizon.
    Keywords: Granger Causality,Financial Depth,Economic Performance,Spectral Analysis,Fourier Transform
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Ammar Samout (University of Sfax, Tunisia); Sami Boudabous (University of Sfax, Tunisia)
    Abstract: The studies on the innovative behavior of the owner-manager in the context of Tunisia have not been the subject of a great interest in our environment. We are interested in the influence of human capital on the success of small and medium sized Tunisian businesses through the mediation of the innovative behavior of the owner-manager. To answer the above question, of descriptive analysis and econometric techniques have been conducted on a sample of 275 owners-leader of different sectors of the economy. This study has helped to identify the impact of human capital, represented by the behavioral factors, the socio-demographic factors and psychological factors, on the success of small and medium-sized enterprises and to see, in effect, that our results are consistent with those of the theory. It is clear from the results of this research that the motivation, the experience and culture of the owner-leader have an indirect effect on the success of SMES, while the effect of the level of training has been completely disappeared once the variable innovative behavior of the owner-manager is introduced.
    Keywords: officer,HRM policies,small business,personality
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Driouchi, Ahmed; Gamar, Alae
    Abstract: Abstract: With a high rate of unemployment in most Arab countries, this paper investigates the relationship between social and educational mobility. World Bank databases on income and unemployment rates are used for the assessment of both types of mobility. The attained results show that Arab countries are facing large discrepancies between education trends and income mobility. Eastern and Central European countries, with similar economic trends, show also similar patterns of mobility. While the literature review reports the pervasive nature of such phenomenon, Arab countries need adequate policies to overcome the likely negative impacts from the low economic and high education mobility.
    Keywords: Keywords: Intergenerational income; intergenerational educational attainment; Arab countries; Eastern European economies
    JEL: I25 J62
    Date: 2016–09–24
  6. By: Collins, Ross D. (Institute for Data, Systems, and Society, MIT I); Selin, Noelle E. (MIT); de Weck, Olivier L. (MIT); Clark, William C. (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Decision-makers often seek to design policies that support sustainable development. Prospective evaluations of how effectively such policies are likely to meet sustainability goals have nonetheless remained relatively challenging. Evaluating policies against sustainability goals can be facilitated through the inclusive wealth framework, which characterizes development in terms of the value to society of its underlying capital assets, and defines development to be potentially sustainable if that value does not decline over time. The inclusive wealth approach has been developed at a theoretical level and previously applied to retrospective evaluations. Here, we apply inclusive wealth theory to prospective policy evaluation coupled with dynamic simulation modeling, using a case of electricity infrastructure policies in oil-exporting countries. To demonstrate the prospective evaluation, we analyze investment policies in non-fossil electricity capacity in terms of their forecast impact on inclusive wealth. Illustrative results show that investing in non-fossil capacity in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait can increase the countries' inclusive wealth, though the impacts depend on future uncertainties. In contrast, the UAE's net inclusive wealth declines under similar investment policies. Finally, expanding the estimation of benefits to include human capital improvements can substantially increase net inclusive wealth, though calculated benefits vary across the countries.
    Date: 2016–03
  7. By: Ammar Sammout (Faculty of Economics and management, University of Sfax); Nejia Nekâa (Faculty of Economics and management, University of Sfax)
    Abstract: The question of performance is located in the heart of the issue of the governance of the banks. The purpose of this issue is whether the governance mechanisms significantly explain the performance level. This paper aims to study the impact of the presence of an audit committee on the stock market performance of Tunisian banks.
    Keywords: Audit Committee,governance,performance,stocks market,banks,Tunisia
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Dr. Majid Rafizadeh
    Abstract: The top priority of world leaders gathered at the 71st session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA 71), was combating global terrorism. The United Nations is a platform that can rally global and multi-lateral support, cooperation and efforts for counterterrorism. Although other topics were discussed, the critical question of the day shared by many nations was, as a global community, how could we battle terrorism? A constructive, multilateral and modern approach is needed to battle modern methods of terrorism conducted by state or non-state actors.
    Date: 2016–09
  9. By: Bulut, Mehmet; Korkut, Cem
    Abstract: Vakıflar, İslam toplumlarında yardımlaşmanın ve toplumsal dayanışmanın yanında sosyal ve ekonomik hayatın önemli unsurları olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Vakıfların en önemli özelliği bu yardımlaşma ve dayanışmayı kurumsal hale getirmeleridir. Osmanlı Devleti’nde toplumsal hayatta çok önemli bir yer tutan vakıflar, Osmanlı Devleti’nin bir vakıf medeniyeti olarak anılmasına vesile olmuştur. Yapılan akademik çalışmalar ve analizler de vakıfların ekonomik sistemde merkez hazinesi ve tımar sisteminin hemen arkasında üçüncü bir ekonomik kurum olarak ortaya çıktığını göstermektedir. Bu sebeple, Osmanlı ekonomik yapısı üzerine yapılacak çalışmalarda vakıfların rolünü incelemek de oldukça önemlidir. Bu vakıfların bir türü “para (nukud) vakıfları” bu çalışmanın konusunu oluşturacaktır. Birincil kaynaklardan incelenen vakfiyeler üzerinden para vakıfların kuruluşları ve dayandıkları İslami arka plan incelenecektir. Ayrıca bu vakıfların uyguladıkları kâr oranlarının uzun dönemli analizi üzerinde durulacaktır. Aynı dönemlerde Avrupa’da uygulanan faiz oranları ile Osmanlı para vakıflarının kâr oranlarının karşılaştırması yapılacaktır. Bölge olarak Rumeli’nin seçilmesi de bu bölge hakkında para vakıfları hakkında yeterli derecede çalışma olmamasından ötürüdür. We meet waqf not only institutions provided the assistance and social solidarity between people but also an important elements of social and economic life in Islamic societies. The most important feature of waqf is to make this cooperation and solidarity institutional. The waqfs that had a very important place in social life in the Ottoman State have been instrumental that Ottoman State is a civilization of waqfs. Academic studies and analysis also shows that waqf system was third place in economic institutions after central treasury and timar system in economic system (Özcan, 2008, p. 143). Therefore, it is important to examine the role of waqf in studies on Ottoman economic structure. One type of this waqfs, “cash waqfs” will be subject of this study. The establishment procedure of cash waqfs and Islamic background of cash waqfs will be examined from primary sources (waqfiyahs). Moreover, we will emphasized long-term analysis on the profit rates that were determined by cash waqfs. The comparison between the European interest rates and profit rates of Ottoman cash waqfs at same era will be made. The region of Rumelia is selected as subject because there are not enough works about cash waqfs in this region.
    Keywords: Para Vakıfları, Osmanlı Devleti, Rumeli, Vakfiye, İslam Ekonomisi, Finansal İstikrar, Cash Waqfs, the Ottoman State, Rumelia, Waqfiyah, Islamic Economics, Financial Stability.
    JEL: G23 N2 N23 N25 N35
    Date: 2016–05–01
  10. By: Loumrhari, Ghizlan
    Abstract: This paper is interested in the question of the social pensions. In Morocco a big part of the elderly in Morocco perceives no pension and no transfer of any form. To solve the problem of the poverty of the elderly persons passes by the implementation of a social pension. This article is dedicated in particular, on examination of the situation of the elderly in Morocco, in review of literature of the effects of the social pensions and in micro-simulation, in the case of Morocco, effects of the introduction of a social pension. The results show that the implementation of a social pension of an equivalent amount at the poverty line allows to eradicate the poverty of the elderly and to reduce the disparities. This policy is all the more interesting as its cost does not seem exaggerated. When this pension is targeted its cost is 0.33 % of the GDP.
    Keywords: Régimes de retraite, pensions sociales, pauvreté des personnes âgées, Maroc.
    JEL: H3 H55 I3 J26
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed; Safwat, Maha
    Abstract: Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 26 No. 1, P> 213-224, Published by Egyptian association of Agricultural Economics
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2016

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