nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒08‒21
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth nexus: Evidence from panel Granger causality test By Hamrita, Mohamed Essaied; Mekdam, Mejdi
  2. Exporting and Workforce Skills-Intensity in the Egyptian Manufacturing Firms: Empirical Evidence Using World Bank Firm-Level Data for Egypt By Ahmed Fayez Abdelgouad
  3. Disability and Labor Force Participation: Evidence from Turkish Males By Burcu Düzgün Öncel; Deniz Karaoğlan
  4. Politics, Policies and Prospects of the MENA Region By Uri Dadush
  5. Industry Wage Differentials and Working Conditions in Turkey: A Brief Note By Polat, Sezgin
  6. Can Natural Gas Save Lives? Evidence from the Deployment of a Fuel Delivery System in a Developing Country By Cesur, Resul; Tekin, Erdal; Ulker, Aydogan
  7. Structure des échanges entre le Maroc et l’Afrique : Une analyse de la spécialisation du commerce By Uri Dadush

  1. By: Hamrita, Mohamed Essaied; Mekdam, Mejdi
    Abstract: This paper examines the empirical causal relationship between energy consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth for six oil-exporting countries from the Golf Cooperation Council (GCC) region over the period 2000:2011. Bootstrap panel Granger causality test approach is used which take account the cross-sectional dependency and the heterogeneity across countries. The empirical results support a bi-directional causality between economic growth and energy consumption for Bahrin and one-way Granger causality running from economic growth to energy consumption for United Emirate Arab and Qatar. Regarding to GDP-CO2 emissions nexus, a reverse relationship from CO2 to GDP for Bahrin and Kuwait is found. However, a two-way Granger causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption for United Arab Emirate is found.
    Keywords: Energy consumption, CO2 emissions, economic growth, bootstrap panel causality test, Cross-sectional dependence, Heterogeneity, GCC.
    JEL: C1 C3 Q2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2016–07–20
  2. By: Ahmed Fayez Abdelgouad (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: The World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys (WES( for the manufacturing firms in Egypt are used to study the characteristics of exporting firms and the determinants of the exporting behavior in the Egyptian manufacturing sector in general and to investigate the link between the exporting activities and the workforce skills-intensity in the Egyptian manufacturing sector in specific. Several methods to estimate the probability and intensity of exporting are presented. The main findings indicate that firms in the manufacturing sector in Egypt which their workforce are characterized by higher levels of skills-intensity are more likely to export compared to other firms with lower levels of skills-intensity. Firms that hire female workers are more likely to export than other firms which do not employ women. Furthermore, firms that are larger in their size, have R&D departments, and owned by foreigners are more likely to export than others and have statistically significant effects on export intensity as well. The results suggest also that firms that are larger in their size are more likely to start to export than others.
    Keywords: Exporting, Workforce skills, World Bank Enterprise Surveys, Egypt, Manufacturing
    JEL: J24 F14 F16
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Burcu Düzgün Öncel (Department of Economics, Marmara University); Deniz Karaoğlan (Visiting Scholar, Department of Economics, METU)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to examine the influence of disability status on labor force participation of males aged between 25 and 64. Our attention is only on males in order to avoid complications arising from gender differences in disability and labor force participation. The data is from Turkish Health Survey (THS) for the year 2012 prepared by Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT). We believe that revealing the differences in labor outcomes that can be attributed to disability status of individuals would be important to understand labor market dynamics of a developing and young populated country; Turkey. We define disability as an impairment of long term health conditions that lasts more than six months which restricts individual in daily activities and categorize individuals as non-disabled, disabled with no limitations, disabled with some limitations and disabled with severe limitations by controlling work related disabilities. In the first part of the study we provide descriptive analysis on the relationship between disability status and labor market states. We observe that higher share of disabled individuals with severe limitations are out of labor force in every age and low educated individuals experience more disabilities. In the second part, we first estimate probit equations in order to see the relationship between disability and labor force participation, then we implement propensity score matching (PSM) techniques in order to overcome selection bias. PSM results indicate that severe disability prevents males from entering into the labor force, whereas being non-disabled increases the probability of being in the labor force.
    Keywords: disability, labor force participation, probit, propensity score matching
    JEL: I12 J21 J24 C31 C34
    Date: 2016–08
  4. By: Uri Dadush
    Abstract: The MENA region is vital for Europe economically as a source of energy and as a large and historically rapidly growing market. Politically, however, it is a source of unwanted migration, conflicts, and geopolitical instability. This Policy Brief analyzes the diversity of the MENA region by highlighting some economic features. It also discusses a reform agenda for the region based on the prospects of this area.
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Polat, Sezgin
    Abstract: In this article, we test the compensating wage differentials hypothesis for the manufacturing industry using official industrial accident figures provided by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and wage data for the 2009-2014 Household Labor Force Surveys. First, we estimate a standard hedonic wage equation for the fatal and injury risk at the industrial level. After controlling for industry effects, the positive injury risk compensation disappears and becomes insignificant while the fatal risk premium reverses its sign from positive to negative. For an alternative estimation, we also used a two-step procedure by regressing industry wage differentials on working conditions including accident risk and several industry-specific averages. The results show, contrary to the compensating wage differentials hypothesis, that poor working conditions (higher fatal risk, longer working hours and high turn-over rate) are associated with lower wage compensation at the industry level. Our findings reveal a segmented labor market where low pay sectors are characterized by poor working conditions.
    Keywords: Hedonic Wages; Wage Differentials; Working Hours; Work Accident; Fatal Risk; Turkey
    JEL: J28 J31 J81
    Date: 2016–08–15
  6. By: Cesur, Resul (University of Connecticut); Tekin, Erdal (American University); Ulker, Aydogan (Deakin University)
    Abstract: There has been a widespread displacement of coal by natural gas as space heating and cooking technology in Turkey in the last two decades, triggered by the deployment of natural gas networks. In this paper, we examine the impact of this development on mortality among adults and the elderly. Our research design exploits the variation in the timing of the deployment and the intensity of expansion of natural gas networks at the provincial level using data from 2001 to 2014. The results indicate that the expansion of natural gas services has caused significant reductions in both the adult and the elderly mortality rates. According to our point estimates, a one-percentage point increase in the rate of subscriptions to natural gas services would lower the overall mortality rate by 1.4 percent, the adult mortality rate by 1.9 percent, and the elderly mortality rate by 1.2 percent. These findings are supported by our auxiliary analysis, which demonstrates that the expansion of natural gas networks has indeed led to a significant improvement in air quality. Furthermore, we show that the mortality gains for both the adult and the elderly populations are primarily driven by reductions in cardio-respiratory deaths, which are more likely to be due to conditions caused or exacerbated by air pollution. Finally, our analysis does not reveal any important gender differences in the estimated relationship between the deployment of natural gas networks and mortality.
    Keywords: mortality, air pollution, natural gas, coal, Turkey, fracking
    JEL: I10 I15 I18 O10 O13 Q42 Q48 Q53
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Uri Dadush
    Abstract: Au cours de la dernière décennie, le Maroc a entrepris de nombreuses réformes afin de réussir son intégration dans l’économie mondiale en général- et africaine en particulier- dans le but de diversifier et renforcer son potentiel compétitif en termes d’exportations. En effet, les échanges entre le Royaume et le continent africain ont connu une nette augmentation durant la période 2004-2014 : Le montant global des échanges avec cette région a quadruplé, passant de 1,0 milliards de dollars à 4,4 milliards de dollars. Cependant, un fort potentiel reste encore à développer vu que l’Afrique ne représente que 6,5% de l’ensemble des échanges commerciaux du Maroc. A cet effet, l’objectif de ce papier est de présenter dans une première partie une analyse descriptive de la structure du commerce entre le Maroc et l’Afrique par régions, produits et partenaires. Une seconde partie se consacre à calculer et comparer différentes variantes de l’indice des avantages comparatifs révélés du Maroc et de certains pays africains, en considérant l’Afrique comme zone de référence. Une troisième partie effectue une analyse économétrique dans le but d’étudier les éventuels changements structurels dans la spécialisation ou diversification du commerce du Maroc avec le continent africain.
    Date: 2016–07

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