nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒06‒04
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: the case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey By Codron, J.M.; Adanacioglu, H.; Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; El Mekki, A.A.; Rousset, S.; Tozanli, S.; Yercan, M.
  3. The Performance of Banks in the MENA Region during the Global Financial Crisis By Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Suman Lodh; Monomita Nandy
  4. Determination of Socially Equitable Guarantees for PPPs: A Toll-Road Case from Turkey By Ilker Ersegun Kayhan; Glenn P. Jenkins
  5. Does the Reserve Options Mechanism really decrease exchange rate volatility? The Synthetic Control Method Approach By Aytug, Huseyin
  6. Analysis of Learning Difficulties among Preservice Students towards Science Education By NAHLA KHATIB
  7. Monetary and Fiscal Policies and the Dynamics of the Yield Curve in Morocco By Calixte Ahokpossi; Pilar Garcia Martinez; Laurent Kemoe

  1. By: Codron, J.M.; Adanacioglu, H.; Aubert, M.; Bouhsina, Z.; El Mekki, A.A.; Rousset, S.; Tozanli, S.; Yercan, M.
    Abstract: Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper attempts to analyse the adoption of sustainable farming practices beyond farm and farmer characteristics, focusing on the role of structural and institutional macro-drivers. The empirical research is based on the comparison between Turkey and Morocco, two Mediterranean countries with high export activity in the fresh tomato sector but with contrasting features in terms of both sustainable farming practices and micro/macro-drivers. With regard to the latter, we simultaneously consider supply-side and demand-side aspects (i.e. the requirements of buyers in importing countries). The analysis draws on the literature examining both IPM/GAP adoption and the impact of food safety regulation on firms' strategies. We call on face-to-face interviews with a relatively large number of tomato growers in the main production areas (N=86 in Morocco and N=186 in Turkey). Our findings show that the average level of sustainable practices is greatly affected by national market and institutional particularities, in particular on the demand side. Moreover the surveys confirm the initial assumption of the major role played by private actors in managing safety risk when there are high business stakes, as in export chains oriented towards rich Western countries. ....French Abstract : La contamination des légumes frais par les pesticides se fait principalement au niveau de la production. Dans leur choix des pratiques agricoles, les producteurs sont influencés par des forces de type macro-économique qui se situent aussi bien au niveau du marché que des régulations publiques et privées. A cela se rajoute une troisième série de forces, qui sont cette fois-ci spécifiques de l'exploitation et de l'exploitant agricoles et donc de type micro-économique. Les producteurs répondent aux exigences de leur environnement commercial et réglementaire en mettant en œuvre des bonnes pratiques agricoles qu'ils font certifier et des systèmes de gestion raisonnée aptes à lutter contre les ravageurs et maladies. Notre papier vise à expliquer l'adoption de pratiques agricoles durables en mobilisant au-delà des caractéristiques de l'exploitant et de l'exploitation agricoles, les forces structurelles et institutionnelles de type macro-économique. La recherche empirique est basée sur la comparaison de ces forces dans deux pays méditerranéens, la Turquie et le Maroc, qui sont tous les deux d'importants exportateurs de tomate mais qui sont très contrastés au niveau des pratiques d'agriculture durable et des facteurs micro ou macro qui influencent ces pratiques. L'identification de ces forces nous conduit à considérer à la fois le côté de l'offre et celui de la demande aussi bien commerciale que réglementaire. Les théories prises en compte sont celles de l'adoption des standards de bonnes pratiques agricoles ou des systèmes de production raisonnée ainsi que celles de l'impact des régulations de sécurité alimentaire sur la stratégie des firmes. Les données ont été collectées en face à face auprès d'un relativement grand nombre de producteurs (N=86 au Maroc et N=186 en Turquie). Les résultats montrent que le niveau moyen des pratiques est fortement déterminé par le marché national et par les particularités institutionnelles, en particulier du côté de la demande. Par ailleurs, les enquêtes confirment l'hypothèse du rôle majeur joué par les acteurs privés dans la gestion du risque sanitaire lorsqu'il y a de gros enjeux économiques, ce qui est le cas des filières d'exportation tournées vers les pays riches occidentaux.
    JEL: D23 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2016
    Abstract: Minority shareholder rights are given to protect certain shareholders against majority shareholders. Majority rule prevails in the joint stock companies. Therefore, majority groups influence making decisions in these companies in Turkey. In this case, shareholders who constitute a majority at general assembly bring about violating minority shareholders’ rights. Because minority rights are intended to balance between majority and minority groups. Neither majority stakeholders nor minority stakeholders can be only executive of the joint stock companies. Minority shareholder rights are guaranteed by legal regulations. Minority rights are also regulated in the Turkish Commercial Code. According to Turkish Commercial Code, 10 percent of capital stock in the non-public incorporated companies and 5 percent of paid stock in the public joint stock company companies are minority.Minority rights are separated as positive and negative minority rights in the Turkish Commercial law. Turkish Commercial Code contains eight positive and two negative minority rights.The aim of this article is to examine “The Minority Shareholder Rights In The Joint Stock Companies According To Turkish Commercial Code†.
    Keywords: minority rights, shareholder rights, Turkish Commercial Code
    JEL: K30 K30
  3. By: Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Suman Lodh; Monomita Nandy
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the global financial crisis on the banking sector in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, as well as the main determinants of the profitability of both domestic and foreign banks. The empirical findings suggest that during the crisis the former outperformed the latter in that region. As for the determinants of profitability, size does not appear to play a role, whilst the liquidity ratio and net interest revenues seem to have a negative and positive effect respectively; GDP has a positive effect in the case of domestic banks.
    Keywords: MENA region, banking sector, profitability, global financial crisis
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Ilker Ersegun Kayhan (Department of Banking and Finance,Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, Mersin 10, Turkey); Glenn P. Jenkins (Queen’s University, Canada and Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus)
    Abstract: In toll-road projects there is exogenous demand risk. Thus, the government may be required to provide a minimum-traffic guarantee to induce potential private partners to participate. The government must offer the most appropriate level of guarantee while also justifying this controversial fiscal policy tool to society. This study demonstrates the use of financial modeling, risk analysis, and economic evaluation in a toll-road project in Turkey, contributing to the narrowing of a capacity gap in the field. One criterion is proposed to produce a socially equitable guarantee level. This case study exemplifies the policy implications discussed in the conclusions.
    Keywords: Toll-road project, financial modelling, economic evaluation, risk analysis, fiscal policy, Turkey
    JEL: D61 L91 H54 O52
    Date: 2016–06
  5. By: Aytug, Huseyin
    Abstract: After the invention of the Reserve Option Mechanism (ROM) by the Central Bank of Turkey, it has been debated whether it can help decrease the volatility of foreign exchange rate. In this study, I apply a new micro-econometric technique, the synthetic control method, in order to construct a counterfactual foreign exchange rate volatility in the absence of the ROM. I find that, USD/TRY rate is less volatile under the ROM. However, the ROM has not worked efficiently after the announcement of FED's tapering in May 2013. Furthermore, the ROM could have decreased the volatility of foreign exchange rate if FED had not started tapering.
    Keywords: FX Intervention, Synthetic Control Method, Required Reserves
    JEL: C31 E58 F31
    Date: 2016–01–01
    Abstract: This study investigated several learning difficulties that affected the classroom learning experience of preservice students who are studying general science and methods of teaching science at Faculty of Educational Studies at the Arab Open University (AOU) in Amman, Jordan .This study was carried to find answers for the following questions:1. What are the main areas of learning difficulties among Preservice Students towards Science Education?2. What are the main aspects of reducing obstacles towards success in Science Education?To achieve this goal the researcher prepared a questionnaire which included 30 items to point out the learning difficulties among preservice students towards science education. The questionnaire was distributed among students enrolled in the general science courses 1&2 and methods of teaching science courses .After collecting the filled questionnaire a descriptive statistical analysis were carried for the items of the questionnaire ,after analyzing the data statistically our findings showed that student controlled factors , factors related to the nature of science, factors related to the role of instructor as well as course controlled factors affected students success toward science education. Suggestions are made on ways to minimize the problems based on understandings of attitudes and motivation as well as the understandings of how learning takes place..The study was concluded with a number of recommendations.Key words:
    Keywords: preservice teachers, nature of science, science Education, Learning Difficulties.
    JEL: Z00
  7. By: Calixte Ahokpossi; Pilar Garcia Martinez; Laurent Kemoe
    Abstract: We estimate the latent factors that underlie the dynamics of the sovereign bond yield curve in Morocco during 2004–14 based on the Dynamic Nelson-Siegel model. On this basis, we explore the interaction between macroeconomic variables and the yield curve, which is of direct relevance to macroeconomic policy-making. In Morocco’s context, we find that tighter monetary policy increases short-end maturities, and that the impact is small and short-lived. Economic activity is also briefly but significantly impacted, suggesting that even under a pegged exchange rate, monetary policy autonomy and effectiveness can be increased through greater central bank independence. Fiscal improvements significantly lower yield levels. Policy conclusions are that improvement in the fiscal and monetary policy frameworks, as well as greater financial sector development and inclusion, could benefit Morocco and strengthen the transmission mechanisms and effectiveness of macroeconomic policies.
    Date: 2016–05–23

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