nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒04‒23
thirteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey By Nader Habibi
  2. Does the Impact of Gini Index on Growth Differ among GCC Countries ? By Sbaouelgi, Jihène; Boulila, Ghazi
  3. Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar Kadın İstihdamını Artırır mı? Türkiye’de Hizmetler Sektörüne Yakından Bakış By Dalgıç, Başak; Fazlıoğlu, Burcu; Varol İyidoğan, Pelin
  4. Poverty trends in Turkey By Sirma Demir Șeker; Stephen P. Jenkins
  5. The Leadership Characteristics of Physical Education Teachers According to Turkey’s Geographic Regional's By Ferhat USTUN; I. Bulent FISEKCIOGLU
  6. Using Foreign Direct Investment to Upgrade and Diversify Exports from Morocco: Opportunities and Challenges in Comparative Perspective By Theodore H. Moran
  7. North Africa - Working paper - Addressing informality in Egypt By AfDB AfDB
  8. Granger Causality between Stock Prices and Trading Volume: Evidence from Turkey By Elif Akben-Selcuk
  9. Factors Affecting on Acceptance of Mobile Banking by Customers (Case Study: The Branches of Tejarat Bank in Guilan Province, Northern of Iran) By Mohammad Taleghani
  10. Boards of directors and bank performance in United Arab Emirates By 齋藤, 純
  11. 51/49 rule and joint ventures governance in Algeria By GUIRA Amor; AIMAR Abd El Hafid
  12. Self-concept amongst Emirati high school students: Differences and similarities By joana stocker
  13. Climat des Affaires et Compétitivité de l’Entreprise Tunisienne Après la Révolution : Analyses et Perspectives By Dhaoui, Elwardi

  1. By: Nader Habibi (Brandeis University)
    Abstract: On October 15, 2015 the President of Istanbul University, Professor Mahmut Ak, shocked the attendants in the annual ceremony for the start of the 2015-16 academic year by announcing that student enrollments for current academic year have been reduced1. He further explained that this decision was motivated by the poor job market conditions for university graduates. The difficult labor market for university graduates is not an unnoticed issue in itself but the unemployment rate for university graduates has recently reached unprecedented levels that Turkey has never experienced before. Turkey is one of the few developed countries in which the unemployment rate for workers with university degrees is higher than the rate of less educated workers.
    Date: 2016–04
  2. By: Sbaouelgi, Jihène; Boulila, Ghazi
    Abstract: This paper tests whether inequality and economic growth in eleven Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are cointegrated, and estimates the impact of inequality on growth in each country separately in case cointegration exists. Assuming that each country has its own inequality-growth relationship, the paper uses time series data to estimate the impact of inequality on growth individually in each GCC country by making use of single equation cointegration techniques robust to small sample sizes such as dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and canonical cointegration regression (CCR). Results show that the impact of inequality on growth differs among GCC countries. The paper is valuable to policy makers in GCC countries, especially the Arab Spring countries, who aim to achieve higher growth rates by improving income inequality. The paper shows whether measures aimed at ameliorating income distribution will positively or negatively affect economic growth.
    Keywords: Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC), Economic growth; income inequality; Cointegration; Unit root tests
    JEL: C23 C26 O11 O15 O53
    Date: 2016–02–15
  3. By: Dalgıç, Başak; Fazlıoğlu, Burcu; Varol İyidoğan, Pelin
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate of the relationship between foreign direct investment and women employment. Focusing on services sector with the highest rate of women employment, we empirically attest whether foreign direct investment creates job opportunities for women and decrease the gender inequality for women in terms of employment. Propensity Score Matching techniques and Difference-in-Difference techniques are employed to firm level data for Turkish services industry over 2003-2012. The results of the study suggest that foreign direct investment increase women employment and create good jobs for women.
    Keywords: Women employment, foreign direct investment, services industry, gender inequality, propensity score matching.
    JEL: D22 F61 F66 J16
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Sirma Demir Șeker; Stephen P. Jenkins
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence about poverty trends in Turkey between 2003 and 2012 and the factors accounting for them. We give particular attention to issues of statistical inference, and the choice of the poverty line and the poverty measure. Our robust conclusion is that absolute poverty declined rapidly between 2003 and 2008 but fell only slightly between 2008 and 2012. Changes in relative poverty were negligible throughout. Using decomposition methods, we argue that the declines in the absolute poverty rate are largely accounted for by changes in the rate of economic growth rather than by distributional changes or changes in population composition.
    Keywords: poverty; Turkey; poverty dominance; consumption; basic needs; poverty line; poverty decomposition
    JEL: C12 D31 I32
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Ferhat USTUN (Selcuk University Faculty of Sports Sciences); I. Bulent FISEKCIOGLU (Selcuk University Faculty of Sport Sciences)
    Abstract: The basic of research for determining the leadership characteristics of physical education teachers according to turkey's geographic regional's formed on 350 physical education teachers involving 237 male and 113 female chosen from 7 regional's by using accidental example method. The pattern of research is verbal. At fist the literature of subject was combed, ofter this to the aim of this research for defining the leadership characteristics of physical education teachers according to turkey's geographic regional's we the doctorate working that was named "Comparison of School Directors and. physical education teachers in private and Official School According to Their Leadership Behaviors" (Can 2002) Before applying the questionnaire that we prepared we chose the inside of Anatolian as a pilot regional and we did a questionnaire for applying to a hundred physical education teachers that consist of 35 questions. Fussing through this questionnaire after examining them with the experts of this subject we decided to decrease the questions to 30, and after this we started to study for our aim. The questionnaire contains two main parts, personal and branch knowledge our questionnaire analyzed and interpreted on SPSS static programme. At the analyzing of findings Frequency Method was used. And Chi-quare test was used for the analyze of the hypothesis between the physical education teachers that were working in Turkey's Geographic Regional's and the expression that is "I can be in an activity dealing with Physical Education by not ashing to the student’’ As a result; according to the questionnaire we found that they great ration of Physical Education teachers that were in questionnaire had a leadership behaviors but they were focused on teachers behaviors at the subjects of physical education not student focused. And as a result of this we can say that the wanting and interest of students are at the back. Another finding of us is that the expression "I can be in an activity dealing with Physical Education by not ashing to the students" will be change between the regional's. We can say- that the cause of that is the difference of the looking's of Physical Education teachers in Akdeniz, Ege and Marmara regional are different from the others and the deficiency of communication between teacher and students.
    Keywords: Leadership, Physical Education Teachers, Determine
  6. By: Theodore H. Moran
    Abstract: Developing countries that manage to upgrade and diversify their export profile grow more rapidly and achieve greater welfare gains than countries that simply export larger volumes of what they have traditionally produced. This discussion paper examines what market imperfections and other impediments make the task of using FDI for structural transformation so difficult. Drawing on country case studies from Malaysia, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, and South Africa, the paper identifies best practices for making progress, on the one hand, and examining impediments that lead to failure, on the other. This study has been prepared to serve as the basis for a workshop at which on-the-ground practitioners in Morocco can view their country’s efforts at structural transformation in light of similar experiences elsewhere. The objective is to highlight accomplishments and raise questions about future obstacles for Morocco’s aerospace sector, for the automotive cluster in Tangier Med, for OCP, and for investment promotion via the Moroccan Agency in Charge of Promoting Foreign Direct Investment .
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, diversification, structural transformation, exports, growth, market failures, Morocco, Aerospace Cluster, Automotive Hub, competitiveness
    Date: 2016–03
  7. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2016–04–07
  8. By: Elif Akben-Selcuk (Kadir Has University)
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic relation between daily BIST-100 index returns and percentage changes in Borsa Istanbul trading volume. A vector autoregression (VAR) model is constructed to test for Granger causality between stock prices and volume. The causality structure of the two variables is analyzed using the approach by Engle-Granger (1987). Analysis results show the existence of univariate causality from stock returns to changes in trading volume. This implies that past stock prices can be used to predict futures changes in trading volume. Furthermore, the results suggest that Borsa Istanbul is still inefficient since information contained in past prices is useful for making forecasts.
    Keywords: Granger causality, stock prices, trading volume, Turkey.
    JEL: G00 G12
  9. By: Mohammad Taleghani (Rasht Branch , Islamic Azad University)
    Abstract: This study is conducted to identify factors affecting the acceptance of mobile banking by Tejarat bank customers. The main models used in this study are the adoption of technology model and innovation and publishing model. This research method is descriptive - survey and in terms of purpose is practical. The population of this study is customers of Tejarat Bank city of Rasht, and a sample of 393 of these clients has been investigated. To analyze the data and test hypotheses PLS structural equation modeling methods were used. The results indicate that that perceived usefulness and ease of use are two important factors were identified in the acceptance of mobile banking. While the perceived risk and costs have no impact on the acceptance of mobile banking.
    Keywords: Acceptance mobile bank, perceived usefulness, perceived risk, ease of use and Tejarat Bank.
    JEL: M15 M30 M10
  10. By: 齋藤, 純
    Abstract: This study presents an empirical analysis about corporate governance of financial institutions in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of the structure of board of directors on the performance of these institutions. To examine the effect of control exerted by particular families on bank management, we estimated models where the dependent variable is return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), independent variables are board of directors variables, and control variables are bank management variables. Our results show that the control of corporate governance by a ruler's family within a board of directors has a positive effect on bank profitability. Our results indicate that control by a ruler's family through a bank's board of directors compensates for the inadequacy of UAE's corporate governance system.
    Keywords: Banks, Corporate governance, Board of directors, Bank performance, GCC banks
    JEL: G34 D22
    Date: 2016–03
  11. By: GUIRA Amor (Jijel university); AIMAR Abd El Hafid (Jijel university)
    Abstract: After the adoption of the 51/49 rule in the law of Algerian companies, many partners expressed their reservations; such a rule intended to cap the interests of foreign partners in joint ventures. The ultimate goal of this rule is to prevent foreign associate to access to some decision control.The purpose of this paper is to analyze 51/49 rule promulgated in Algeria and its impact on joint ventures, their ownership structure, their governance and their performance.Attention will focus on the mechanisms and corporate governance bodies, and the study try to highlight how the 51/49 rule impacting the balance of power in favor of the national partnerTo do this we will try to a survey based on the reference documents published by these joint ventures.
    Keywords: 51/49 rule, joint ventures, ownership structure, corporate governance, performance
    JEL: G32 H82
  12. By: joana stocker (Zayed University)
    Abstract: Although self-concept is a construct widely studied in the West, little is known about its features in Arab countries, especially considering high school students. Based on Marsh and Shavelson’s multidimensional and hierarchical self-concept model, this study aims to uncover individual differences amongst self-concept dimensions within Emirati high school graders. Schools were selected with support from the Dubai Knowledge and Human Development Authority and each school selected respective classes. All the ethical approvals were ensured. A social-demographic questionnaire was built (22 items) and an adaptation of the Self-Description Questionnaire was used, with 75 items in a 6-points Likert agreement scale, distributed through seven self-concept dimensions (Verbal, Mathematics, Problem Solving, Academic, Arabic, English, Peers, and Parent Relations). Most students were females (53.7%), with ages between 13 and 20 years old (M=15.66; SD=1.03), and evenly distributed across the three high school grades: 31.8% from 10th grade, 33.4% from 11th grade, and 34.7% from 12th grade. SPSS was used to perform ANOVA and T-test analyses. Considering gender, male students present higher levels of Maths, Peers and Parents Relations self-concept than the female students. However, girls got significantly higher grades in all achievement domains (Maths, English, Arabic, GPA). They also perceive themselves as significantly studying more hours a week, actively participating more in group works, studying harder for tests, wishing to pursue higher educational levels, and feeling less anxious at school than boys. Considering school grades (10th, 11th, 12th), generally students from higher grades present higher academic achievement, being the differences in self-concept dimensions inconsistent. Some of these results corroborate Western and previous Arab researches, while others need additional studies. Further discussions will be presented.
    Keywords: self-concept; high school; individual differences; academic achievement; gender; Emirati
  13. By: Dhaoui, Elwardi
    Abstract: This article focuses on assessing the business climate in Tunisia in an internal and external context by focusing on institutional characteristics in which companies operate . The analysis focuses on the situation and the perspectives of companies’s activities after the Revolution to see the impact of the context on their activities and investments. The impact on employment will also be analyzed.
    Keywords: Revolution ; Competitiveness; Investment
    JEL: E0 F41 F66 J2
    Date: 2015–10

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