nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒03‒23
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Regional Inequalities in Child Malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: A Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition Analysis By Rashad, Ahmed; Sharaf, Mesbah
  2. Trajectories in Knowledge Economy: Empirics from SSA and MENA countries By Simplice Asongu; Antonio R. Andrés
  3. On the relative importance of monetary transmission channels in Turkey By Turhan, Ibrahim M.; Gumus, Nihat
  4. The Impacts of Exogenous Oil Supply Shocks on Mediterranean Economies By Andrea Bastianin; Marzio Galeotti; Matteo Manera
  5. Exploring the Potential for Energy Efficiency in Turkey By Tagliapietra, Simone
  6. Survey to investigative the relationship between Internet marketing and increase rate of saling products and services in the Kerman provine’s SMEs. By Mohammad Rahimian
  7. The Incentive Effects of Conditional and Unconditional Transfers on Local Own Revenue Generation: Empirical Evidence from Moroccan Municipalities By Maria EL KHDARI; Jean-François BRUN

  1. By: Rashad, Ahmed (Philipps University Marburg); Sharaf, Mesbah (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent waves of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (co-variate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20% in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7% in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3%) and Jordan (1.5%), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7%). Results of the Blinder- Oaxaca decomposition show that the co-variate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural-urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.
    Keywords: Child Malnutrition; Rural-Urban Inequality; Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition; Egypt; Jordan; Yemen
    JEL: I14 J13
    Date: 2016–02–29
  2. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Antonio R. Andrés (Barranquilla, Colombia)
    Abstract: In the first critical assessment of knowledge economy dynamic paths in Africa and the Middle East, but for a few exceptions, we find overwhelming support for diminishing cross-country disparities in knowledge-base-economy dimensions. The paper employs all the four components of the World Bank’s Knowledge Economy Index (KEI): economic incentives, innovation, education, and information infrastructure. The main finding suggests that sub-Saharan African (SSA) and the Middle East and North African (MENA) countries with low levels in KE dynamics and catching-up their counterparts of higher KE levels. We provide the speeds of integration and time necessary to achieve full (100%) integration. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; Principal component analysis; Panel data; Convergence
    JEL: F42 O10 O38 O57 P00
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: Turhan, Ibrahim M.; Gumus, Nihat
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide additional evidence on the operation and relative importance of monetary transmission channels in Turkey. The results of the VAR analysis conducted using monthly data between January 2004 and November 2013 suggest that the traditional channels of interest rates, exchange rates, and credit do work in Turkish economy. However, the most striking finding of the study is the relative importance of exchange rate channel in the transmission of monetary policy decision into real economy. Variance decomposition analysis shows that the explained variance by real effective exchange rates is higher for all variables as compared to the variance explained by interest rates. However, interest rates seem to be still a useful tool to manage monetary policy given its role in controlling the changes in exchange rates. The granger causality analysis points into the fact that while interest rates have a role in leading the volatility of exchange rates, exchange rates have an impact on foreign debt holdings of banks and credit growth. On the other hand, foreign debt positions of banks and other sector firms together with credit growth granger causes industrial production. The study has some remarkable ramifications in terms of monetary policy design.
    Keywords: Monetary transmission mechanism, monetary policy, interest rate channel, exchange rate channel
    JEL: E52 E58 G18
    Date: 2014–05–12
  4. By: Andrea Bastianin (University of Milan and FEEM); Marzio Galeotti (University of Milan and IEFE-Bocconi); Matteo Manera (University of Milan-Bicocca and FEEM)
    Abstract: The security of energy supply is a key geopolitical factor in the relationship between the European Union and the southern neighborhood countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. We study the response of eight Mediterranean economies to exogenous oil supply shocks. We focus on the effects on economic activity - as measured by real Gross Value Added - for the whole economy, as well as for selected industries. We show that there are clear patterns characterizing the response of different economies to an unexpected reduction in global oil production. The main determinants of these patterns are the degree of energy intensity and energy dependence of the country, as well as the composition of its Gross Value Added.
    Keywords: Oil Supply Shocks, Mediterranean, Growth
    JEL: C22 E32 Q43 Q41
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Tagliapietra, Simone
    Abstract: Energy efficiency is one of the key crossroads between energy, climate and economic issues. In fact, it represents one of the most cost effective ways to enhance security of energy supply, to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and to enhance economic competitiveness at one fell swoop. This paper explores the potential for energy efficiency gains in Turkey, a country characterized by a strong growth in energy demand and by a strong need of better security of supply, emissions reduction and economic competitiveness.
    Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Turkey, Sustainability, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q41, Q43, Q48,
    Date: 2016–03–01
  6. By: Mohammad Rahimian (SHAHID CHAMRAN technical university of Kerman, Iran)
    Abstract: The SMEs have been always a lot of importance and high sensivity case and in period of time it becomes the battle ground for economic heads in some government. Progres and development of ICT has created a deep and wide influence on busines processes and internet has provided as the most effective e-marketing platform with global coverage enables enterprises to reach international markets. But many SMEs have not essential information and knowledge in the use of different methods of e-marketing and its effects on the markets. This study has been conducted to investigate the effect of internet marketing methods to increase sales of products and services of SMEs. In other words this study seeks to answer of question that; does any relationship exsist between using internet in the marketing activies and increased sales of products and services in SMEs? The statistical community of this study is the top SMEs of the Industrial Sector of Kerman provins between 2006, 2014. To answering the research question is considered a major hypotheses and six subhypotheses and the relationship between internet marketing and sales performance in the selected enterprises was examined by Kolmogorv-Smirnov, Kendall and Spearmen test. The results indicate that, there is significant relationship between the using internet in marketing activities and sales performance of the surveyed enterprises.
    Keywords: SME, small enterprises, medium enterprises, marketing, internet
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: Maria EL KHDARI; Jean-François BRUN (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International(CERDI))
    Abstract: The fiscal incentives literature emphasizes how the design of transfer systems has a significant implication on the behavior of local governments within decentralized systems. The empirical findings on the relationship between intergovernmental transfers and the incentives they create for local revenue generation are inconclusive and differ from country to country. Given the lack of data on local public finances, this type of study rarely involves developing countries. Using a unique and rich socio-economic and public finance data covering a large set of Moroccan municipalities over the period 2005 to 2009, this paper contributes to the new generation of fiscal federalism literature by assessing the fiscal incentive effects of two types of transfers: general purpose transfers (unconditional) defined by a formula and specific purpose transfers (conditional) allocated on an ad-hoc basis. After correcting for the endogeneity problem, our findings support the existence of a significant incentive effect of unconditional transfers and a less robust effect of conditional transfers. Suggesting that transfers from the central government complement local own revenues by encouraging Moroccan municipalities to collect more revenues.
    Keywords: Decentralization; Local public finance; Fiscal incentives; Intergovernmental transfers; Morocco; Pan
    JEL: O12 H77 H71 H30
    Date: 2016–03

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