nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2016‒02‒12
eight papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Review of International Production and Global Value Chain Studies: the Case of Turkish Regional Networks By Erkan Erdil; H. Tolga Göksidan
  2. North Africa - Working paper - Fundamentally changing the way we educate students in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region By AfDB AfDB
  3. Pharaohs of the deep state: Social capital in an obstinate regime By Clevers, Marijn; Nimeh, Zinah
  4. Impact of R&D Activities of Firms on Productivity: Findings from an Econometric Study of the Turkish Manufacturing Sector By Elif Dayar; Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu
  5. Classification of Intangible Assets in Turkey: The Case of Borsa Istanbul (BIST) By Derya Findik; Murat Ocak
  6. Lifting economic sanctions on Iran : global effects and strategic responses By Ianchovichina,Elena; Devarajan,Shantayanan; Lakatos,Csilla
  7. Working paper - Promoting North African Women’s Employment through SMEs By AfDB AfDB
  8. Ankara İli Bilgi İletişim Teknolojileri Sektörü Yenilik Kapasitesi ve Üniversite-Sanayi İşbirlikleri By Erkan Erdil; Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu; İ. Semih Akcomak

  1. By: Erkan Erdil (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); H. Tolga Göksidan
    Abstract: This study focuses on how Turkey’s small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can participate in global markets. In fact, developing countries provide a means for accelerating the development of enterprises and countries, providing openings that developing country enterprises can exploit to upgrade their capabilities. For such enterprises, or local clusters of enterprises, the task is to insert themselves into the wider networks. This may be regarded as the main achievement for sustaining competitiveness, in similarities with the re-structuring of regional networks in developing countries that often compete by participating in extensive inter-firm networks. As another dimension in our study, we will investigate and argue whether if it is possible to increase and improve the participation of Turkish’s SMEs in the global economy, which is explicitly the baseline hypothesis of this study. The literature on regional networks and global value chain (GVC) will provide us some new insights to show the international linkages of Turkish SMEs, which often lack the capabilities to participate effectively in global markets.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains, GVC, Turkey, regional networks
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2015–11–04
  3. By: Clevers, Marijn (University College Maastricht, Maastricht University); Nimeh, Zinah (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The paper aims to analyse the process of 'democratisation' or lack thereof after the 2011 Egyptian Arab Spring uprisings in the context of 'social capital'. While popular demand for reform toppled Hosni Mubarak in 2011, the transition period that followed showed the determination of regime remnants and the deep state, to preserve the underlying institutional structures of an entrenched authoritarian system. Mubarak's power base was grounded in a complicated system of interwoven relationships which entailed economic, social and political benefits. This social structure is analysed under the umbrella term 'social capital' to give an account of which network(s) pulled the cart in the pursuit of a contra democratic political agenda. A critical analysis of literature, relevant to the aim of the paper, is provided. Social capital is defined as the generalisation of norms and reciprocity which results from individuals' engagement in social networks. A general account on the most important social networks in Egypt is provided in the context of a military dominated social contract established after the 1952 military coup. This analysis concludes that the existing social capital network structure fostered and continues to foster the preservation of the authoritarian status quo. The transition period after the ousting of Mubarak presents a clear illustration of this. The well-embeddedness and the interdisciplinary nature of the deep in state in Egypt's power institutional structure were never eradicated, since the deep state restricted the interference of any 'non-conforming' entities in politics. The Egyptian deep state can be seen as self-sufficient, their penetration in every realm of society enables them to balance off adversaries when needed. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it attempts to show that authoritarianism is preserved when an elitists power network is established which thrives as a direct consequence of the underlying institutional structure. Secondly, it argues that social capital structures can produce an environment which is unfavourable to democratic development.
    Keywords: Social capital, democratization, Arab Spring, Egypt, institutional structures, social networks
    JEL: I30 I38 O17 N40 N45
    Date: 2015–12–21
  4. By: Elif Dayar (Department of Economics, Atilim University); Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: In this paper we are investigating the following question for Turkey: “How does the increase in R&D capital stock and how do foreign knowledge spillovers affect labor productivity?” Our sample is composed of R&D performers only, hence the Heckman two stage procedure with the instrumental variables technique for panel data is implemented (Semykina and Wooldridge, 2010). Appropriate instruments are used in regressions for the endogenous variables. Our findings signal that the indigenous efforts of R&D performers and their physical capital stock intensity exert a positive effect on firm-level labor productivity. However, neither foreign ownership nor foreign knowledge spillovers are found to affect R&D performers’ labor productivity positively. On the other hand, skill exerts a strong positive impact on productivity, pointing to the significant role of educated staff in R&D performing firms. We can conclude that Turkish R&D performers are dependent on their accumulated physical capital stock intensity and their own R&D efforts when it comes to increasing labor productivity.
    Keywords: R&D
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Derya Findik (Department of Management Information Systems, Yildirim Beyazit University); Murat Ocak
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze the development of intangible assets in Turkey for the period of 2005-2013 by using Borsa Istanbul (BIST) database. There has not been any study dealing with intangible assets and their role in the economic growth or firm productivity in Turkey due to the lack of data and classification in this field. In this study, we apply the classification introduced by Corrado et al. (2004) to fill this research gap in the literature. According to this, intangible assets could be decomposed into three parts namely, economic competency, innovative property, andcomputerized information and database. Economic competency is comprised of advances given, comptation agreements, and special costs. Computerised information and database, on the other hand, is closely related to computer software, information systems, computer programs, and customer database. Innovative property includes assets such as patents, licenses, films, and research and development activities. According to our results, the share of intangible assets in the economy is less than that of tangible assets. The evidence, however, suggests that the share of intangibles tends to increase in recent years. As far as the subcomponents of intangible assets are considered, the share of innovative property in total assets is much higher than the share of other subcomponents. The share of computerised information and database, on the other hand, is expected to increase in following years.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Turkey, BIST XUTUM.
    Date: 2014–12
  6. By: Ianchovichina,Elena; Devarajan,Shantayanan; Lakatos,Csilla
    Abstract: This paper uses a global general equilibrium simulation model to quantify the effects of lifting economic sanctions on Iran with and without strategic responses. Iran benefits the most, with average per capita welfare gains ranging from close to 3 percent, in the case when Iran's crude oil exports to the European Union recover to half their pre-embargo level, to 6.5 percent, in the best case of complete recovery of oil exports to the European Union, successful domestic reforms that enable a strong supply response, and increased market access for Iranian exports in developed markets. Iran could achieve benefits close to the upper range if Gulf Cooperation Council oil exporters limit their crude oil exports to support the oil price. If they do nothing, however, the price of oil will decline by 13 percent in the case of complete recovery of oil exports to the European Union, leaving net oil importers better off and net oil exporters worse off.
    Keywords: Currencies and Exchange Rates,Economic Theory&Research,Energy Production and Transportation,Oil Refining&Gas Industry,Transport Economics Policy&Planning
    Date: 2016–02–01
  7. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2015–11–26
  8. By: Erkan Erdil (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Mehmet Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); İ. Semih Akcomak (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Bu bölümde Ankara bölgesinin küresel düzeydeki rekabetçi pozisyonu açısından büyük önem tasiyan Bilgi ve İletisim Teknolojileri (BİT) sektörünün mevcut durumunun analiz edilerek, Ar- Ge ve yenilik kapasitesini artirmaya yönelik etkin bir strateji ve politika analizinin hazirlanmasi amaçlanmiştir. Çalismada ilk olarak Türkiye’de BİT sektörünün genel çerçevesi çizilmis daha sonra da Ankara’da BİT sektöründe faaliyet gösteren paydaslarin arastirma ve teknoloji gelistirme faaliyetlerinin sonuçlarina yönelik bir analiz gerçeklestirilmistir. Bu çerçevede bu bölümün amaci Ankara’da BİT sektörünün, sektörün kendinden kaynaklanan güçlü ve zayif yönleri ile sektör disindan kaynaklanan firsat ve tehditleri analitik bir yaklasimla incelemektir. Son olarak yapilan bir saha çalismasindan yararlanilarak Ankara BİT sektörünün rekabetçi gücünü artirmak için politika önerilerinde bulunulmustur.
    Keywords: Bilgi ve İletisim teknolojileri, Ankara
    Date: 2015–02

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