nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒12‒28
five papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Global Constraints on Central Banking: The Case of Turkey By Ahmet Benlialper; Hasan Cömert
  2. Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Turkey By Aysit Tansel
  3. Using a Contingent Valuation Approach for Improved Household Solid Waste Management in Algeria By Brahim, DJEMACI
  4. The role of renewable energy and agriculture in reducing CO2 emissions: evidence for North Africa countries By Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
  5. جایگاه سپاه در اقتصاد ایران By Vahabi, Mehrdad

  1. By: Ahmet Benlialper (Department of Economics, İpek University, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey); Hasan Cömert (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the developments in Turkish monetary policy after 2002 and understand the constraints on the effectiveness of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (CBRT). The CBRT has significantly altered its monetary policy in response to the crisis. It became much more experimental and aware of challenges it faced. However, the Bank’s ability to exert influence on key variables seems to have been restrained by factors outside of its control. Financial flows exert great influence on key macroeconomic variables that the Bank monitors closely. Furthermore, energy prices are among the key determinants of inflation in Turkey. As a result, the Bank’s influence on growth and inflation through intermediate variables became a daunting task. The magnitude and direction of flows seem to be mainly related to global risk perception determining the worldwide liquidity conditions rather than to domestic factors. Under these conditions central banks may not set their official interest rates independent of interest rates in advanced countries. Indeed, our VAR analysis exercise supports this argument for the Turkish case. Existing policy framework would not produce desired outcomes unless the sources of the problems such as financial flows as the main global constraints on monetary policy are addressed in a much more serious manner.
    Keywords: Central banking, Economic and financial crisis, Capital inflows, the Turkish economy
    JEL: E52 G01 F31 F32 O53
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide information on intergenerational educational mobility in Turkey over the last century (at least over the last 65 years). This is the first study explicitly on providing the association between parents’ and children’s education in Turkey over time unlike the previous studies of one point in time. Given the absence of longitudinal data, we make use of a unique data set on educational outcomes based on children recall of parental education. The data used is the result of Adult Education Survey of 2007. Several findings emerge from the analysis. First of all, children’s and parents’ educational outcomes are correlated. The intergenerational educational coefficient of the mothers is somewhat larger than that of the fathers. The intergenerational educational coefficients of both the mothers and the fathers decrease over the cohorts implying that intergenerational educational mobility increased significantly for the younger generations of children in Turkey. The chances of attaining a university degree for the children increases as fathers’ completed schooling level increases. Men’s chances of attaining high school or university education are substantially higher than that of women’s. The association between parent and child education is stronger when parent educational background is poor. The results imply that the policy makes should focus on children with poor parental educational background and on women.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility, Educational transmission, Turkey
    JEL: I21 I28 J11 J62
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: Brahim, DJEMACI
    Abstract: This study examines the values of willingness to Pay (WTP) for improved household solid waste management in Algeria, Isser City. A payment card contingent valuation technique was used to elicit households' willingness to pay for an improvement in management of their solid waste. The data were analyzed using interval regression technique. The results show that the mean willingness to pay of households for improved solid waste management is 1,485 DZD. The amount of tax on garbage is fixed between 500 and 1000 DZD for households and the cost of the new management is estimated to 2844 dinars per ton. The total value of CAP from households covers only 37% of the costs of new program. The results further reveal that the significant factors determining households' willingness to pay for improved solid waste management (collection and disposal) are age, type of housing, distance, educational level, income and service quality.
    Keywords: Solid waste, willingness to pay, payment card, interval data
    JEL: Q51 Q53
    Date: 2015–12–15
  4. By: Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
    Abstract: This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to investigate the dynamic causal links between per capita renewable energy consumption, agricultural value added (AVA), carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and real gross domestic product (GDP) for a panel of five North Africa countries spanning the period 1980-2011. In the short-run, the Granger causality tests show the existence of a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and agriculture, a unidirectional causality running from agriculture to GDP, a unidirectional causality running from GDP to renewable energy consumption, and a unidirectional causality running from renewable energy consumption to agriculture. In the long-run, there is bidirectional causality between agriculture and CO2 emissions, a unidirectional causality running from renewable energy to both agriculture and emissions, and a unidirectional causality running from output to both agriculture and emissions. Long-run parameter estimates show that an increase in GDP and in renewable energy consumption increase CO2 emissions, whereas an increase in agricultural value added reduces CO2 emissions. As policy recommendation, North African authorities should encourage renewable energy consumption, and especially clean renewable energy such as solar or wind, as this improves agricultural production and help to combat global warming.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; Agriculture; CO2 emissions; Panel cointegration; North Africa.
    JEL: C33 Q15 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2015–12–14
  5. By: Vahabi, Mehrdad
    Abstract: This paper studies the economic role of Sepah (The Guardians of Revolution) in the Iranian Economy. It discusses the relationship of Sepah and the indeterminate property rights, parastatal sector and the confiscatory regime under the Islamic republic of Iran.
    Keywords: Seapah, parastatal sector, confiscatory regime, indeterminate property rights
    JEL: H1 K4 L3 O1 P4
    Date: 2015–12

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