nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒12‒01
nine papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Diaspora, Development and Morocco By Uri Dadush
  2. Is the Okun's law valid in Tunisia? By El Andari, Chifaa; Bouaziz, Rached
  3. The Impact of Combustible Renewables and Waste Consumption and Transport on the Environmental Degradation: The Case of Tunisia By Ben Jebli, Mehdi
  4. Renewable Energy Consumption and Agriculture: Evidence for Cointegration and Granger causality for Tunisian Economy By Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
  5. The Impact of Regional Integration on Intra-Arab Trade in Agrifood Commodities: A Panel Data Approach By Abu Hatab, Assem
  6. Libéralisation financière et Croissance Economique : Approche empirique appliquée au cas de l'Algérie By Kada Aiboud; Lakhdar Adouka; Habib Bayer Ben
  7. نشاط انتاج وتصنيع الالبان: مدخل للامن الغذائى والتنمية الريفية فى مصر By Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed; Mashhour, Ahmed
  8. تقدير الطلب النوعى على المنتجات الحيوانية فى مصر By Soliman, Ibrahim
  9. اقتصاديات أسواق الطماطم المصرية By Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed

  1. By: Uri Dadush
    Abstract: The contribution that the diaspora makes to development in the country of origin is examined. Drawing on a recent World Bank survey of migrants from the MENA countries, the needs of the diaspora and the development role it can play through its organizations are reviewed. A constructive interaction with the diaspora can be greatly enhanced by supportive policies in the country of origin. The main focus of the paper is on the Middle East and North African region, and more specifically on Morocco and how it compares with other world regions where migration plays an important role. The best possible outcome for the migrants’ countries of origin would be reforms that accelerate growth and foster job creation. However, even the best designed and most assiduously implemented reforms will not yield results quickly enough for the young and burgeoning population. That is why policies that forge stronger links with the diaspora and facilitate emigration of those that cannot find good jobs at home can make sense as part of a broader development strategy. Many of today’s high income countries, such as Ireland, Italy, and Swedenwere once countries of very high emigration.
    Keywords: Diaspora, Morocco, Development, emigration, MENA region, skilled-migration, remittances, poverty, investment flows, portfolio flows, advanced countries
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: El Andari, Chifaa; Bouaziz, Rached
    Abstract: The central focus of this paper was to check whether the Okun’s law in Tunisia is valid or not. For this purpose, we have used quarterly time series data during the period 1990Q1-2014Q1. Firstly, we applied the error correction model instead of the difference version of Okun's Law, the Engle-Granger and Johansen test are employed to find out long run association between unemployment, production, and how error correction mechanism (ECM) is used for short run dynamic. Secondly, I used the gap version of Okun’s law where the estimation is done from three band pass filters which are mathematical tool used in macro-economic and especially in business cycles theory. The finding of the study indicates that the inverse relationship between unemployment and output is verified in the short and long term, and the Okun's law holds for the Tunisian economy, but with an Okun’s coefficient less than required. Therefore, our empirical results have important implications for structural and cyclical policymakers in Tunisia to promote economic growth in a context of lower unemployment growth.
    Keywords: Okun’s law, Validity, unit root, cointegration, error correction model and bandpass filters.
    JEL: E6
    Date: 2015–05–29
  3. By: Ben Jebli, Mehdi
    Abstract: This study investigates the dynamic causal links between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), combustible renewables and waste consumption, and maritime and rail transport in Tunisia spanning the period 1980-2011. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality tests are employed to examine the short- and long-run relationships between variables. The empirical results suggest a bidirectional short-run causality between CO2 emissions and maritime transport, and a unidirectional causality running from real GDP, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport to CO2 emissions. The long-run estimates reveal that real GDP contributes to the decrease of CO2 emissions, while combustible renewables and waste consumption and maritime and rail transport have a positive impact on emissions. Our policy recommendation is that Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy and increase the number of passenger’s rail and maritime transport in order to motivate economic activities. However, the level of renewable energy required to reduce emissions caused by transport sector still very weak.
    Keywords: Combustible renewables and waste; Transport; Autoregressive distributed lag model; Cointegration; Granger causality; Tunisia.
    JEL: L9
    Date: 2015–11–24
  4. By: Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
    Abstract: This paper uses the vector error correction model (VECM) and Granger causality tests to investigate short and long-run relationships between per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, real gross domestic product (GDP), renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, trade openness ratio and agricultural value added (AVA) in Tunisia spanning the period 1980-2011. The Johansen-Juselius test shows that all our considered variables are cointegrated. Short-run Granger causality tests reveal the existence of bidirectional causalities between AVA and CO2 emissions, and between AVA and trade; unidirectional causalities running from non-renewable energy and output to AVA and to renewable energy, and from CO2 emissions to renewable energy. Interestingly, there are long-run bidirectional causalities between all considered variables. Our long-run parameters estimates show that non-renewable energy, trade and AVA increase CO2 emissions, whereas renewable energy reduces CO2 emissions. In addition, the inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is not supported. Our policy recommendations are to increase international economic exchanges because this gives new opportunities to the agricultural sector to develop and to benefit from renewable energy technology transfer. Subsidizing renewable energy use in the agricultural sector enables it to become more competitive on the international markets while polluting less and contributing to combat global warming.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; Agriculture; Trade; Granger causality; Tunisia.
    JEL: C33 F14 Q1 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2015–11–20
  5. By: Abu Hatab, Assem
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of Arab integration arrangements on intra-Arab Agrifood trade. The main results indicate that Arab regional integration efforts have been ineffective in promoting Agrifood trade flows among the Arab countries. The results also show that actual intra-Arab Agrifood trade is consistently lower than the predicted values by the gravity model. Furthermore, Arab sub-regional trade agreements have had a modest impact on intra-Arab Agrifood trade. Taken together, these findings suggest that i) there is untapped trade potential in agricultural and food commodities among the Arab countries and thus they could potentially attain deeper levels of Agrifood trade integration, and ii) despite the significant progress that has been made over the past two decades in lowering tariff barriers, Agrifood trade among Arab countries has remained below its potential which in turn points out to the existence of non-tariff barriers that restrain the trade effects of Arab economic integration.
    Keywords: Regional trade integration, intra-Arab trade, Agrifood trade, panel data.
    JEL: C1 F02 F15 F33
    Date: 2015–02–05
  6. By: Kada Aiboud (Université de Mascara, Algérie); Lakhdar Adouka (Université de Mascara, Algérie); Habib Bayer Ben (Université d'Oran)
    Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif d'étudier l'influence de la libéralisation financière sur la croissance économique en Algérie durant la période1980 à 2013 pour ensuite analyser la relation causale entre la libéralisation financière et la croissance économique. En développant une analyse économétrique, nous sommes parvenus à établir une relation positive entre la libéralisation financière et la croissance économique en Algérie et l'existence d'une relation bidirectionnelle entre les deux variables.
    Keywords: ECM,croissance économique,Stationnarité,Libéralisation financière,causalité de Granger
    Date: 2015–09–01
  7. By: Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed; Mashhour, Ahmed
    Abstract: Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 24, No 3, September 2014. Published by Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics, Egypt
    Keywords: Dairy sector in Egypt: An approach towards food security and rural development in Egypt, dairy, Egypt, food security, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Production Economics, Public Economics,
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Soliman, Ibrahim
    Abstract: Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 24, No 1, March 2014. Published by Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics, Egypt
    Keywords: Qualitative estimate demand for livestock products in Egypt, Egypt, livestock, livestock products, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics,
    Date: 2014–03
  9. By: Soliman, Ibrahim; Gaber Amer, Mohamed
    Abstract: Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 24, No 2, June 2014. Published by Egyptian Association of Agricultural Economics, Egypt
    Keywords: The economics of the Egyptian tomatoes markets, Egypt, Marketing, Tomatoes, Crop Production/Industries, Marketing, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics,
    Date: 2014–06

This nep-ara issue is ©2015 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.