nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
twenty-one papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Comparison of Basic Transportation Indicators and Freight Villages' Locations Between Germany and Turkey By Cenk Hamamcioglu; Senay Oguztimur
  2. Monetary policy in Turkey after Central Bank independence By Gürkaynak, Refet S.; Kantur, Zeynep; Tas, M. Anil; Yildirim, Secil
  3. Egyptian and Syrian commodity markets after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire: a Bayesian structural VECM analysis By Laura Panza; Tomasz Wozniak
  4. "A Public Investment Priority for Job Creation in Turkey: Expanding Child Care and Preschool Services" By Ipek Ilkkaracan; Kijong Kim; Tolga Kaya
  5. Evaluation of mothers' knowledge and opinions about breast milk banking who are with 0-6 month-old-babies in T By Tuba Demirel; Hacer Alan; Sema Y; Asl Karakoç Geçici
  6. Peace Communication and Mediation Model for Turkey and Spain Relations By Bilgehan Gültekin; Tuba Gültekin
  7. Multi-objective optimization models for urban readjustment in Turkey By Mehmet Kucukmehmetoglu; Abdurrahman Geymen
  8. Economic resilience of automotive manufacturing specialized regions in EU and Turkey By Burak Sunay; Ferhan Gezici Korten
  9. A Document Concerning the Economic Measures Taken in Turkey During the Second World War By Ça Benhür
  10. Does immigration fosters the Algerian exports ? A Static and Dynamic Analysis By Lamara Hadjou
  11. History of Relations Between Turkey and the European Union By Metin Aksoy
  12. Regional Analysis of Domestic Integration in Egypt By Eduardo Haddad; Michael Lahr; Dina Elshahawany; Moisés Vassallo
  13. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Socio-Spatial Resilience based on Sectoral Changes in Kayseri City Region By Arzu Taylan; Elif Gunduz; Mehmet Akif Sag; Kubra Karkin
  14. New Institutionalism in Cross- Border Cooperation: The Case of Edirne- Kırklareli Border Region of Turkey By Ervin Sezgin; Gülden Erkut
  15. The Causality Between Entrepreneurial Activities and Regional Economic Growth: Case of Turkey By Semiha Turgut; Aliye Ahu Akgun
  16. HUMAN SMUGGLING AND TURKEY By Perihan Hazel Kaya; Mustafa Göktu kAYA
  17. Effect of Housing on Net Error Omissions: An Application to Turkey Case By Dilek ALTAS; Gulen Arikan
  18. The Effect of Compulsory Schooling on Spatial Distribution of Educational Attainment By Alpay Filiztekin; Can Karahasan
  19. The Importance of State Support in Entrepreneurship : A Sample of Konya Province By Mehmet Emin Demir; Mehmet Akif Çini
  20. Challenges to Political Parties in Emerging Democracy (Challenges to Jordanian Political Parties for Sustaine By Amin Ali Alazzam
  21. أثر سياسات وبرامج الإصلاح الاقتصادى على محصولى القمح والبرسيم المصرى By S. Ahmed, Maha; Soliman, Ibrahim; G. Amer, M.; M. Fouad, S.

  1. By: Cenk Hamamcioglu; Senay Oguztimur
    Abstract: In general manner; Turkey and Germany are quite unlike countries in terms of transportation infrastructure and logitics facilities. Many reasons, most of them ground historical reasons, could be regarded such as; geographical location, industrial history, economic. For whatever reason might be; in today?s context the world witness the highest logistics performans index score in Germany and an aggressively developing country in Turkey. As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation, Germany leads in developing logistics strategies and services as a key member of the continent's economic and political structure. On the other hand, Turkey has got a real strategic location between the continents but traditionally has problems with transportation mode distribution and interconnectivity of systems that prevent Turkey to undertake the 'hub' role for its region and achieve economic benefit. The efficient mobility of people and freight is a prerequisite for modern economic success. Due to increasing globalization, transportation of freight and logistics play an ever important role in a country's ability to compete in the global market. Global supply chains require a large number of high-performing physical interfaces, such as container terminals, seaports and/or freight villages, to establish a perfect material flow along the entire world. From this point of view; Germany is chosen as the best perfomed country all over the world. Likewise, Turkey needs a kind of a 'benchmarking' in order to overcome transportation and logistics infrastructural and strategic problems. The aim of this paper is to focus on the successful strategic location desicion of freight villages and transportation mode distribution of Germany. In accordance with this purpose, first section of this paper is substantially based on secondary data gathered from a wide variety of sources including Turkish/German Statistical Institutes, Ministries of Transportation, Maritime Affairs and Communication and NGO's of the sector besides European Commision Statistical Office (eurostat) and academic studies. Data gathered is used to point the current transport indicators of Turkey with respect to Germany. Afterwards analyzing the primary transportation and logistics index, the mind behind transportation organisation is presented. Finally; the lessons to be taken for Turkey is presented and future policy in transportation and logistics are guided. The results regarding with the transportation modes indicate that, the finest detail is hidden behind the railway investments and its connections within other transportation modes for Turkey. In a similar manner, Germany's logistics workforce and infrastructure is geographically concentrated along the Rhineland, through the industrial heartland of the Ruhr. But in Turkey, unbalanced regional development force country to polarised development around Marmara Region.
    Keywords: transportation; freight village; Germany; Turkey
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Gürkaynak, Refet S.; Kantur, Zeynep; Tas, M. Anil; Yildirim, Secil
    Abstract: We present an accessible narrative of the Turkish economy since its great 2001 crisis. We broadly survey economic developments and pay particular attention to monetary policy. The data suggests that the Central Bank of Turkey was a strong inflation targeter early in this period but began to pay less attention to inflation after 2009. Loss of the strong nominal anchor is visible in the break we estimate in Taylor-type rules as well as in asset prices. We also argue that recent discrete jumps in Turkish asset prices, especially the exchange value of the lira, are due more to domestic factors. In the post-2009 period the Central Bank was able to stabilize expectations and asset prices when it chose to do so, but this was the exception rather than the rule.
    Keywords: Turkey,CBRT,monetary policy,fiscal policy
    JEL: E52 E62 E31 E32 E02
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Laura Panza (Department of Economics, University of Melbourne); Tomasz Wozniak (Department of Economics, University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: The disruption of the Ottoman Empire caused dramatic changes to the economic and political structure of the Middle East. The newly established nations, incorporated into British and French formal and informal empires, actively implemented a range of protectionist policies, thus disrupting the regions traditional trade flows and patterns. This paper investigates the impact of this new economic setting on commodity market integration in Syria and Egypt, using Bayesian inference. After testing for co-integration through the calculation of Bayes factors and computing impulse response functions, our results point to the absence of cross border market integration.
    Keywords: Market integration, Middle East, interwar, Cointegration, Posterior probability
    JEL: N15 N75 N95 C11 C12 C32
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Ipek Ilkkaracan; Kijong Kim; Tolga Kaya
    Abstract: This one-pager presents the key findings and policy recommendations of the research project report The Impact of Public Investment in Social Care Services on Employment, Gender Equality, and Poverty: The Turkish Case, which examines the demand-side rationale for a public investment in the social care sector in Turkey--specifically, early childhood care and preschool education (ECCPE)--by comparing its potential for job creation, pro-women allocation of jobs, and poverty reduction with an equivalent investment in the construction sector.
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Tuba Demirel (Selcuk University); Hacer Alan (Selcuk University); Sema Y (Selcuk University); Asl Karakoç Geçici (Training and Research Hospital of Konya)
    Abstract: Introduction: Breast milk is the optimum exclusive source of nutrition for the first six months of life. Both mothers and infants have got some problem about breast feeding. Brest milk important especially for premature baby who in intensive care. Method: This descriptive study aim was to evaluate of mother's knowledge and opinions about breast milk banking who were with 0-6 month-old-babies in Konya/Turkey. To calculate the sample size were used in the formula which is the number of individuals in the target group of unknown samples and found 126 but we accessed 200 mothers. Data was collected via face to face interviews and a questionnaire form which consists of demographic as well as breast milk related questions. Necessary permits were obtained both from the ethical and from mothers prior to research. Data analysis were conducted using SPSS 20 program utilizing number, percentage, mean, standard deviation and chi square tests.Results: The average age of mothers was 26.63 ± 6.18 and 42.3% graduated from elementary school. It was found that 59.5% of women had normal labor and had got avagera 2 times. 80.09% of women stated that they were willingly of their last pregnancy. 51.8% of gender the babies were boys. 21.7% of mothers couldn’t breastfeed immediately after birth and 33.6% had problems related to breastfeeding. The most common problem about breastfeeding was related the baby had been in intensive care. 98.2% of mothers said that breastfed is important for infant. 16.4% of women had got some knowledge about breastfeeding banking, 37.3% had got some information about wet nurse in Islam and 62.3% thought about that breast milk banking should be establish in Turkey. 34.1% of mother wanted to give their milk if needed to provide benefits to newborns, 35.5% didn’t want to give their milk for their religions, 67.3% said they didn’t want to get milk for newborn from a milk bank in terms of infectious diseases and they stated that to be a wet nurse (77.3%) they must get permission from their husbands.Conclusion: Most of mothers were aware of the importance of breastfeeding for babies and had expressed that breast milk banks should establish in Turkey. There are some provisions to be a wet nurse for Islam but 37.3% of mothers aware of wet nurse.
    Keywords: Breast milk, Breast milk banking, Baby Health
    JEL: I19
  6. By: Bilgehan Gültekin (Ege University); Tuba Gültekin (Dokuz Eylül University)
    Abstract: Peace Communication is a means of public diplomacy for creating peace climate in international relations. Especially to solve international conflicts and to mediate them by using peace efforts, diplomatic communication is best perspective for agreement.Peace communication in the perspective of diplomatic communication includes: Intercultural peace campaign strategies , creating public diplomacy models for peace, selecting process of right peace actors, message production process and forming public opinion events based on societies. The study titled “Peace Communication and Mediation Model for Turkey and Spain Relations”aims to create a new peace model to motivate peace initiatives for all over the world. The reason to select Turkey and Spain as a leader of peace model is both country have a great peace potential and moreover both Turkey and Spain are representing successful mediation in conflict negotiations. In this study, after evaluation of peace diplomacy strategies and efforts of Turkey and Spain, a new peace model will be developed for leading mediation process. One of the important aims of the study is to point out the importance of mediation process in negotiations . To form an ideal peace mediation for conflict situations by using creative communication techniques and practices is most critical part of the study.
    Keywords: Mediation , Diplomatic Public Relations, Peace Diplomacy
  7. By: Mehmet Kucukmehmetoglu; Abdurrahman Geymen
    Abstract: The Dough Rule, in Turkish Land Law terminology, is a technical approach to readjust land resources in urban and agricultural areas. The Regulation on the 18th Article of the Land and Building Development Law defines the procedures of land readjustment. The procedure is as follows: First obtain cadastral land resources and ownership records and then overlay graphic information on top of zoning plans, later allocate the land resources to the relevant owners after proportional deduction for public uses, such as schools, roads, and parks. In many cases, in the allocation process, relevant parties compete for higher-value urban lots, and the resulting allocation scheme is taken to court. In this study, the primary goal is to develop techniques to handle the difficulties in land readjustment and reallocation practices in Turkey. The developed techniques contain three authentic features: The first feature is the original mathematical models based on operation research techniques. In this feature, there are two Linear Programing (LP) and one Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) models reallocating cadastral parcel areas into standard high quality urban subdivision lot(s) after proportional deduction of public land uses from all landowners under the frame of the Regulation on the 18th Article. The second feature is the evaluation criteria which are developed to present superiority of the optimization models over the existing expert based subjective practices in land reallocation. Those criteria are defined in the form of equations utilizing the allocation results (objective and subjective). The third feature is the graphical presentation of allocation results in a system of rays from cadastral parcel centroids to urban subdivision lot centroids. This provides a succinct way of visual comparison among alternative allocation results. Over a case study area, first, the optimization techniques are applied, then, the obtained results are evaluated via the evaluation criteria, and later visually presented by the ray based allocation/transfer diagrams. Finally superiority of the developed techniques are discussed for further sophistications.
    Keywords: Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure ? Land Reform ? Land Use ? Irrigation ? Agricultur
    JEL: R52
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Burak Sunay; Ferhan Gezici Korten
    Abstract: Since the globalization and global production chains have dominated the world, crisis have bigger effects on economies. In 70?s, 80?s, 90?s and now in 2000?s global financial crisis affect not only countries economies but also global economy. It has become a must for countries and economies to take precautions to stop system failure or to take less damage from big scale impact crisis. In order to lower the possibility of systems malfunctions in economies in case of crisis, countries or regions have to prepare themselves to reduce their vulnerability to external disturbances. Regional resilience, as the term of resilience generated in biology, describes the phenomenon of adapting capacity of a habitat against external effects. In common use it is the ability of a system to leap back or to rebound or to recover after any kind of external and internal disturb shocks and effects. Concerning the regional resilience, a diverse business structure, economy?s innovation capacity and generated added value are beneficial. In this article, the response of the specialized regions in automotive manufacturing has been analyzed in terms of regional resilience. Not only by having specialized production process, innovative designs, technology and a diversified economy within the region, but also being one of the most important economic sectors by revenue, the automotive manufactory has been a key sector for measuring regional resilience. In addition to measure the effect of automotive industry on regional resilience, the automotive manufacturing specialized regions in European Union and Turkey have been defined with location quotient technique by the employment numbers of automotive manufacturing (C29, manufacturing of motor vehicles as defined in NACE Rev.2 by Eurostat) in year 2010. Secondly, the economic performance of 20 top automotive manufacturing specialized regions across the global financial crisis in 2008 have been analyzed in years between 2006 and 2010 with shift-share analysis by employment numbers in automotive manufacturing. Therefore, the pre-shock and post-shock positions of the regions are defined. Finally, an evaluation of the economic resilience performance of the automotive specialized regions has been applied to clarify the reasons of the performances of the automotive manufacturing specialized regions, which have the different characteristic although they have same sectorial specialization, that shift-share analysis could not explain. Eventually, this article clarifies the good and the bad performance of the automotive industry specialized regions; and factors behind their performance, which build their regional economic resilience strong or weak against 2008 global financial crisis.
    Keywords: Automotive industry; regional resilience; performance measurement; shift-share
    JEL: L62 O14
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Ça Benhür (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: During the Second World War, Turkey had tried to remain neutral and stay away from the conflict reached its borders with its balance policy. Turkey has succeeded in this policy but officially joined the war alongside the Allies in the last months of the war and took its place in the new emerging world order. In years when the hot conflict reached its borders, although Turkey purposed the policy of outages war, Turkey had tried to prepare itself economically and in military way as it was going to go to war at any moment. The mentioned precautions became quite harsh for Turkey whilst it could not completely unseat the load of the First World War and the struggle after war. One of the above-mentioned efforts for Turkey was to pass the war economy. The principle of sustainability & development of the war economy, ensuring the maximum benefit from the territory source adopted and the decision was taken as the results to be obtained would be evaluated for the possible war. A development which can be considered as the reflection of the decisions taken; A delegation consisted of the period Ministries of Parliament, has prepared a comprehensive economic measures and practices report. In this study, it will attempt to perform a detailed review and assessment of the mentioned report which is now in the Prime Ministry Republican Archives in Ankara.
    Keywords: Turkey, Economy, Second World War, Archive
  10. By: Lamara Hadjou
    Abstract: Abstract Algeria has a large immigrant population. It is the third largest African community in the world after that of Egypt and Morocco. Its role in the international trade of Algeria has never been object of evaluation study. In line with the recent literature developed since the 1990s, through the work of Gould (1994), on the relationship between immigration and international trade, we propose in this paper to assess the impact of Algerian immigration networks on Algerian exports. It is clear that immigrants represent an opportunity for diversification and intensification of Algerian exports. However, the involvement of immigrants in trade flows is not evident. It is then necessary to assess first the impact and degree of involvement, to propose later, elements of trade policy that can improve the impact. Keywords : immigration, export, Algeria
    Keywords: F1
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Metin Aksoy (Selcuk Üniversity)
    Abstract: Turkey is the only pluralist secular democracy in the Moslem world and has always attached great importance to developing its relations with other European countries. Historically, Turkish culture has had a profound impact over much of Eastern and Southern Europe. Turkey began "westernising" its economic, political and social structures in the 19th century. Following the First World War and the proclamation of the Republic in 1923, it chose Western Europe as the model for its new secular structure. Turkey has ever since closely aligned itself with the West and has become a founding member of the United Nations, a member of NATO, the Council of Europe, the OECD and an associate member of the Western European Union. During the Cold War Turkey was part of the Western alliance, defending freedom, democracy and human rights. In this respect, Turkey has played and continues to play a vital role in the defence of the European continent and the principal elements of its foreign policy have converged with those of its European partners. Having thus entered into very close cooperation with Western Europe in the political field, it was therefore only natural for Turkey to complete this in the economic area. Thus, Turkey chose to begin close cooperation with the fledgling EEC in 1959.
    Keywords: History of Relations urkey and the European Union
    JEL: F22 N90
  12. By: Eduardo Haddad; Michael Lahr; Dina Elshahawany; Moisés Vassallo
    Abstract: We develop an interregional computable general equilibrium model to help assess the ex ante impact of transportation infrastructure policies in Egypt. The model is integrated with a GIS network. We illustrate the analytical capabilities of the model by looking at the domestic integration of the country. Improvements of transportation costs among Egyptian governorates and of their links to the broader world economy are considered in stylized simulations. The results provide quantitative and qualitative insights (general equilibrium effects) into trade-offs commonly faced by policy makers when dealing with transportation infrastructure projects in a spatial context. In the case of Egypt, there seems to be an important trade-off between efficiency and regional equity: projects that produce potential higher impacts on national GDP also tend to contribute more to regional concentration.
    Keywords: transportation costs; CGE model; spatially connective infrastructure; Egypt
    JEL: R11 R13 R15 R42
    Date: 2015–10
  13. By: Arzu Taylan; Elif Gunduz; Mehmet Akif Sag; Kubra Karkin
    Abstract: This paper will evaluate the outcomes of the economic and sectoral development policies of Turkey in terms of investigating the socio-economic and spatial resilience of Kayseri city-region. In Turkey, economic development was mainly based on the manufacturing sector with a significant rise during the period of 1980-1990s. In recent decade, however, the main economic activity has shifted toward the construction sector. Depending on the limitations of the construction industry in the near future, however, the cities need to develop ?resilience plans?, which consider the sectoral potentials and challenges as well as their influences on physical development and/or settlement patterns by comprising both the urban and rural areas of their regions. In this context, this paper focused on the Kayseri city-region. Indeed, Kayseri, which is known with its innovative entrepreneurship in business, has witnessed certain developments in the manufacture industry, i.e. automotive and furniture sectors during 1980-1990s. Although this change addressed a significant shift toward the new regional policies that can lead success in the competitiveness and global integration, there is seen a sectoral decline in the automotive industry since 2000s. Simultaneously, the construction and service sectors increased, when Kayseri has experienced a significant rural-to-urban migration. That is, the influence of the rise in the construction sector does not only lead a decline in the urban manufacturing sectors, but also a decrease in the rural sectors that accompany to the migration. Moreover, the peripheries of Kayseri metropolitan area that had agricultural character with a contribution into the industry have also been threatened with the speculative activities of the construction industry. Regarding the limitations of the construction industry in the next years, Kayseri needs to define the way of resilient development by means of economic sectors. Thus, the paper will evaluate the resilience of Kayseri city-region in terms of Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach, which provides using several criteria, i.e. limits and potentials in the economic sectors as well as in the social and physical development, and different scales, i.e. regional and metropolitan levels. The data on the economic sectors and spatial development of Kayseri are obtained from local authorities such as regional development agency and metropolitan and district municipalities. Regarding both the characteristics of urban and rural areas, the paper will present firstly a sub-regional zoning, which is based on the existing and potential economic activities with the reasons of migration, proposals for rural development and integration of rural sectors into metropolitan sectors. Then, the paper will focus on the metropolitan area by investigating the potentials of urban economic sectors in association with rural sectors? integration, urban growth patterns and main macro-form decisions.
    Keywords: sectoral changes; socio-spatial resilience; urban growth; regional development
    JEL: R1 R11 R12 R14 R58 N5 N6 N9
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: Ervin Sezgin; Gülden Erkut
    Abstract: Institutions take essential roles in the organization of social life. Ranging from institutionalized informal practices to strict laws and regulations and various public and private organizations, institutions have diffused to day- to- day activities. In this way they do not only regulate social interactions and reduce the transaction costs in the society but also transpose the given social/ political dynamics across different political/ administrative scales. From the supra national scale to the nation- state and to the regional levels this transposition ensures the reproduction of the social structure at these political/ administrative scales. However, institutions also provide a ground for intervention and change, through which the agency of individual and institutional actors intervenes and modifies the wider institutional structure. Therefore the analysis of institutions in any given social setting, enables the researcher i) to map the dynamics of interaction among actors; ii) to understand the wider social/ political and economic factors that affect this setting; and iii) to locate the points of intervention, which through interpretation and invention of methods of resistance allows institutional actors to transcend the structural constrains and to create a unique institutional mechanism. The new institutional theory and especially its three main strands (rational choice, sociological and historical institutionalism) provide a wide array of perspectives for analysing and understanding above-mentioned institutional dynamics. Although these three strands rely on theoretical backgrounds that often contradict with each other; their combined use grasps the diversity and complexity of institutional structures more accurately than using a single approach and excluding the remaining perspectives. Based on a field research conducted in the summer of 2013 at the north-western border region (Edirne- Kırklareli provinces) of Turkey, this study performs a new institutional analysis for evaluating the major institutional dynamics of cross- border cooperation in the region. For this purpose, various components of the institutional structure of cross- border cooperation are analysed with respect to the three major strands of new institutional theory. The analysis uses the differing theoretical backgrounds of the three strands of new institutionalism to develop a comprehensive understanding of the institutional structure of cross- border cooperation in the region and place it within the wider social/ political structure as well as within the local context. For this purpose the results of the analyses are brought together and discussed in relation to the structure and agency dichotomy. This theoretical conceptualization allows the researcher to find a common ground among the three new institutionalist strands and to use the analysis for establishing a coherent picture of the institutional structure of cross- border cooperation in Edirne- Kırklareli border region.
    Keywords: cross border cooperation; new institutionalism; Edirne- Kırklareli Border Region
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Semiha Turgut; Aliye Ahu Akgun
    Abstract: The effect of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth has been a research agenda for the last two decades. Entrepreneurship, by creating employment, fostering competitiveness or affecting employment, somehow contributes to economic development. While entrepreneurship is mostly defined or measured as numbers of self-employed, firm formation, business formation, new firm start-ups, firm births or net entry rates in the empirical studies, regional economic development is defined or measured as, the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), gross value added (GVA) and the change of employment/unemployment rate or productivity. The effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth is mainly seen in two time periods: long term and short term. In the literature, there is evidence on the effect of employment growth in short term and on the effects like crowd-out, displacement, the employment decreases because of the firm closures or employment and productivity growth caused by the new firm formations in long term. The purpose of this article is to find the causality between entrepreneurship and regional economic development in Turkey at the NUTS1 level. In order to reach this aim, entrepreneurship is measured as firm formation and net entry, while regional economic development is measured by GVA, GDP and employment. One of the well-known techniques to identify the causal relations among the variables, correlation is used to measure the length, direction and the weight of the causal affects/relations between regional economic development and entrepreneurship. First, the aim, objectives and detailed framework of this article are given. Then, in the following section, the conceptual and theoretical framework of entrepreneurship and regional economic development is discussed. The case study is given in the third section, with the explanation of data and methodology, a short brief of firm and entrepreneurship policies in Turkey and the effect of entrepreneurship on regional economic development in Turkey at two distinctive periods as 1987-2001 and 2004-2011 separately. This study is the first attempt to show such a relation between entrepreneurship and regional economic growth on the basis of the firm formation. The findings show that the causality between (or effect of) entrepreneurship and regional economic growth changes among regions, which clarifies regional similarities of diversities. Therefore, although the trends of entrepreneurship to affect regional growth in Turkey seem corresponding the findings of the current literature, eastern regions acts differently.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; firm formation; regional economic growth
    JEL: L26 O47
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Perihan Hazel Kaya (selcuk University); Mustafa Göktu kAYA (Ministry of Finance of Turkey,Turkish Tax Inspection Board)
    Abstract: Turkey has been a busy destination for immigration and it will always beas it is the geographical and cultural exit door of the East and the entrance door of the West. Among these immigrations, we can see the victims of human trafficking, human smuggling, refugees and those who came here to work and live. Human smuggling, which is one of the movements of illegal immigration, is the specific subject of this work.The fact that our country lies on the transportation destinations between the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa, the crime of human smuggling is highly committed in our country. The aim of the victims of human smuggling is to go to a more developed country to have higher standards of living, to get a better job and to escape from the economic and social instability of their countries. The human smuggling, which has gathered pace due to the improvements in communication and transportation, is not a regional issue and has become one of the most important problems for almost all countries.Accordingly, the reasons, methods and extent of human smuggling will be dealt firstly. Later, it will be studied why Turkey is preffered in human smuggling. Finally, statistical data will be given to show how much human smuggling has gone far in Turkey and the study will be finished with that what is being done and what can be done to prevent it.
    Keywords: Human Smuggling, Immigration, Immigrator, Human Trafficking, Turkey
    JEL: A19
  17. By: Dilek ALTAS (Marmara University); Gulen Arikan (Marmara University)
    Abstract: Net error and omission item, which covers the difference in balance of payment, occurs because of some statistical differences. Besides, net error and omission item represents unregistered income, in other words untaxed income in country budget. In this study, by using quarterly data for years 2000 to 2014, the effect of housing industry on money laundering will be investigated. By using quarterly data for housing licence permissions and with the help of coefficient of relations, changes in housing industry will be observed whether net error and omission item has a relation with it. Moreover, a regression model with one independent variable was created and the expressiveness of housing industry on money laundering will be also investigated. The objective is to present a brief information about data, with some statistical methods. At last, Granger Causality Test will be applied and it will be investigated whether the data affect each other.
    Keywords: Net Error, Housing Industry, Unregistered Economy, Correlation Coefficient, Granger Causality Test
    JEL: C58 E26 C10
  18. By: Alpay Filiztekin; Can Karahasan
    Abstract: Compulsory schooling increases average level of education in a country and provides other benefits, its effect on geographical distribution is, however, not obvious. We explore the effect of a sudden change in compulsory schooling in Turkey, that increased mandatory years of schooling from five to eight years, on spatial distribution of educational attainment. Using data on two cohorts, the cohort that had affected by the change and the immediate cohort that had not, we show that an increase in the dispersion of the shares of people with voluntary education across space. We find that that an increase in years of compulsory schooling makes local conditions that already generate heterogeneity more important to shape the distribution.
    Keywords: I21; I24; J24; R12
    Date: 2015–10
  19. By: Mehmet Emin Demir (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Mehmet Akif Çini (SELCUK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: The importance of entrepreneurship has been increasing in our country and in the world day by day. Because entepreneurs take risks when bringing production factors together, turn a work idea into a purchasable product, and have a critical significance in the establishment of SMEs as locomotives of economy which involve 99% of enterprises operating in our country. So entrepreneurs and their SMEs in our country and in the world are of great importance to have economical development and social welfare. Therefore, it is necessary that entrepreneurs and SMEs be supported by the state. Many various institutions give support to entrepreneurs and SMEs in our country. One of the important institutions supporting is KOSGEB (Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization). KOSGEB has "Entrepreneurship Support Program" aimed at entrepreneurs. In this study, the activities by KOSGEB in the framework of Entrepreneurship Support Program in Konya province will be analyzed via data from the institution; the main objective of the study will show the importance of state support in entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, SMEs, KOSGEB Entrepreneurship Support Program
    JEL: L26 M13
  20. By: Amin Ali Alazzam (Al al-Bayt University- Bayt Al-Hekmah (House of Wisdom))
    Abstract: Democracy has been defined by different researchers in various ways. However, almost all researchers agree that democracy refers to a form of government in which the people select their leaders and hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their actions or inaction. The citizens decide who will represent them in parliament and in government. They do so by choosing between competing parties by holding free and fair elections at regular intervals. In addition, it has been argued that no contemporary democracy has excelled without political parties. To meet the requirements of democracy, politics require social organizations that collect interests, and communicate them to the political and governmental institutions. Political parties, beside the other non-governmental organizations of the civil society, are such organizations that collect and aggregate social interests. Accordingly, this study aims at discussing the case of Jordan by identifying the main challenges that face the Jordanian political parties and prevent them from playing that role of collecting and aggregating social interests and prevent them from capturing political power through elections in order to influence policies and implement their programs. These challenges facing political parties have led in conclusion to lose their credibility.Accordingly, the basic questions that need to be answered in this study are: Are political parties considered one of the most important political organizations in politics in Jordan?; Are they have political power to do changes, or are they powerless?; what are the various challenges faced by political party? Are these challenges stem from the parties itself, or is it cultural obstacles, or is it the lack of political will of the political system to give political parties a role by preventing parties from drawing big attention and introducing its political position to gain new followers and members.?. The study concluded that Jordanian political parties facing many challenges-these challenges are considered obstacle to parties and Jordanian democracy alike- the most important are; poor finance, poor political integration, lack of coherent and internal cohesion, institutional and structural challenges, poor internal democracy, lack of political will, a credibility challenges, and social challenges particularly tribalism which keep individuals hesitating from joining other groups.
    Keywords: Political parties, Challenges, Democracy, Government, Obstacles.
    JEL: D72
  21. By: S. Ahmed, Maha; Soliman, Ibrahim; G. Amer, M.; M. Fouad, S.
    Abstract: Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 42, No 2, March 2015. Published by Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
    Keywords: Economic efficiency, the economic reform, agricultural polices. farm prices, Crop Production/Industries, Political Economy, Production Economics, Public Economics,
    Date: 2015–03–12

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