nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
34 papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Symbols in the Formation of National Identity: Evaluation on Turkey in the Early Republican Period By Hülya E; Rukiye SAYGILI
  2. Defining Public Benefit and Regulating Security through State-Induced Public Spots in Contemporary Turkey By SANEM Guvenc-Salgirli; BAHAR Aykan
  3. Southwest as the New Internal Migration Destination in Turkey By Ali T. Akarca; Aysit Tansel
  4. In the Context of Energy Policy on Turkey; Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) By METIN DEMIR; MEHMET GUVEN
  5. Exchange Rates And Stock Prices Relationship: Clustering By Dynamic Time Warping & Longest Common Subsequences By Ka Karademir
  7. Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time By Aysit Tansel
  9. Developing a Survey on Aesthetic Labour: Women Frontline Employees By OMER AKGUN TEKIN; ESRA YILMAZ; RAB YILMAZ
  10. The Implemented Monetary Policy in Turkey after 1994 By Suleyman UGURLU; Murat BESER; Nazife Ozge KILIC
  11. Quantifying Water Scarcity in Turkey By Asli Tasbasi
  12. Resources on the Stage: A Firm Level Analysis of the ICT Adoption in Turkey By Derya Findik; Aysit Tansel
  13. Intangible Investment and Technical Efficiency: The Case of Software-Intensive Manufacturing Firms in Turkey By Derya Findik; Aysit Tansel
  14. Unemployment and Labor Force Participation in Turkey By Aysit Tansel; Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir; Emre Aksoy
  16. The Unfolding of Gender Gap in Education By Nadir Altinok; Abdurrahman Aydemir
  17. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Natives' Labor Market Outcomes in Turkey: Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Design By Ceritoglu, Evren; Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  18. In terms of Gender Equality Principles, the woman's last name in the Turkish Civil Law By Süheyla Zorlu; Süleyman Emre Zorlu
  19. Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal Sectors in Egypt By Aysit Tansel; Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir
  20. Role of Political Intitutions on Social Conflicts and Economic Accumulation: A Case Study of Turkey By Harun Bal; Nese Algan; P Ozdemir
  21. The Jewish Minority in Turkey at the Cultural Turn of Citizenship: An Analysis Based on the Editorials in the Jewish Newspaper By Oya Morva
  23. Is There an Informal Employment Wage Penalty in Egypt? By Tansel, Aysit; Keskin, Halil Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin
  24. Use of Derivatives and Financial Stability in Turkish Banking Sector By F. Dilvin Ta; Ufuk Tutan
  27. Egypt Relative to the COMESA’s Member States: Do Fiscal Policy Rules Matter? By Kamal, Mona
  28. When secured and unsecured creditors recover the same: The emblematic case of the Tunisian corporate bankruptcies By Régis BLAZY; Aziza LETAIEF
  29. Reform Strategies of Medical Education in Egypt By Shahira Elshafie
  30. History of Traditional and Modern High Education in Iran: An Analitical Survey By Mohsen Modir Shanechi
  31. Dynamic Externalities and Regional Development: The case of Tunisia By DRIDI, Manel
  32. New Approaches to Economic Forcasts of the Flower Export In Iran By Farzaneh Taheri
  33. Capital Stock Simulation by Hartwick Rule in Iran By Saleh Ghavidel
  34. 2002 Sonrasi Türkiye Ekonomisinin Performansi: Karsilastirmali Bir Analiz By Ahmet Benlialper; Hasan COmert; Guney Duzcay

  1. By: Hülya E (Selcuk University); Rukiye SAYGILI (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: This study is on the formation of the Turkish national identity throughout the historical process defined as the Early Republican Period and function of the symbols in this formation process. In this study Early Republican Period is used to define the time slice between the years 1923 and 1938 in Turkey. Distinguishing feature of the period in question is redefinition of the state and society. In this redefinition process, symbols such as religion, Ottoman, sultan, flag, Islamic ummah, cult, madrasah, Quran, sharia, rayah, imamah, which are the elements of the symbol repertoire of the Ottoman society and constitute a meaningful whole, are replaced with Republic, nation, civilization, homeland, flag, Turk, hat, citizen, school. In line with the nationalization, civilizing and secularization principles, Republican discourse tried to reform both the symbols, which are the content of the cultural behavior, and the context, in which these symbols are formed and given meaning. In Turkish literature, opposition of the Kemalist nation formation process to the Islam and its symbols is frequently stated. In this study, it will be argued that Islam has played a key role in the formation of the Turkish national identity contrary to the general opinion and that flag and national anthem of the nation state are nourished by the Islamic references.
    Keywords: Symbols, Nation Building, Turkey
  2. By: SANEM Guvenc-Salgirli (Marmara University); BAHAR Aykan (Marmara University)
    Abstract: The second decade of the 2000s Turkey saw the emergence and sudden boost of public spots as a new communication material. These are forty-five seconds long clips that are prepared by the Ministries as well as NGOs and repeatedly aired on the advertising slots of national TV channels. Their pronounced aim is the pursuit of public benefit, directed towards ‘raising consciousness and awareness in public’ on quite a wide range of topics such as social solidarity, occupational accidents, health, food and environment. This presentation focuses on the ministry-produced public spots. Analyzing their content instead of their format and drawing on nineteen interviews conducted in 2014 with state officials involved in their preparation, we will question the very notion of public benefit and discuss how and why the public spot became a conventional medium to promote it. Our argument rests primarily on the observation that these spots of varying topics are linked through a generalized notion of security: issues concerning food, workplace, traffic, crime, and family are all problematized with the aim of regulating public safety through individual self-governance. As such, we discuss public spots as part of a neoliberal security regime induced by the state, a regime that gradually reassigns the problem of security upon the individual and advances public benefit through self-securitization.
    Keywords: self-governance; public benefit; securitization; public spots; Turkey
  3. By: Ali T. Akarca (Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA); Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: Antalya and Mugla provinces located in southwestern Turkey have emerged as new magnets for internal migration in the country. Socio-economic, demographic and labor market characteristics of immigrants coming to these two provinces from various regions are studied to uncover the reasons fueling their moves. This is accomplished through an analysis of descriptive statistics, and an analysis of a gravity model estimated. Differences and similarities between immigrants coming to these two provinces and those going to other migrant magnets, between immigrants and natives in Antalya and Mugla, and among immigrants coming to the two provinces from various origins are noted. What distinguishes Antalya and Mugla from other migrant-drawing provinces is that they attract some retirees and university students as well and their immigrants participating in the labor force are attracted mainly by jobs created in the sectors related to tourism, either directly or indirectly, rather than industry. Immigrants from different origins exhibit different characteristics and tend to specialize in different types of jobs. However, as other migrant flows, those directed at Antalya and Mugla are affected by distance adversely and by unemployment differential, past migration and population size at origin, favorably.
    Keywords: Internal migration, labor market, gravity model, Turkey, Antalya, Mugla.
    JEL: J21 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: METIN DEMIR (Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Atatürk University); MEHMET GUVEN (Aegean Forestry Research Institute, Forest Ecology and Soil Department)
    Abstract: The way to become a powerful state in today’s world passes through having a robust economy and using of underground-overground resources efficient. In parallel with rapid population growth, urbanization and socio-economic development, need for electric energy of Turkey increases rapidly. Increasing of electricity need causes the growing importance of Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) in terms of being renewable and cheap.In the study, impacts of Hydroelectric power plants, which are brought state policy into overcoming energy deficit in Turkey, on flora and fauna,socio-economic structure and climate have been discussed. In addition, following the legal operation process of HPP, hydroelectric energy policy in Turkey has been examined HPP in private
    Keywords: Energy policy, Renewable energy, Hydroelectric power plant (HPP), Turkey
    JEL: Q25
  5. By: Ka Karademir (Turgut Ozal University)
    Abstract: One of the most discussed topics in finance is the relationship between Exchange Rates and Stock Prices. This obscurity is tried to determine by different causality methods. Unfortunately, these studies usually compare countries’ Stock Prices and Exchange Rates without applying any clustering or classifying methods. As a result, outcomes vary with each country. This study aims to produce a pre-processing method for examining the linkage between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates by the clustering methodologies of Dynamic Time Warping and Longest Common Subsequences, examining G8 countries, BRICS countries and Turkey. Dynamic Time Warping is an algorithm which aligns two different time series by certain constraints, even if they are non-linear or not having the same length. In this study, daily data of ten years from 2005 to 2015 are employed and similarity criterion is measured with respect to Turkish Data Set. Empirical results showed that there are significant differences between Stock Prices of G8 countries and BRICS countries compared to Turkish Stock Prices. Both Turkish Exchange Rates movements and Stock Prices movements show more correspondence with Russian and Chinese Stock Prices and Exchange Rates movements than other countries’. This pre-processing methodology enables researchers to investigate more interrelated exchange markets and stock markets by applying clustering. Discussions of possible improvements and issues of future researchers are concluded.
    Keywords: Exchange Rates, Stock Prices, Dynamic Time Warping, Longest Common Subsequences
    JEL: F31 F36 G15
    Abstract: All the world countries generate an important income from tourism. The competents of state and private sector carry out a lot of information and publicity activities to attract tourists for their countries. Turkey has an important geography both for being a mediterranean country and having historical substructure for tourism. The tourism sector has first affected fragile structure from wars, terror and political crises when compared with the other sectors.The decisions of domestic and foreign tourists change for this reason.The concepts of terror and terrorism and the relations between tourism and social and political instabilities living in Turkey are gone around in this study. Because the study has a qualitative scope the datum which are had from secondary sources are tried to be compiled with the perspective of Turkey. The terror activities and political problems in tourism sector are gone around with these datum and it is tried to bring forward a proposal to make these negations positive with the least damage.
    Keywords: Terrorism, Tourism, Political Instabilities
    JEL: L80
  7. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This study investigates inequality of opportunity in educational achievements in Turkey over time. For this purpose we use test scores of PISA in mathematics, science and reading achievement of 15-year-olds over the period 2003-2012. Since the different waves of the samples cover only a fraction of the cohorts of 15-year olds we take into account the inequality of opportunity in access to the PISA test as well as the inequality of opportunity of the academic achievement in the PISA test. This procedure enables proper over time comparisons. We estimate the effect of circumstances children are born into on their academic achievement as evidenced in their PISA test scores. The main findings are as follows. First, confirming the previous studies we find that inequality of opportunity is a large part of the inequality of educational achievement in Turkey. Second, the inequality of opportunity in educational achievement shows a slightly decreasing trend over time in Turkey. Third, the inequality of opportunity figures based on the mathematics, science and reading achievements exhibited the similar trend over time. Forth, the family background variables are the most important determinants of the inequality in educational achievement which is a consistent pattern over time. However, there is also evidence of slight weakening of these factors over time. Policies are necessary to improve equality of opportunity in education in Turkey.
    Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, Education, Turkey.
    JEL: I24 D63
    Date: 2015–04
  8. By: Ahmet Tarhan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Kadir Canoz (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Omer Bakan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: As a result of the developments such as current competition environment, the rise of self-awareness among the consumers, and the requests and expectations of the consumers; the banks in the service sector were in the quest of being different from their rivals. Upon those developments, banks turned into sponsorship activities which are based on mutual benefits. The corporate web pages are among the instruments which banks have utilized recently in announcing their sponsorship activities for their corporate publicity, establishing their corporate images and increase their recognition. In the study, the sponsorship activities of 9 banks which serve in Turkey and listed in the categories such as public, private and participation banks were analyzed through their corporate web page sand using content analysis. Among the 191 sponsorship activities, it was found at the end of the analysis that 92 of the sponsorship activities were carried out by the private banks, 68 of them by public banks and 31 of them by participation banks. The most common type of sponsorship preferred by the banks was determined as the sports sponsorship while the least preferred one was environment sponsorship.
    Keywords: sponsorship, public relations, banking sector, corporate web page, content analysis.
    Abstract: All kinds of organizations have recently focused on being a part of unstable market and as a shareholder, increasing their shares in their markets. Especially, hospitality managements as being parts of highly competitive market and having a very tentative element such as “human” have an aim to provide full satisfaction of their customers. Protecting their brand urges them to search for new trends to differ their service systems and that causes an increase in their expectations from employees. One of them is having employees that have eligible physical properties and attitudes. Nowadays, hospitality managements pay attention to physical properties of a front line employee especially in the recruitment process. They look for a person who is looking good and sounding right. Finding an employee with perfectible properties is the first step that must be fulfilled. Then, through selection and training, managements modify and develop employees ‘abilities and attributes and convert them into aesthetic abilities. This, a creation of the management, the style of an employee with new abilities and attributes is called as aesthetic labour. The aim of this research is to reveal women frontline employees’ efforts while being an aesthetic labour. Departing from that, a questionnaire was developed under the light of international studies as there are few studies in national literature. A pilot implementation was conducted in 5 star hotels in Antalya, Turkey. As one of the noble seashore and having many 5 star hotels, Antalya is chosen for pilot implementation. 150 questionnaires were disturbed, 130 of them were collected. In order to conduct a reliable survey, 12 of them were eliminated as being fulfilled by other employees rather than frontline. 118 questionnaires were used to verify the data. Factor analysis was conducted to prove the dimensions predicted. 52 questionnaire items predicted within six factors were proven as 37 items within 6 factors. Factors are labelled as “Aesthetic Labour Requirements in Recruitment, Organizational Codes on Aesthetic Labour within Working Hours, Trainings on Becoming an Aesthetic Labour, Being an Aesthetic Labour in Customer Interactions, Effort to Preserve Aesthetic Labour Identity in Time off Work, Evaluations of Employees on Being an Aesthetic Labour.” According to the reliability analysis, the survey’s Cronbach Alpha value is 0.94. As there is few quantitative studies on aesthetic labour, this study takes a preliminary step for composing a questionnaire used for further researches both by national and international researchers.
    Keywords: Developing a Survey, Aesthetic Labour, Women Frontline Employees
    JEL: Z00 A30
  10. By: Suleyman UGURLU (The Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences); Murat BESER (The Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences); Nazife Ozge KILIC (The Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences)
    Abstract: Inflation and financial crisis is one of the basic economic problems for all countries since 1990’s. Inflation creates domestic issues more while financial crisis constitutes regional even global problems. There is an inevitable need for an active economical and tighter fiscal policy to overcome these economic problems. Central banks have a great role to provide stable economic growth rate under low inflation in long term in addition to financial and price stability. Central banks, which are responsible for implementation of monetary policy, take economic conditions of the country and fiscal policies of the government as data to determine main monetary policy objectives, what strategies they shall implement to achieve these objectives and to decide which monetary policy tools they shall use. In this context, aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the monetary policy decisions of the April 5, 1994 and is to identify the extent of success of these policies. In particular, inflation targeting regime which is applied after February 2001 crisis and monetary policies after 2008 global crisis are the focal point of the study.
    Keywords: Monetary Policy, Inflation, Financial Crisis, Central Banking, Credit
    JEL: E50
  11. By: Asli Tasbasi (Isik University)
    Abstract: This study provides a quantitative assesment of water resources in Turkey in order to diagnose the water scarcity in the country. To this end, water stress indices are calculated which serve a multi-dimensional analysis by linking water scarcity to variables of population, income, pollution, withdrawals and social adaptive capacity. Results of the calculations are used to portray whether access to water and water poverty are directly or indirectly related. In view of its findings, the paper argues that water resources should not be managed according to the neoliberal rules of scarce resources, which may eventually make water unaffordible for the poor. The paper brings attention to the need for a socially equitable water policy and calls for a rapid agenda for the implementation of EU Water Framework Directive.
    Keywords: Water scarcity, Turkey, Falkenmark Index,Water Exploitation Index, Water Scarcity Index, , Social Water Stress Index, Water Poverty Index.
    JEL: Q50 Q53 Q56
  12. By: Derya Findik (Science and Technology Policy Studies Program, METU); Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of firm resources on ICT adoption by the Turkish business enterprises using firm level data. ICT adoption is measured at three levels: The first level is technology ownership. The second level is the presence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer resource management (CRM), and the third level is the use of narrowband and broadband technologies. The effects of the three main features of each technology level, which are complementarity, specificity, and the complexity, are analyzed by using firm level data in Turkey. This study has three main conclusions. As for the complementarity, firm’s resources play an important role in the adoption of technology while advancing from single technology to the multiple ones. Further, in the use of specific technologies such as ERP and CRM, firm resources generate differential effects between those technologies. Finally, the use of simple technologies does not require the same amount of firm resources as complex technologies.
    Keywords: adoption, ICT, complementarity, specificity, complexity
    JEL: D22 D24 O30 O47
    Date: 2015–08
  13. By: Derya Findik (Science and Technology Policy Studies Program, METU); Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Software investment, Efficiency, Software intensive firms, Stochastic frontier analysis, Production Function, Firms, Turkey.
    JEL: L21 L23 L25
    Date: 2015–08
  14. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt); Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir (Department of Economics, Gazi University; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt); Emre Aksoy (Department of Economics, Kirikkale University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between labor force participation rate and unemployment rate in Turkey a developing country. Cointegration analysis is carried out for the aggregate and gender and age specific series. The findings indicate that there is no long-run relationship between labor force participation and unemployment rates in Turkey. Thus, unlike in the case of the developed countries the unemployment invariance hypothesis is supported in Turkey.
    Keywords: Unemployment Invariance Hypothesis, Cointegration, Turkey.
    JEL: E24
    Date: 2015–02
  15. By: Ömer Faruk TEK (Selçuk University - Vocational School of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: Today, while the dynamics of globalization are observed in almost every area of life, some changes; which are sometimes in the opposite and sometimes the same direction, but somehow interrelated; are faced. In that process, approaches some approaches seeing centralized policies and structures inadequate for solving some of the problems except for certain areas, have begun to come up. The proportional change on the urban and rural population that was created by the immigrations, which have gone along with the industrialization, has consistently improved in favour of the city, and eventually has paved the way for negative consequences such as the clutter of that population on some specific points.Some countries, which adopted liberal policies, have refused to interfere with the natural development of the urbanization process and have expected such rapid urbanization to reach equilibrium after a period. However, that rapid urbanization, which is limited to certain centres and leads to regional and urban imbalances, has pushed many counties to take various measures and to create new policies for struggling against it. First, some efforts were made for improving the living conditions of rural areas and creating new opportunities in order to stop migration that is the main reason for this and to keep the rural population in their villages and even to bring the immigrants back. Some countries have had the expectation of benefits for the development of the whole country, from directing the population to some major city centres. That ultimately has led to certain social and cultural problems. On the other hand, for eliminating those social, cultural and economical problems, some countries have applied decentralized urbanization policies, which were expected to end the regional imbalances, by preventing the population and urbanization from being directed to some specific centres, in the aim of spreading that evenly throughout the country.In this study, first, the concepts of urbanization and regional development will be dealt. Urbanization policies that have been developed by scholars and been implemented in different countries, will be discussed. Strategies, which provide regional development taking the advantage of different policies and especially the investment policies, for eliminating disparities between regions, will be specified. Then, the idea of decentralization in urban and regional development will be focused. And in the last section, decentralised urbanization and regional development policies, which have been applied and are being applied in Turkey, will be discussed.
    Keywords: Decentralization, Urbanization, Regional Development, Decentralized Urbanization, Regional Imbalances, the Case of Turkey
    JEL: R28 H76 R58
  16. By: Nadir Altinok (BETA - Bureau d'économie théorique et appliquée - CNRS - Université Nancy 2 - Université de Strasbourg, IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - UB - Université de Bourgogne); Abdurrahman Aydemir (Sabanci University)
    Abstract: The gender gap in education against females becomes smaller as the level of development increases and turns in their favor in developed countries. Through analysis of regional variation in the gender gap within Turkey,which displays a similar pattern to the cross-country pattern, this paper studies the factors that lead to the emergence of a gender gap against females. The data for student achievement and aspirations for further education during compulsory school show that females are just as well prepared and motivated for further education as their male counterpartsacross regions with very different levels of development. Despite this fact, large gaps arise in high school registration and completion in less developed regions, but not in developed ones. We find that larger sibship size is the main driver of gender gaps in less developed regions. While social norms have a negative influence on female education beyond compulsory school, they play a relatively small role in the emergence of gender gaps. Theseresultsare consistent with the fact that resource-constrained families give priority to males for further education, leading to the emergence of education gender gaps.
    Keywords: gender gap, education, achievement, social norm
    Date: 2015–09–24
  17. By: Ceritoglu, Evren (Central Bank of Turkey); Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu (Central Bank of Turkey); Torun, Huzeyfe (Central Bank of Turkey); Tumen, Semih (Central Bank of Turkey)
    Abstract: Civil war in Syria, which started in March 2011, has led to a massive wave of forced immigration from the Northern Syria to the Southeastern regions of Turkey. This paper exploits this natural experiment to estimate the impact of Syrian refugees on the labor market outcomes of natives in Turkey. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that immigration has considerably affected the employment outcomes of natives, while its impact on wage outcomes has been negligible. We document notable employment losses among informal workers as a consequence of refugee inflows. The majority of those who lost their informal jobs have either left the labor force or remained unemployed. Overall, unemployment rates have increased, while labor force participation, informal employment, and job finding rates have declined among natives. Disadvantaged groups – i.e., females, younger workers, and less-educated workers – have been affected the worst. The prevalence of informal employment in the Turkish labor markets has amplified the negative impact of Syrian refugee inflows on natives' labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: Syrian civil war, immigration, Turkey, labor market, informality, difference in differences
    JEL: J15 J21 J61 C21
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Süheyla Zorlu (Selçuk Üniversity Law Faculty); Süleyman Emre Zorlu (Selcuk University Law Faculty)
    Abstract: Former Turkish Civil Code Article 153/1 was in the form: “Wife, carries her husband's family name”. In this regard, according to the changes made in 1997 women last names, was granted the right to use her husband's surname with. Finally, in 2002, it entered into force, 4721 in New Turkish Civil Code Article 187. line within, It accepted that women use their maiden name with the surname of her husband. This provision, which respond to the needs, is treated in accordance with the principle of equality and are thought to end the discussion on this subject. However, the real debate should be initiated after the change of the legislator.
    Keywords: Turkish Civil Law; Gender Equality Principles; Woman Last Name in Turkish Civil Law
    JEL: K36 K19
  19. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt); Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir (Department of Economics, Gazi University; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: Informality is a salient feature of labor market in Egypt as it is the case with many developing countries. This is the first study of the determinants of worker transitions between various labor market states using panel data from Egypt. We first provide a diagnosis of dynamic worker flows across different labor market states. We develop transition probabilities by gender across different labor market states utilizing Markov transition processes. Next we identify the effects of individual, household, job characteristics and location on different mobility patterns by estimating a multinomial logit regression. The results point to the highly static nature of the Egyptian labor market. Government employment and the out of labor force are the most persistent labor market states. Further, only a few of the explanatory variables except high levels of education are found to have predictive power in explaining the transitions from formal wage, informal wage, self-employment, unemployment government employment and out of labor market states.
    Keywords: Labor market dynamics, informality, Markov processes, multinomial logit, Egypt.
    JEL: J21 J24 J40 J63 O17
    Date: 2015–01
  20. By: Harun Bal (Cukurova University); Nese Algan (Cukurova University); P Ozdemir (Cukurova Universiy)
    Abstract: There is widespread agreement among economist that society has became an organization through the institutions. However, there is not a consensus about definition of institutions and in which way institutions affect countries economic performance. With pioneering paper Acemo
    Keywords: instutions, social conflict
    JEL: B15
  21. By: Oya Morva
    Abstract: News and Articles in the Jewish Newspaper
    Keywords: subcultures, cultural citizenship, cultural flexibility, Turkish Jewish minority,
  22. By: Hakki Ciftci (Cukurova University); Erhan Iscan (Cukurova University); Duygu Serin (Cukurova University)
    Abstract: The insurance sector has great importance for modern society. Insurance sector is one of the most important financial institutions in the financial system that affects the economic growth with the remarkable assets. Especially since the 1950s, the insurance sector has high growth rates. From the end of the 19th century, effects of the financial institutions on economic growth are studied in-depth in the literature. The results of many studies showed that impact of financial institutions on economic growth is significant. However, the literature on the role of the insurance sector on economic growth in comparison with the role of the banks on economic growth has not been studied very much. The main objective of this study is to investigate the interaction between the Turkish insurance sector and economic growth. In this study, the development of the Turkish insurance sector and influence of insurance sector on economic growth will be studied. Afterwards using the methods of time series analysis, the interaction between the size of the Turkish insurance sector and economic growth will be investigated. Findings from the study will provide us important information about the details of the interaction between insurance sector and economic growth. Basic contribution of this work is to provide useful information about the details of this interaction to policy-makers and agents for effective decision-making. Further analysis of this interaction will emphasize the importance of the insurance sector for economic growth.
    Keywords: Insurance, Economic Growth, Insurance Premium, Turkish Insurance Sector
    JEL: C32 G22 O43
  23. By: Tansel, Aysit (Cornell University); Keskin, Halil Ibrahim (Gazi University); Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin (Gazi University)
    Abstract: This paper considers the private sector wage earners in Egypt and examine their wage distribution during 1998-2012 using Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey. We first estimate Mincer wage equations both at the mean and at different quantiles of the wage distribution taking into account observable characteristics. Then we make use of the panel feature of the data and estimate models taking into account unobservable characteristics. We also consider the possibility of nonlinearity in covariate effects and estimate a variant of matching models. In all cases we find a persistent informal wage penalty in the face of extensive sensitivity checks. It is smaller when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account and larger at the top than at the bottom of the conditional wage distribution. We also examine the informal wage penalty over time during the study period and in different groups according to experience and education. The informal wage penalty has increased recently over time and is larger for the better educated but smaller for the more experienced.
    Keywords: formal and informal wage gap, formal and informal employment, panel data, Egypt
    JEL: J21 J31 J40 O17
    Date: 2015–09
  24. By: F. Dilvin Ta (Yasar University, Department of Business Administration); Ufuk Tutan (Yasar University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of derivatives use on the stability of the banks that are operating in Turkish banking system for the period between 2005 and 2014, which is the period after the establishment of Turkish Derivatives Exchange. The risk of a bank is defined as a probability of default and Z-index is calculated for each bank. The results show that derivative instruments significantly increase the risks of banks; on the other hand bank risk is not a significant determinant of derivative usage. Liquid assets also increase and interest revenues decrease the risk of banks. When the determinants of derivative portolio is analyzed it is understood that larger banks and foreign banks and banks with larger loan portfolio and liquid assets hold more of derivative products and banks which have higher interest revenues to total assets are more likely to engage in traditional banking activities.
    Keywords: Bank risk, Z-index, derivative usage, Turkish banking sector
    JEL: G20
  25. By: Rukiye Sayg (Selcuk University); Hülya E (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: The decisions known as “February 28 Decisions” in Turkish political life consist of the “measures required to be taken against the reactionary initiatives opponent to the regime” comprising 18 articles, which were taken at the National Security Council that lasted for 9 hours in the period of the 54th Government formed between Refah (Welfare) Party and Do
    Keywords: Religion, Politics, Education, 28 Febuarty Decisions, Turkey
    JEL: I28 D73 D78
  26. By: Ayse ARAT (Selcuk University Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: Step children are viewed pity for all cultures. Even foster parents are always evil in tales. In real life, the situation is not the same for all step children, but there is no doubt that this is a sensitive subject. The rule of law has brought protective provisions in favor of children because they are incapable. So that parents’ custody on children has been limited to various provisions against abuse. The striking one among these limiting provisions is a provision for interest and pay attention to spouses minors of the stepchildren (TCC. Art. 338). This is relatively new in terms of the provisions of Turkish law, not only leads to the emergence of a set of results but also for an advice. The beginning of these results, if step parents' behavior violates obligation of care and his own mother or father condone this, the custody of child's can be removed and even care obligating violation of a defective behavior for spouses' divorce. In our study, according to the Turkish Civil Law provisions in the general framework of the protection of children, in particular the step child protection and violation of care obligations to the step children the sanctions that may arise are evaluated.
    Keywords: Step-child, Protection of Step-child, Stepchild at the Turkish Civil Law.
    JEL: K36
  27. By: Kamal, Mona
    Abstract: This paper compares Egypt’s most essential macroeconomic indicators with respect to its sisters in the COMESA region. Based on this descriptive analysis, the paper supports mutual coordination between fiscal and monetary policies as a way to enhance the effectiveness of both policies. It suggests the utilization of rule-based fiscal policies rather than discretionary ones to attain social welfare for the whole region. Finally, it recommends the establishment of a supranational coordinating body for fiscal policies within a time frame of 3 to 5 years.
    Keywords: Policy Objectives, Policy Designs and Consistency, Policy Coordination, Fiscal Policy, Comparative Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy
    JEL: E61 E62 E63
    Date: 2015–10–06
  28. By: Régis BLAZY (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); Aziza LETAIEF
    Abstract: Bankruptcy is an essential screening mechanism for developing economies. This paper focuses on the way bankruptcy is managed in Tunisia, a country characterized by the importance of its banking sector. We hand collected data on a set of Tunisian firms that went bankrupt between 1995-2009. We gathered original and unique information on the firms’ characteristics, the causes of default, the values of assets, the structure of claims, the recovery rates, and the bankruptcy costs. We use this information to answer several questions (those questions being investigated both directly, and by controlling for any risk of selection bias): 1) are the Tunisian bankruptcy procedures able to generate high total recoveries? 2) Are the secured creditors (mostly banks) well-enough protected under bankruptcy? 3) Do the secured creditors influence the choice between liquidation and reorganization? 4) To what extent the recoveries of the secured creditors compete (or not) with the ones of the other classes of creditors? We find that the Tunisian reorganization procedures are able to generate substantial recoveries, but those are mainly captured by the preferential claims (employees and public claims). This is coherent with the authorities’ willingness to improve social protection, but this raises concerns as the Tunisian firms are mainly financed by bankers. Our analysis shows that the secured creditors are poorly protected under bankruptcy: they rank almost last in the priority order of repayment, and their recovery rate is similar to one of the unsecured creditors. We also find that the rather high level of recovery rate is mainly attributable to the reorganization procedures. We finally find that the court’s choice between reorganization and liquidation is not influenced by the structure of claims. Thus, in Tunisia, the creditors are losing hand once bankruptcy is triggered. The likely consequences on development are twofold: first, higher risks of capital misallocation and of credit rationing; second, stronger incentives for the banks to prioritize informal workouts.
    Keywords: Bankruptcy; Development; Secured creditors; Heckman selection model; Tunisia.
    JEL: G33 K22 O16
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Shahira Elshafie (FAyoum University)
    Abstract: – The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges facing medical education system in Egypt particularly in the area of education quality. It builds upon several existing studies conducted in Egypt to make the case for improving education outcomes.Design/methodology/approach– Samples were drawn from existing studies conducted in Egypt by experts in the education field.Findings– Results suggest that there is a chance for improvement of the quality of medical education in Egypt with subsequent potential increase of graduates employability and direct impact on national and global healthcare. Conclusion– Strategies of reform are suggested including academic network, curriculum comparative studies, joint degrees and internationalization.
    Keywords: Education, Medical, Internationalization, Egypt
  30. By: Mohsen Modir Shanechi (Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University)
    Abstract: History of Traditional and Modern High Education in Iran: An Analytical Survey Mohsen Modir Shanechi, Ph.D. Department of Political Science, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran AbstractIn this article, after mentioning a brief history of Iranian education and schools from ancient to contemporary times, dispatching students abroad and establishing modern high schools in Qajar era has considered. Then founding Tehran University as the first modern university of Iran, other universities outside Tehran and establishing non- governmental universities as well as academic and educational style of them has studied. Islamic revolution of 1979, cultural revolution, Islamization of educational programs and founding related centers is the later discourse of the article. Finally, establishing Azad University as a great non- governmental university and its status is considered. The article ends in mentioning the role and function of Iranian high educational institutions in cultural and social development of the country
    Keywords: high education, ancient universities, modern universities
    JEL: I23 I23 I20
  31. By: DRIDI, Manel
    Abstract: In this paper we seek to estimate the impact of local economic structure on the regional employment growth of 8 mainstream industry sectors in 24 local areas of Tunisia between 2000 and 2009. By referring to new economic geography and the empirical approaches dealing with agglomeration economies and dynamic externalities, we show that regional employment growth in industrial sector in Tunisia is driven mainly by externalities related to specialization while diversity do not seem to be important determinants of regional employment growth. Moreover we find that local competition have a positive significant effect on local employment growth.
    Keywords: regional growth, dynamic externalities, industrial structure, regional integration
    JEL: O47 R11 R12
    Date: 2015–03–01
  32. By: Farzaneh Taheri (Department of Agricultural Economics,Marvdasht Branch,Islamic Azad University,Marvdasht,Iran)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the export of flowers in Iran. After data collection using by the index of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), the condition of business of flowers in Iran was compared with a number of countries exporting the product. According to the results of study, the small elasticity of the exportation price in the function of export demand is negative and smaller than one, and it indicates that flowers are inelastic goods; moreover, the income from its export could be increased by increasing the price. It can be concluded that the domestic price increase will lead to a decrease in exports due to the high elasticity and negative of export supply in comparison with the domestic price. Partial elasticity obtained for the variable of the value of domestic production of flowers in the export supply function in this study indicates that uncontrolled increase production by increasing the acreage under cultivation makes the decrease of exportation price of flowers, and at the most it causes reducing of exportation income because of higher effect of low price in comparison with the effect of an increase in demand; thus, the income from the export of flowers can be increased by controlling the production and the value of export
    Keywords: supply and demand functions, export, flower, comparative advantage.
    JEL: Q11 Q11 Q17
  33. By: Saleh Ghavidel (Department of Economic, Firoozkooh Branch, Azad University, Firoozkooh, Iran)
    Abstract: Fully reinvest of natural resource rents in foreign assets or productive capital such as buildings, roads, machines, human capital or health so-called Hartwick rule. The aim of this paper is to estimate the capital stock in Iran by Hartwick Rule. In other word we estimate PIM method and Hartwick rule for calculate capital stock. The result show that estimated capital stock by Hartwick rule is more than PIM method. Therefore, in Iranian economy, Hartwick rule is not applied because part of natural resource income consumed and genuine saving is negative. If the Hartwick rule would have been followed during the last few decades, Iranian economy would have been much less dependent on oil and other resources.
    Keywords: Hartwick rule, Natural resource, PIM method, Genuine saving
    JEL: Q26 N50 O13
  34. By: Ahmet Benlialper (Department of Economics, Ipek University, Ankara, Turkey); Hasan COmert (Department of Economics, METU, Ankara, Turkey); Guney Duzcay (Department of Economics, METU, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: Bu calismada hem betimsel istatistiklerden hem de basit bir performans endeksinden faydalanilarak Turkiye’nin iktisadi performansi benzer ulke gruplari ve ulkelere gore incelenmektedir. Calismamiz siyasi ve iktisadi olarak bir donum noktasi olarak kabul edilebilecek 2002 yili ile 2014 yillari (verilerin el verdigi olcude) arasini kapsamaktadir. Calismanin temel bugulari sunlardir: Birincisi, Turkiye ekonomisininin goreli performansi tum donem ve alt donemlerde bir ya da iki degisken disinda ya ortalamanin altinda ya da ortalamaya yakindir. Bu bakimdan orneklemdeki ulkelerle karsilastirildiginda Turkiye icin istisnai bir basaridan soz etmek mumkun degildir. Ikincil olarak, kirilganlik gostergeleri olarak yorumlanabilecek gostergelere odaklanildiginda Turkiye en kirilgan ulkelerin basinda gelmektedir. Ozellikle rezerv yeterliligi, dis borc ve kompozisyonu, cari acik ve bunla ilgili olarak da sermaye hareketlerinin boyutu ve kompozisyonu diger gelismekte olan ulkelere gore epey kotu durumdadir. Makroekonomik endeks ile yaptigimiz analiz betimsel istatistikleri desteklemektedir. Hatta endeksleme analizi hem Turkiye’nin goreli performansinin tum donem boyunca en kotuler arasinda olduguna, hem de performansinin son donemde daha da kotulestigine isaret etmektedir. Politika yapicilarin ve ilgili kurumlarin var olan durumun gercekci bir analizi ile bir an once ortaya cikan tabloya gore adimlar atmasi gerekmektedir. Aksi takdirde kuresel devinimlere bagli olarak 1980 sonrasinda Turkiye’de ve diger bir cok gelismekte olan ulkede cokca gordugumuz sureclerin tekrarini yakin zamanda izlemek zorunda kalabiliriz.
    Keywords: Turkiye Ekonomisi, Gelismekte Olan Ulkeler, Makro-eknomik Performans, Makro-ekonomik Politikalar, Karisilastirmali Ulke Calismalari.
    JEL: O53 E00 E60 O57
    Date: 2015–05

This nep-ara issue is ©2015 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.