nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒08‒13
ten papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Intangible investment and technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
  2. Resources on the stage: a firm level analysis of the ict adoption in Turkey By Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
  3. Southwest as the new internal migration destination in Turkey By Akarca, Ali T.; Tansel, Aysit
  4. The relative effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies on growth: what does long-run SVAR model tell us? By Şen, Hüseyin; Kaya, Ayşe
  5. Can I Have Permission to Leave the House? Return Migration and the Transfer of Gender Norms By Tuccio, Michele; Wahba, Jackline
  6. The oil cycle, the Federal Reserve, and the monetary and exchange rate policies of Qatar By Khalid Rashid, Alkhater; Syed Abul, Basher
  7. For a fee : the business of recruiting Bangladeshi women for domestic work in Jordan and Lebanon By Jones, Katharine
  8. Value of E-Banking to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Parveneh Shahnoori; Glenn P. Jenkins
  10. أثر أزمة منطقة اليورو على الإيرادات النفطية للجزائر للفترة 2005 - 2012 By ABDELLAOUI, Okba; Zergoune, Mohamed

  1. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This chapter analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, Software investment, Efficiency, Software intensive firms, Stochastic frontier analysis, Production Function, Firms, Turkey.
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013–08–05
  2. By: Fındık, Derya; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of firm resources on ICT adoption by the Turkish business enterprises using firm level data. ICT adoption is measured at three levels: The first level is technology ownership. The second level is the presence of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer resource management (CRM), and the third level is the use of narrowband and broadband technologies. The effects of the three main features of each technology level, which are complementarity, specificity, and the complexity, are analyzed by using firm level data in Turkey. This study has three main conclusions. As for the complementarity, firm’s resources play an important role in the adoption of technology while advancing from single technology to the multiple ones. Further, in the use of specific technologies such as ERP and CRM, firm resources generate differential effects between those technologies. Finally, the use of simple technologies does not require the same amount of firm resources as complex technologies.
    Keywords: adoption, ict, complementarity, specificity, complexity
    JEL: D22 D24 O30 O47
    Date: 2013–08–05
  3. By: Akarca, Ali T.; Tansel, Aysit
    Abstract: Antalya and Muğla provinces located in southwestern Turkey have emerged as new magnets for internal migration in the country. Socio-economic, demographic and labor market characteristics of immigrants coming to these two provinces from various regions are studied to uncover the reasons fueling their moves. This is accomplished through an analysis of descriptive statistics, and an analysis of a gravity model estimated. Differences and similarities between immigrants coming to these two provinces and those going to other migrant magnets, between immigrants and natives in Antalya and Muğla, and among immigrants coming to the two provinces from various origins are noted. What distinguishes Antalya and Muğla from other migrant-drawing provinces is that they attract some retirees and university students as well and their immigrants participating in the labor force are attracted mainly by jobs created in the sectors related to tourism, either directly or indirectly, rather than industry. Immigrants from different origins exhibit different characteristics and tend to specialize in different types of jobs. However, as other migrant flows, those directed at Antalya and Muğla are affected by distance adversely and by unemployment differential, past migration and population size at origin, favorably.
    Keywords: : Internal migration, labor market, gravity model, Turkey, Antalya, Muğla.
    JEL: J21 J61 R23
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Şen, Hüseyin; Kaya, Ayşe
    Abstract: This paper studies empirically the relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policies on growth. Unlike many previous papers which have focused, to a large extent, on the effect of monetary or fiscal policies separately, this paper considers the comparative efficacy of the two policies on growth by applying the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) model to the quarterly data for Turkey over the period 2001:Q1-2014:Q2. The empirical findings of this paper show that both monetary and fiscal policies do have significant effects on growth. However, monetary policy is more effective than fiscal policy in stimulating growth. More specifically, interest rate ―a monetary policy variable― is the most potent instrument in affecting growth. Then budget deficit ―a fiscal policy variable― becomes the second important variable after interest rate. These findings suggest that although the relative effectiveness in boosting growth is different, both policies significantly affect growth, suggesting that they should be used jointly but in an efficient manner.
    Keywords: Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy, Growth, Macroeconomic Policy Management, SVAR, Turkey.
    JEL: E52 E58 E62 E63
    Date: 2015–07–31
  5. By: Tuccio, Michele (University of Southampton); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: Does international return migration transfer gender norms? Focusing on Jordan, an Arab country where discrimination against women and emigration rates are high, this paper exploits unique data in which detailed information on female empowerment allows us to construct several measures of discriminatory social norms in Jordan on the role of women, female freedom of mobility, and female decision-making power. Controlling for both emigration and return migration selections, we find that women with a returnee family member are more likely to have internalized discriminatory gender norms than women in households with no migration experience. Further analysis shows that results are driven by returnees from conservative Arab countries, suggesting a transfer of negative norms from highly discriminatory destinations. We also show the implications of our results beyond perceptions for several economic and development outcomes, such as female labour force participation, education and fertility.
    Keywords: international return migration, gender inequality, transfer of norms
    JEL: F22 J16 O15 O53
    Date: 2015–07
  6. By: Khalid Rashid, Alkhater; Syed Abul, Basher
    Abstract: Supporters of the Arab oil-exporting countries’ decades-long fixed exchange rate regime argue that since, oil is traded in United States (US) dollars, pegging to the dollar is optimal. However, the weakening relationship between oil prices and the US economy in terms of the Federal Reserve’s expansionary monetary stance amid soaring oil prices for much of the previous decade has raised questions about the viability of the peg. Using Qatar as a case study, this paper empirically analyzes whether the synchronization pattern of business cycles has recently changed between Qatar and the US. The results of the analysis show a pronounced desynchronization or decoupling of business cycles between Qatar and the US during 2001–2010. Moreover, the dissimilarly of demand shocks between the two countries suggests that the imported monetary policy stance of the Federal Reserve has not been viable for Qatar in recent years. A natural implication of our findings is the need for a truly independent monetary policy oriented towards domestic goals.
    Keywords: Oil price, Business cycle synchronization, Counter-cyclical monetary policy, Exchange rate regimes.
    JEL: E32 E61 F44
    Date: 2015–06–03
  7. By: Jones, Katharine
    Keywords: international migration, migrant worker, women workers, domestic work, recruitment, employment service, regulation, business strategy, Bangladesh, Jordan, Lebanon, migration internationale, travailleur migrant, travailleuses, travail domestique, recrutement, service de l'emploi, réglementation, stratégie d'entreprise, Bangladesh, Jordanie, Liban, migración internacional, trabajador migrante, trabajadoras, trabajo doméstico, contratación, servicio de empleo, reglamento, estrategia empresarial, Bangladesh, Jordania, Líbano
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Parveneh Shahnoori (Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus); Glenn P. Jenkins (Queen’s University, Canada and Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus)
    Abstract: Policy makers in many countries encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to become more engaged in international trade activities. A complementary element to international trade is access to low-cost banking services. For policy makers and bank regulatory agencies it is important to know the value that SMEs place on alternative types of online banking services (e-banking). Using a choice experiment and a mixed logit model, we evaluate the value to these businesses of attributes of online banking, namely travel time saved, waiting time saved, unlimited 24/7 accessibility, and a high level of security. From this analysis an estimate is made of the willingness to pay for alternative packages of such services used by the SMEs in the United Arab Emirates free-trade zones. The results of this research show that 24/7 accessibility to banking services and a high level of security are statistically highly significant and valuable to these enterprises.
    Keywords: willingness to pay, online banking, SME, free-trade zone, mixed logit model
    JEL: G21 D61
    Date: 2015–09
  9. By: Ayoub, Hassan; kertous, Mourad
    Abstract: This study on willingness to pay of Lebanese households to improve service quality drinking water is part of an economic environment that favors the beneficiaries' contribution to the management of social infrastructure. Its objective is to determine the level of input from consumers who would have a better service for drinking water. Through a socio-economic status, this study produces information that provide guidance on public opinion about the paid access to community facilities and the conditions under which consumers are willing to pay. Econometric analysis has identified the significant variables that influence the willingness to pay for improved food service. Consistent with the theory of demand, the income variable influence positively willingness to pay as opposed to the variable amount of water consumed. Based on theses willingness to pay, the study focuses on finding an appropriate pricing policy that would be a price level of consensus reconciling the purchasing power of consumers with the rate of return of establishments’ water.
    Keywords: Willingness to pay, service quality, drinking water, Lebanon.
    JEL: Q53 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2015
  10. By: ABDELLAOUI, Okba; Zergoune, Mohamed
    Abstract: Like most developing underdeveloped countries Algerian exports is characterized by unilateralism that nature granted a comparative advantage in the production of hydrocarbons, that accounted for 98% of the export structure. In light of the survival nature of the rentier economy and structure of exports in the short and medium term as it is, with no clear strategies for action to change this structure, the Algerian economy and its growth, and economic policies made known remain closely linked to fluctuations in oil prices and global demand. This study highlights the periods of crisis as an exceptional situation affects tion centers financially and economically, causing cases of economic recession, which may live up to a ceiling of recession, affecting the most national macroeconomic variables, and moving from local dye to a regional and global scale through economic infection channels, perhaps the most important is the business deals channel, which considered exports including one of the most important vulnerability and impact entrances. Accordingly, we follow in this study the impact of The euro zone crisis on the Algerian oil revenues, and through the econometric model formulated.
    Keywords: financial crisis, oil revenue, exchange rate, inflation
    JEL: E31 F31 G0 H2
    Date: 2015–04–30

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