nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒06‒20
thirty-two papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  2. An Analysis of Twitter Messages Shared by Turkish Parliamentarians in terms of Democratic Culture By Abdulkadir GÖLCÜ
  3. North Africa - Working paper - Trade Volume and Economic Growth in the MENA Region: Goods or Services? By AfDB AfDB
  7. The Impact of Double Tax Treaties on Foreign Direct Investments: Evidence from Turkey’s Outward FDIs By Sava Çevik; Mehmet Okan Ta
  8. Wiretapping As a Secret Investigation Measure in Turkish Criminal Jurisdiction Law By Mehmet Onursal Cin
  9. Control of corruption, Action of public power, Human capital and Economic development: Application two sectors of education and health in the MENA region By Mtiraoui, Abderraouf
  10. Satisfactory time use elasticities of demand and measuring well-being inequality through superposed utilities By Okay Gunes; Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes
  12. Regional Inflation Convergence In Turkey By Hasan Engin Duran
  13. Domestic activity patterns pertaining to households and informality in Turkey By Armagan Tuna Aktuna Gunes
  14. Measuring the effect of informal work and domestic activities on poverty and income inequality in Turkey By Armagan Tuna Aktuna Gunes
  15. The Effects of Compulsory Military Service Exemption on Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Huzeyfe Torun; Semih Tumen
  17. Flying Dutchman vs. Flying Chef: How National Cultures Shape the Brand Positioning of Flagship Carriers? The Cases of Royal Dutch Airlines and Turkish Airlines By Mehmet Sinan Erguven
  19. The Relation between Loneliness in Social Life and Facebook Usage By Balc; Emre Osman Olkun
  20. The Relationships between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Energy Consumption and GDP for Saudi Arabia By Jinhoa Lee
  21. Regional Analysis Domestic Integration in Egypt By Eduardo A. Haddad; Michael Lahr, Dina N. Elshahawany, Moises Vassallo
  23. Country-Specific Oil Supply Shocks and the Global Economy: A Counterfactual Analysis By Kamiar Mohaddes and M. Hashem Pesaran
  24. Cultural Determinants of Corruption and Bribery: A Cross-Country Comparison By Mehmet Okan Ta; Sava Çevik
  25. Lean Education System: A Case Study By Tolga Memika; Tülay Korkusuz Polat
  26. Factors affecting the electronic exchange of data through viral marketing (Case Study: E-Commerce Users in Rasht City-Northern of Iran) By Mohammad Taleghani
  27. North Africa - Working paper - Does foreign direct investment improve welfare in North African countries? By AfDB AfDB
  28. Status Quo in Crisis: Public Policy regarding Israel's Ultra-Orthodox Population in Israel By Gilad Malach
  29. Financing in Crisis?: Making humanitarian finance fit for the future By Rachel Scott
  30. The Effects of Materialism and Consumer Need for Uniqueness on Frugality By Hülya Bak
  31. The Challenges of Talent Management in a diverse workforce: The Case of Dubai By Priya BAGUANT
  32. Conflict Points and Air Traffic Problem Resolutions of Air Traffic Controllers in Istanbul Airspace By Soner Demirel; Ertan Cinar; Medine Elif Othan

  1. By: Bak (Aksaray University); Süleyman Koç (Aksaray University)
    Abstract: Current account deficit (CAD) is particularly the main vulnerability of Turkish economy in the post 2001 crises period. High level of CAD/GDP ratio was a crisis indicator for Turkish economy but this remarkable indicator can not cause any crisis despite of 5 percent period mean value in the post 2001 crisis era. In this study we try to determine dynamic relationship among CAD, real effective exhange rate (REER) and economic growth in Turkey by using Vector Autoregression (VAR) method in the 2003Q1-2014Q3 period. Based on the estimated VAR model, impulse-response functions and forecast error variance decompositions shows that current account deficit (CAD) is a strong determiner of economic growth in Turkey. We also found that CAD and REER are granger cause of economic growth in Turkish economy.
    Keywords: Current Account Deficit, Vector Autoregression, Growth, Real Exchange Rate, Turkish economy.
    JEL: C32 F32 F31
  2. By: Abdulkadir GÖLCÜ (U)
    Abstract: Parliamentarians are one of the most important persons for the healthy running and well-being of democratic system. Democratic system naturally demands different points of views and it is nourished by political and cultural tolerance, pluralism and respect. For this reason, parliamentarians work as important actors in promoting democratic values and culture, especially, by representing different political perceptions, they make valuable contributions to modern democracies. With the participation of communication technologies and social media to political life, parliamentarians have become more visible and attainable to public opinions. Particularly, their intense usage of social media for reaching these public opinions turns social networking sites into an Agora which was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states and the center of spiritual and political life of the city. At this point, content of the messages written by parliamentarians become so important for formation of democratic values and culture among people fallowing parliamentarians on social media environments. At that point, this study aims to analyze Twitter messages shared by Turkish parliamentarians during the voting process of Domestic Safety Packet in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey whether they promote democratic culture or not. 30 parliamentarians from different political parties were selected as sampling among 550 Turkish parliamentarians because of their intense usage of Twitter. As for the analysis of the messages, discourse analyze method of Teun Van Dijk will be used.
    Keywords: Democratic Culture, Parliamentarians, Twitter, Discourse Analyze.
  3. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2015–02–19
  4. By: Ümit Süleyman ÜSTÜN (Assoc. Prof. Dr.) (Selçuk Üniversitesi); Faruk B (Selçuk Üniversitesi)
    Abstract: The legality principle of taxes is arranged in the 73rd article of Turkish Constitution: “Taxes, dues, fees and similar charges shall be enacted, amended and repealed by the law”. By this provision, it has been stressed that the basic authority on taxation appertains to national assembly. The provision granting the authority about taxation to Council of Ministers is set at the 4th (the last) paragraph article 73 of Turkish Constitution: “Council of Ministers may be empowered to make amendments within the lower and upper limits prescribed by the law on provisions of exemptions, exceptions, reductions and rates related to taxes, duties, fees and similar charges”.In this study, we try to explain the scope of the legality principle of taxes in Turkish Constitution. Also the authority about taxation given to the Cabinet is also examined in this presentation.
    Keywords: Tax, legality principle of taxes, Turkish Constitution
    JEL: K34
  5. By: Ertan Cinar (Anadolu University); Soner Demirel (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: The demand of the air transportation is showing increase rapidly in Turkey. At the same time,
    Keywords: Airlines, websites, content analysis.
    JEL: R40 C40 L81
    Abstract: Clustering analysis is currently one of the most popular and advanced mathematical grouping methods both in finance and other existing sciences. The purpose of cluster analysis is to determine the units similar to each other in terms of their characteristics studied, and to define their clustering structures. The banking sector is the most important partner of organizations and countries against developing world economy and fluctuations in global competitive environment. The importance of profitability is clear for banks so in this study we want to cluster banks in Istanbul Stock Exchange based on profitability. There are three public banks, eleven private banks and twelve foreign banks in Turkey. This study aims to cluster 26 banks, listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange by using profitability ratios. Four profitability ratios employed in the clustering were obtained through the end of the financial statements of the banks. The financial statements are taken from the internet sites of the Banks Association of Turkey. The average of the values of the profitability ratios belonging to the years 2003-2013 were used as the data of the analysis. As a result of the k-cluster analysis, the first, second and third clusters consist of 11, 2, 11 banks respectively. We have found the most similar banks and the less similar banks in our data set and also it is concluded that banks have formed a homegenous structure with the banks except existing groups (public, private and foreign).
    Keywords: banks, profitability, clustering analysis
    JEL: G00
  7. By: Sava Çevik (Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics); Mehmet Okan Ta (Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Double tax treaties (DTT) are mainly signed to overcome the problem of international double taxation and to coordinate national tax systems in bilateral or multilateral economic interactions. However, one more reason to engage in DTTs is to facilitate international economic flows for capital especially and to attract foreign capital. To increase foreign direct investment (FDI) is a desirable policy goal for both developing and developed countries. In order to examine whether DDTs have significant impact on FDIs, this paper analyzes Turkey’s outward FDI stocks to 71 host countries over the period of 2001-2012. In analyses, we use Turkey’s FDI stock toward the host countries as dependent variable. In addition a number of control variables, we analyze the impact of a dummy of presence of DTTs and the age of treaty. As the estimation technique, we mainly use fixed effect estimators and regressions with panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE) to handle heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation, in addition to some other specifications for robustness aims. After controlling for various determinants of bilateral FDI stocks, the study’s results show that DTTs are indeed positively associated with foreign investment toward the host country from Turkey. This finding supports policy considerations on the impact of DTTs on FDIs. The results hold for various of specifications.
    Keywords: double tax treaties, foreign direct investments, international double taxation
    JEL: H87 F21 H25
  8. By: Mehmet Onursal Cin (Selcuk University, Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: Organized Crimes are increasing all over the world. Besides, communication technologies evolving rapidly. And criminal organizations benefit from this case. Local Investigation authorities who have to struggle with organized crime are also required to take advantage of this technological development. During a criminal investigation, wiretapping is a very important method of obtaining evidence. This measure is the most effective one in the other secret investigation measures and it also violates freedom of communication and private life, which are under guarantee of Turkish Constitution. Because of that the legal formulation and implementation should be performed very carefully.The aim of this article is to discuss the legal and social dimensions of wiretapping system in Turkish Criminal Procedure. Although it is similar to the German System, due to political, social and demographic conditions, some major changes have been made.According to Turkish Constitution Art.22 which entitled Freedom of communication; everyone has freedom of communication. This freedom and its confidentiality can only be limited because of national security, public order, prevention of crime, protection of the general public health and ethic rules or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. In order to limit these freedoms, an authorized judge should make a decision that depends counted reasons by Art.22. Also The European Convention on human rights (ECHR) Art.8 regulates that all people have right to be respected their private and family life, for his home and correspondence. As a Law State no one have permit to violate the Constitution and ECHR. It is a serious crime to wiretap or to use a machine to capture the communications of others without court approval, unless one of the parties has given his prior consent. In recent years, due to the implementation of the unlawful wiretapping in Turkey, we can say that Turkish Criminal Jurisdiction System experienced many sensational cases and scandals. Many official institutions have authority to wiretap in our law system. (Police, Army, Intelligence Agency) But the real problem is illegal eavesdropping. The government must struggle to these malicious people who eavesdrop to citizens by wiretapping devices that can be easily purchased over the Internet. Because this type of listening, has been put majority of our people into “someone’s eavesdropping me" paranoia.In this context, the study aims to investigate the way of using wiretapping and its shortcomings in the process of criminal investigation of Turkish criminal system.
    Keywords: wiretapping, eavesdropping, criminal jurisdiction law
    JEL: K14
  9. By: Mtiraoui, Abderraouf
    Abstract: The objective of this article is to study the direct and indirect effects of corruption control via the action of public power on economic development (economic growth, education, health, etc.). This work also seeks to show spending on areas of education and health to improve the skills and human capital levels of education. Finally, we try to test the complementarity between the role of the action of public power and control of corruption (anti-corruption) in a context of economic development while using the models of simultaneous equations for our area of MENA study, during a definite period (1984-2012).
    Keywords: Economic growth, control of corruption, action of public power, Human capital and Models of simultaneous equations.
    JEL: I0
    Date: 2015–06–12
  10. By: Okay Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS); Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this article, the satisfactory consumption and labor supply elasticities of demand are measured through a model of time allocation that includes eight time assignment equations by using the full time use (the temporal values of the monetary expenditure plus time spent) concept obtained by matching the Classic Family Budget survey with the Time Use survey for Turkey. The cross-sectional data covers the period of 2003-2006 in Turkey. The elasticity results show a clear picture of the relationship between satisfactory consumption and working with commodity demands for Turkey. As a contribution to the literature, we explore the reasons behind the demand for satisfactory consumption through working decisions by measuring well-being inequality for each consumption group. In order to increase the robustness of our result, overall well-being inequality is measured by introducing the axiom of superposed utility of preferences. As expected, overall well-being inequality declines to 0.26, which is 119 percentage points lower than the average rate of well-being inequality (0.57) in Turkey.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, les élasticités de consommation satisfaisante et de l'offre de travail de demande sont mesurées par un modèle d'allocation du temps qui comprend huit équations en utilisant du temps complet (les valeurs temporelles des dépenses monétaires plus les dépenses temporelles) obtenu par l'appariement statistique des enquêtes turques sur le Budget des Familles avec l'enquête sur l'Emploi du Temps. Les données transversales couvrent les années 2003-2006 en Turquie. Les résultats des élasticités montrent une image claire de la relation entre la consommation satisfaisante et l'offre du travail avec les demandes de bien pour la Turquie. Comme contribution à la littérature, nous explorons les raisons derrière de la demande de consommation satisfaisante grâce à la décision de travail en mesurant l'inégalité de bien-être dans chaque groupe de consommation. Afin d'augmenter la robustesse de nos résultats, l'inégalité du bien-être général est mesurée en introduisant l'axiome d'utilité superposée de préférences. Comme prévu, l'inégalité de bien-être général diminue à 0,26 qui est de 119 points de pourcentage moins que le taux moyen de l'inégalité de bien-être général (0,57) en Turquie.
    Date: 2015–02
  11. By: Faruk B (SELÇUK ÜN); Ümit Süleyman ÜSTÜN (SELÇUK ÜN)
    Abstract: We need to mention about the presidential systems rather than a presidential system. As it is not possible to make a single definition of the presidential system, it is not possible to assess in the same category made the match a certain pattern of multiple presidential system. There are different state applications of the presidential system. So this system varies from country to country. For example, the US presidential system applied is different from the presidential system implemented in Latin America. In the presidential system applied in the US is strong in both the legislative and executive. In the US there is a strong legislature. The legislature is weak in Latin American countries such as Mexico and Venezuela. Presidents in these countries are extremely powerful. A common feature of these systems is that the president is elected by the people. So the president and parliament on all presidential systems is determined by different election. Therefore, there is two seperate sources of legitimacy based on the election of the president and parliament in presidential systems.
    JEL: K10
  12. By: Hasan Engin Duran (Izmir Institute of Technology, City and Regional Planning Department, 35430 Urla-Izmir, Turkey)
    Abstract: The aim of the present article is to analyze the convergence of regional inflation rates in Turkey from 2004 to 2015 by adopting a distribution dynamics approach, namely discrete time Markovian chains. Convergence across regional inflation rates is politically a crucial matter for two reasons. First, if inflation rates differ largely between regions, monetary policy can hardly satisfy the needs of all regions equally. Such that, places which experience high inflation rates naturally require a contractionary monetary policy while the ones which experience low inflation need rather an expansionary monetary stance. Second, inflation differentials are likely to create a regional dispersion in real interest rates which induce differential effects on local economic growth. The outcomes of our research can be summarized in two groups. First, inflation disparities have declined over time, especially during the post-crisis period; after 2010. Hence, aggregate price stabilization and disinflation process in Turkey is coupled with convergence in inflation rates across regions. These results are confirmed using several methodologies (panel unit root tests and Kernel Density Estimates). Second, in addition to the findings in the literature, we found that regions change their relative inflation rate positions quite often. This indicates that regional inflation behaivor is random and non-structural as the relatively high and low inflationary places tend to change their quintiles frequently in time. Similarly, a geographical randomness of inflation is also verified using Moran I’s test.
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Armagan Tuna Aktuna Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate underlying determinants of informality by representing the Turkish Time Use Survey in 2006 and the Household Budget Surveys for the years from 2003 to 2006 conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute. Following the descriptive methodology proposed by Gronau and Hamermesh (2006), the main focus is to describe the household data by highlighting the main features and revealing the relative importance of expenditures of time and goods through an exhaustive set of commodities and assign time and goods inputs to each in order to measure their relative goods intensities. The analysis of the evolution of commodity per time spent during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 reveals the fact that the average value for total expenditures per total time spent show increases in a decreasing trend (concave shape) over these years. Supposing that the average time spent among these years in constant on average (meaning that they did not really change from one year to another), the result of this accounting support the hypotheses that the amount of consumption present in household production during these years decreased. Our findings could be used as guides to better understanding the socio-economic conditions in developing countries and to obtain more accurate measurements of the size of informality, poverty and income inequalities.
    Abstract: Nous enquêtons sur les déterminants sous-jacents de l'informalité en représentant l'enquête Emploi du temps 2006 et les enquêtes Budget des familles de 2003 à 2006 menées par l'Institut Statistique de la Turquie. Conformément à la méthodologie descriptive proposée par Gronau et Hamermesh (2006), l'objectif principal est de décrire les données sur les ménages en mettant en évidence les principales caractéristiques et en révélant l'importance relative des dépenses du temps et des biens à travers un ensemble de produits et les entrées des biens et le temps assigné pour chacun afin de mesurer leurs intensités de biens relatifs. L'analyse de l'évolution des produits par les dépenses du temps pendant les années 2003, 2004, 2005 et 2006 révèle le fait que l'augmentation des valeurs moyennes pour les dépenses monétaires totales par celles temporelles baisse (en forme concave) au cours de ces années. En supposant que les dépenses du temps moyens pendant ces années sont constantes (ce qui signifie qu'ils n'ont vraiment pas changé d'une année à l'autre), le résultat de cette analyse soutient l'hypothèse que la consommation actuelle de la production des ménages au cours de ces années a diminué. Nos résultats pourraient être utilisés comme guides pour mieux comprendre les conditions socio-économiques dans les pays en développement et pour obtenir des mesures plus précises de la taille de l'informalité, de la pauvreté et des inégalités de revenus.
    Date: 2015–02
  14. By: Armagan Tuna Aktuna Gunes (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this article, we propose to calculate the size of the population living in poverty, measured through uni- and multidimensional poverty indices, and the Gini coefficient using extended full (time plus money and informal earnings) incomes, from cross-sectional data covering 2003-2006 in Turkey. Thus monetary incomes are corrected by adding the earnings gathered from informal activities and the monetary values of time spent in domestic activities into declared incomes, producing an error-free estimate of the size of the population living in poverty and the Gini ratio overall. To show the effect informal activities with the domestic ones have on poverty, changes in the joint probability of being in informal activity while being considered poor is measured by means of a bivariate probit model using extended (money plus informal earnings) income and extended full incomes.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous proposons de calculer la taille de la pauvreté, mesurée par l'indice de pauvreté uni- et multidimensionnelle, et le coefficient de Gini en se basant sur les revenus complets-élargis (le temps plus les revenus monétaires et informels) à partir de données transversales couvrant les années 2003-2006 en Turquie. Ainsi, les revenus monétaires sont corrigés en ajoutant les ressources monétaires obtenus grâce aux activités informelles et les valeurs monétaires du temps consacré aux activités domestiques dans les revenus déclarés, ce qui permet une estimation sans erreur pour la taille de la population vivant dans la pauvreté et le coefficient de Gini global. Afin de mieux montrer l'effet des activités informelles avec celles domestiques sur la pauvreté, les changements dans la distribution conjointe de probabilité de travailler dans le secteur informel et d'être considérés comme pauvres sont mesurés par un modèle probit bidimensionnel en utilisant les revenus élargis (les revenus monétaires plus informels) et les revenus complets-élargis.
    Date: 2015–02
  15. By: Huzeyfe Torun (Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey); Semih Tumen (Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)
    Abstract: Based on a law enacted in November 1999, males born on or before December 31st 1972 are given the option to benefit from a paid exemption from the compulsory military service in Turkey. Exploiting this natural experiment, we devise an empirical strategy to estimate the intention-to-treat effect of this paid exemption on the education and labor market outcomes of the individuals in the target group. We find that the paid exemption reform reduces the years of schooling among males who are eligible to benefit from the reform relative to the ineligible ones. In particular, the probability of receiving a college degree or above falls among the eligible males. The result is robust to alternative estimation strategies. We find no reduction in education when we implement the same exercises with (i) data on females and (ii) placebo reform dates. The interpretation is that the reform has reduced the incentives to continue education for the purpose of deferring military service. We also find suggestive evidence that the paid exemption reform reduces the labor income for males in the target group. The reduction in earnings is likely due to the reduction in education.
    Keywords: Compulsory military service; draft avoidance; intention to treat; education; earnings.
    JEL: C21 I21 J21 J31
    Date: 2015–06
  16. By: Ahmet (, Atatürk University, Collega of Physical Education and sport, Recreation Department,)
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to search the effect of teacher-made materials used in skill lesson on students’ participation to lesson.Material and Method: 155 students studying Physical Education and Sport College took part in research.All the students are receiving education in 3rd Grade Coaching and Recreation Department.These consist of 45 female, 110 male students. In research, students were studied in 2 groups as experimental group ( 80 students, 25 female, 55 male) and control group ( 20 female, 55 male). While teacher-made materials were used in lessons of experimental group, classic course materials wre used in lessons of control group. In research, specially prepared observation and interview form was used. The observation and interview form was prepared in accordance with views of Pedagogy and Physical Education and Sport College Faculty. The observations were done by 2 volunteer research assistants in application of lessons. Interviews were done with students in sports hall after lesson.Analysis: The data acquired from research were put into tables by being analyzed in SPSS. 1700 statistics program. Also, frequency and percentage distribution of the subjects were found.Findings and Results: At the end of the research, experimental group’s participation to lesson and satisfaction in application were found significantly ( p>0.05) different from control group’s participation to lesson and motivation. While it has been determined that the students of experimental group enjoyed so much in lesson, came to lesson eagerly, their absenteeism was at minimum level, it has been come to a conclusion that control group followed the lesson compulsorily, lesson absenteeism was used at maximum level and the lessons were boring.
    Keywords: Educat
    JEL: A20 A22
  17. By: Mehmet Sinan Erguven (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: A flagship carrier company is important for the country’s prestige and it is a channel to communicate about the national culture. Companies use the elements of the culture to create “the story” of their marketing communication plan. Today Royal Dutch Airlines (KLM) is positioning the brand on the concept “surprising”, while Turkish Airlines (THY) prefers “the perfect gastronomic experience” with the celebrity endorsement format. This study is trying to identify the reasons of these choices. Case study method is used to understand the logic behind the brand positioning of two companies. Documents, archival records and marketing communication efforts of the two brands are analyzed retrospectively. Results show that national cultures are dominating the marketing communication strategies and brand positioning of KLM and THY. The clichés and stereotypes of national cultures are used in marketing communication messages. On the other hand, both companies’ current brand positionings are shaped after some air crashes. KLM’s Tenerife and THY’s Schiphol accidents are dramatically affected the marketing communication strategies’ of this two flagship carriers.
    Keywords: Brand Positioning, Marketing Communication Strategy, Turkish Airlines, Royal Dutch Airlines.
    Abstract: The municipalities have history more than 150 years within administrative structures; Metropolitan Municipalities Law has been introduced as to be applied in Ankara and Istanbul for the first time in 1984 based to regulation clause 3, article 127 Constitution “Special location units can be organized for big location centers”. 1984 year, number 3030 “Metropolitan Municipalities Law” has been implemented until 2004 and then it has been changed with 2004 year number 5216. After eight years application, number 6360 new “Metropolitan Municipalities Law” has been accepted in 2012 so number 5216 code has been repealed therefore existence of totally 30 Metropolitan municipalities in our country borders have been officially accepted. Population density and surface area, efficient public service, democratic attendance level, providing developed optimal enormity in mean of high and culture in municipalities are being aimed in new law.Strategic plan is a guide showing future plans of an organization and how to apply those plans; priorities, processes, policies and strategies that organization will need upon developed vision are decided. Preparing strategic plan of metropolitan municipality is included in duties of metropolitan municipality subject to Metropolitan Municipalities Law. Also, issuing Activity Reports by municipalities at the end of every year is obligatory in the frame of strategic plan. In this study, under chapters “Assessing of Organizational ability and Capacity” included in Activity Reports Ankara and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipalities have been assessed through application a comparison.
    Keywords: Local Governments, institutional capacity, Strategic Plan, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Ankara Metropolitan Municipality
    JEL: G38 M12
  19. By: Balc (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Emre Osman Olkun (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: Social networks like Facebook have become one of the most important mass communication vehicles at the present day. It is estimated that today more than 1 billion people use Facebook on the world. Facebook was designed to develop the social attraction in virtual areas. In this type of communication style, users can declare their personal information on their personal page provided by social networking sites and they can share videos and photos with other users or they can supply information to other users about their personal life. Members can see each other's pages and they can communicate with other members with using chat implementation which seems mobile messaging. This interaction and possibility of social networking sites draw attention of young people and adolescents because of providing detailed information for them to develop friendship. On the other hand, young people feel more lonely themselves in modern life style and this has increased the demand of young people for media usage. Especially foreign students leaving their culture and families back come Turkey for their education and they are so sensitive in terms of loneliness and media dependency. This study aims to measure the relation between loneliness level and Facebook usage patterns of foreign students in Turkey. Survey method was used to collect data and data were got together from 316 participants with using face to face questionnaire technique. The results of the study show the relations among participants' loneliness level, daily Facebook usage rates, weekly Facebook usage frequency, Facebook usage experience and Facebook usage reasons. As a first finding, it was found that the most frequent used communication medium was the social media. A large majority (90 %) of the participants stated that they had been using Facebook since 1-6 years with an average duration of 54 minutes each session. Usage motives were given as communicating with friends, getting informed about events and people and leisure time pursuit. The study revealed a positive relationship between loneliness of foreigners and Facebook usage that implies social network usage is increasing with rising loneliness level.
    Keywords: Social Networking Sites, Facebook, Loneliness, Foreign University Students
  20. By: Jinhoa Lee (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
    Abstract: The relationships between environmental quality, energy use and economic output have created growing attention over the past decades among researchers and policy makers. Focusing on the empirical aspects of the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy use in affecting the economic output, this paper is an effort to fulfill the gap in a comprehensive case study at a country level using modern econometric techniques. To achieve the goal, this country-specific study examines the short-run and long-run relationships among energy consumption (using disaggregated energy sources: petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil, natural gas, and electricity), CO2 emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for Saudi Arabia using time series analysis from the year 1980-2010. To investigate the relationships between the variables, this paper employs the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests for stationarity, Johansen maximum likelihood method for cointegration and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for both short- and long-run causality among the research variables for the sample. All the independent variables in this study show very strong significant effects on the GDP in the country for the long term. The long-run equilibrium in the VECM suggests negative long-run causalities from the CO2 emissions and the consumption of petroleum products and the direct combustion of crude oil to the GDP. Conversely, positive impacts of the natural gas use and the electricity consumption on the GDP found to be significant in Iraq during the period. In the short run, there also exists a negative unidirectional causality running from the GDP to the electricity consumption. The results partly support and also partly deny the conventional arguments that there is a short-run positive effect from environmental quality and energy use on economic output but they eventually reduce economic output in the long run. Overall, this study found that the associations could to be differed by the sources of energy in the case of Saudi Arabia over of period 1980-2010.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, energy consumption, GDP, Saudi Arabia, time series analysis
  21. By: Eduardo A. Haddad; Michael Lahr, Dina N. Elshahawany, Moises Vassallo
    Abstract: We develop an interregional computable general equilibrium model to help assess the ex ante impact of transportation infrastructure policies in Egypt. The model is integrated with a GIS network. We illustrate the analytical capabilities of the model by looking at the domestic integration of the country. Improvements of transportation costs among Egyptian governorates and of their links to the broader world economy are considered in stylized simulations. The results provide quantitative and qualitative insights (general equilibrium effects) into trade-offs commonly faced by policy makers when dealing with transportation infrastructure projects in a spatial context. In the case of Egypt, there seems to be an important trade-off between efficiency and regional equity: projects that produce potential higher impacts on national GDP also tend to contribute more to regional concentration.
    Keywords: Transportation cost; infrastructure; regional analysis; spatial general equilibrium.
    JEL: R11 R13 R4
    Date: 2015–06–10
  22. By: Alper Uyumaz (Selçuk University school of law); Sinan Sami Akkurt (Selçuk University school of law)
    Abstract: The liability of the carriage by air sustained in the case of the damage of any baggage ( or luggage) has already been regulated in the article 12 of Turkish Civil Aviation Code (TSHK.), the article 18 of Warsaw Convention (War.C.) and in the subsection 2, 3, 4 of the article 17 of 1999 Montreal Convention (Mon.C.). TSHK.a.121/ s.1 that regulates the liability of the carrier in the event of domestic flight is as: ‘The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of the loss of, or of damage to checked baggage on condition that the loss or damage took place during the carriage by air.’ The liability indicated here, in Warsaw Convention a.18/s.1, is as: ‘ The carrier will be liable for the damage sustained in case of destruction, or loss of, or of damage to checked baggage; however the event causing the destruction must take place during the carriage by air’, and the liability is adjudged, in Montreal Convention a.17/s.2, is as ‘ The carrier is liable for the damage sustained in the event of destruction, or loss, or damage of the checked baggage on condition that the event which caused the destruction, loss or damage took place on board the aircraft or during the period in which the checked baggage was in the charge of the carrier.’ As understood from these regulations, the carrier is liable for the damage sustained during the period that the registered baggage is in the charge of the carrier, whether it is domestic or international flights. The conditions of the liability mentioned above will be examined in this study.
    Keywords: Legal liability of carrier; baggage carring in aviation law; Turkish Civil Aviation Code Art.12; Montreal Convention Art.17; Warsaw Convention Art. 18
    JEL: K12 K33 K30
  23. By: Kamiar Mohaddes and M. Hashem Pesaran
    Abstract: This paper investigates the global macroeconomic consequences of country-specific oil-supply shocks. Our contribution is both theoretical and empirical. On the theoretical side, we develop a model for the global oil market and integrate this within a compact quarterly model of the global economy to illustrate how our multi-country approach to modelling oil markets can be used to identify country-specific oil-supply shocks. On the empirical side, estimating the GVAR-Oil model for 27 countries/regions over the period 1979Q2 to 2013Q1, we show that the global economic implications of oil-supply shocks (due to, for instance, sanctions, wars, or natural disasters) vary considerably depending on which country is subject to the shock. In particular, we find that adverse shocks to Iranian oil output are neutralized in terms of their effects on the global economy (real outputs and financial markets) mainly due to an increase in Saudi Arabian oil production. In contrast, a negative shock to oil supply in Saudi Arabia leads to an immediate and permanent increase in oil prices, given that the loss in Saudi Arabian production is not compensated for by the other oil producers. As a result, a Saudi Arabian oil supply shock has significant adverse effects for the global economy with real GDP falling in both advanced and emerging economies, and large losses in real equity prices worldwide.
    JEL: C32 E17 F44 F47 O53 Q43
    Date: 2015–06–11
  24. By: Mehmet Okan Ta (Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences); Sava Çevik (Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences)
    Abstract: Corruption and bribery are observed to be a common behavior not only in developing or transition economies also for all countries. Bribery is emerging as related to the societies’ economic, political or cultural structures. Therefore, the factors that determine the behavior of bribery are also emerging as a versatile and multi-dimensional. However, even if bribery and corruption cases arise from various factors, the economic consequences of both actions impose significant costs and undermine the society’s cultural structure.In this paper, generally the corruption and especially the bribery process are analyzed by the factors determining this process. The study examines the linkages between the bribery behavior and the society’s cultural institutions and structures. Thus, it aims at revealing the cultural determinants of corruption and bribery behavior. For this purpose, the study firstly makes cross-country comparisons through the corruption perception index the data from Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators. Then, it is considered correlations and associations between the corruptions scores of the countries the countries’ cultural values and structures through data which is obtained from the World Value Survey (WVS) and the European Value Survey (EVS). WVS and EVS have large sets of variables to develop indexes for cultural classifications at its various dimensions. Thus, it can be analyzed the corruption scores of countries together predictors on cultural characteristics which is obtained from WVS/EVS at aggregated level, and on other macro level economic factors through cross-section regressions.The study also seeks to determine the predictors of bribery behavior at micro level using Turkey data of WVS. The WVS contains a question on how much the individuals tolerate the bribery. In this section, the study uses the bribery acceptance of individuals as a dependent variable, and estimates the effect of determinants as individual values, attitudes and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Bribery, Corruption, Cultural determinants, World Value Survey, Corruption Perceptions Index, Developing Countries.
    JEL: D73 A13 Z10
  25. By: Tolga Memika (Sakarya University); Tülay Korkusuz Polat (Sakarya University)
    Abstract: The number of students in the institutions of secondary education approaches 5.5 million in the Turkish education system. Such a big system should be managed very well in order to educate successful students. In successful managements, successful results are obtained by taking proper steps. The key to good management is examination of the current state and determination of correct strategies in agreement with the objectives. This system aims not only at maximum quality but also to minimize the cost. In this way, it will also enhance customer satisfaction and its preferability. Previously used only in the manufacturing systems, lean philosophy is also available in the service sectors today. In this study, the current system at private high schools – one of the most important parts of the education sector included in the service sector – was examined; the processes of the high school were defined and analyzed; and the waste was determined. Lean thinking and lean tools were utilized to eliminate waste and to enhance quality and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Lean; Lean Management; Process; Process Management; Lean Education System
    JEL: M29 L30 Z00
  26. By: Mohammad Taleghani (Rasht Branch , Islamic Azad University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is the factors affecting the electronic exchange through viral marketing. Methods According to the research objectives is applied researches and the method of collecting data is field and according to the survey research is conducted. The sample comprised Rasht e-commerce users. The sample size of 384 was calculated by using simple random sampling. The instrument used to collect the required data, is questionnaire that its validity and reliability was calculated by validity method of content and determined reliability by Cronbach's alpha and were distributed after modifying questions and multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses of this study, and collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. According to the research main question that factors such as capturing images, targeting resources, combining technology, ease of use of the product, needs to be part of a group, need to be different and altruism can be effective in use viral marketing, all hypotheses are confirmed.
    Keywords: Viral Marketing, Electronic exchange, E-Commerce, Users of e-commerce.
    JEL: M31 M00 M30
  27. By: AfDB AfDB
    Date: 2015–04–29
  28. By: Gilad Malach (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: Virtually all democracies around the world deal with national, religious and social rifts. This lecture deals with policy-making surrounding such rifts. My case study will be the policy that was shaped for Israel's Ultra-Orthodox population. Arend Lijphart established the consociationalism model, arguing that political elites succeed in handling social rifts in four different ways: mutual veto, autonomy, wide coalition and proportional allocation of resources (Jarstad, 2001; Lijphart, 1969; 1977; O’Leary & McGarry, 2004). Lijphart's critics argue that the power of consociationalism is restricted to routine situations (Deschouwer, 1994; Hanf, 1993; Horovitz, 2008). The critique demonstrates the need to adapt Lijphart's classical consociationalism model to changing realities.The rapid growth of the Ultra-Orthodox society in Israel challenged the status quo in various matters such as the Ultra-Orthodox exemption from military service. The lecture deals with two different policy strategies: (1) The Incremental Change attitude mainly used by bureaucrats (2) The Great Reform option, commonly preferred by politicians. The case studies about policies regarding the Ultra-Orthodox in Israel allow us to construct a new model of consociationalism. When consociationalism reaches a crisis, the political elites tend to deepen the divide between the groups, leading to an impasse. Conversely, non-political elites serve as moderating forces that have the power to generate new norms and bypass the old status quo.“New consociationalism” is dynamic and aims to generate change that will yield renewed stability while seeking maximum agreement between the fragmented parties. The new model is universal, and the paths proposed in the model are derived from present-day society and politics.
    Keywords: public policy, social rifts, minorities, status quo, reform, politics
    JEL: L38 D74 D73
  29. By: Rachel Scott
    Abstract: Building on the useful recommendations of the Future Humanitarian Financing initiative, this paper takes the view that ensuring enough quality money for humanitarian crises is not just about writing a bigger cheque. The money also needs to arrive in the right place, in the right way, and at the right time. The paper focuses on the following areas, learning from good practices by DAC members and attempting to find solutions to common challenges: - Predictable funding for predicable costs. - Funding for longer-term – protracted – crises that helps boost the resilience of crisis-affected communities; going beyond immediate life-threatening needs and supporting self-reliance. - Reworking funding tools and approaches for crises in middle income countries – learning from the challenges facing the Syrian Arab Republic affected region. - Thinking differently about funding disaster response and recovery, and about funding disaster affected states and local response actors. - Making the money go further; reducing the cost, and increasing the cost-benefit, of humanitarian operations.
    Keywords: risk, shocks, finance, development, crisis
    Date: 2015–06–18
  30. By: Hülya Bak (Aksaray University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationships between materialism, frugality and consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNU) among Turkish consumers. Although each concept is different with respect, these are two common characteristics that these concepts share: i) a lifestyle, ii) a personality trait. Each concept is important for understanding consumer choice and consumption of products. Consumer choice is not only the outcome of rational process, but also individuals’ underlying needs. Frugality may be driven by CNU and materialism derived from personal experience. Individuals conspicuously consume to signal their wealth and to be different from other. Materialism and CNU are closely related. However, there is uncertainty on whether the relationship between these variables is causal or non-casual. Despite this uncertainty, both variables are expected to have influence on frugality. This study was carried out between dates of September 2014 and February 2015. Firstly, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried out and then, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the hypothesis. Analysis results show that materialism and CNU2 have negative impact on frugality and these impacts were not statistically significant. CNU1 has positive impact on frugality and only the relationship was statistically significant. Finally, the study has limitations and is provided suggestions for further research.
    Keywords: Materialism, Frugality, Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness, SEM, Consumer Behaviour.
    JEL: M31
  31. By: Priya BAGUANT (University of Sharjah)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the key concept of talent management and diversity. Talent management is based on acquiring, motivating and retaining the best suited employees in line with optimal use of human resources. The Talent Management, is widely recognised in debates about managing people, although its inception dates back only to the 1990s, when McKinsey & Company published their report on ‘The War for Talent’ (Michaels et al., 2001). The scholarly literature on talent management started as a relatively uncomplicated debate on the “war for talent” between corporate organisations seeking to gain a sustained competitive advantage (Chambers et al., 1998; Morris and Pinnington, 2002). In the main, talent management can be defined as the creative and competitive ways by which organisations meet their human capital needs (Tatli et al. 2012). In recent years the notion of talent management has been broadened in order to deal with issues such as talent shortages and surpluses, how talent may be located and relocated, and lastly how talent may be effectively compensated (Schuler et al., 2011; Tarique and Schuler, 2010).Skils shortages are a global phenomenon, although they impact on economies in different ways across Asia Pacific, Americas, Europe and the Middle East (Manpower, 2010). The UAE relies heavily on its expatriate workers, which has outnumbered its local workers for several decades (Shah, 2008). This is the case in the public sector and the private sector (Forstenlechner and Rutledge, 2011). The effective management of talent is seen as essential for the sustainable development of the economy. This paper will address some of the ways in which Dubai is dealing with this matter. The paper will be based on the theoretical framework and its application to the context.
    Keywords: Talent management, Diversity, Sustainable Development
  32. By: Soner Demirel (Anadolu University); Ertan Cinar (Anadolu University); Medine Elif Othan (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: Every hour of a day, airlines make millions of flights. In this century, it is getting more and more important to manage air traffic effectively and regularly. In order to manage this job that is important and connected with the human lives directly, there are air traffic controllers in the tower or control centers. To be successful for managing this extreme and exciting air traffic, air traffic controllers have to know and apply the exact rules that have international validity. However, every process of air traffic is not very regular. There may be some problems that air traffic controllers have to solve to prevent air traffic crashes or air misses. These are called “conflict and conflict traffic”. There are some applications and solving methods in the job life. In this study,
    Keywords: air traffic control, conflict resolution, percentage distribution, single screening model
    JEL: L93 J28 C10

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