nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒05‒22
sixteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Factors Affecting Changes in Perceptions of Turkish People Towards Syrian Refugees By mücahit navruz; Mehmet Akif Çukurçay
  2. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis By Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça; Aşkar, Petek
  3. “Women, Peace, and Security: The Case of Turkey” By Vanessa Tinker
  4. The Impact of Female Education on Teenage Fertility: Evidence from Turkey By Gunes, Pinar
  5. Financial Development and Economic Growth: Turkey Case By Alperen A
  6. The relationship between Economic Growth, Exports and Government Expenditure: The case of Turkey By Fatih OKUR; Özgür Bayram SOYLU
  7. Paving the way for better telecom performance: Evidence from the telecommunication sector in MENA countries By Riham Ahmed Ezzat
  9. A League of Their Own: Services Exporters –A Developing Country Perspective- By Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça
  10. The direct effect of climate change on the cereal production in Tunisia: A micro-spatial analysis. By Zouabi, Oussama; Kahia, Montassar
  11. Good Board Governance and Perceived Business Continuity in Tunisian Corporate Groups By Ben Rejeb, Wajdi
  12. Risk Perception in an Arab Country By Adel Al Khattab
  13. The Determinants of Job Stability in the UAE: Using Satisfaction Variables By Khalifa Abdulrhman; Selini Katsaiti
  15. An assessment of employee perception of the effects of the privatization and the management of its process in the Saudi Telecom Company By saif Alharbi

  1. By: mücahit navruz (Selcuk University); Mehmet Akif Çukurçay (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Until recently, Turkey known as a source or transit country in migration routes, transformed into a target country for refugees due to civil wars and foreign interventions in countries of the region. Refugee influxes caused by the civil war in Syria has made Turkey one of the countries with the highest refugee population in the world. With the start of the civil war in Syria, Turkey applied 'open door policy' and temporary protection was granted to all Syrians on prima facie basis. Although the adoption of the psychological threshold of 100 thousand refugees at the initial period of the crisis, threshold was exceeded in a very short time and assumptions of Turkish government about civil war have not realized. Furthermore Al-Asad regime has strengthened its position because of the disharmony and inconsistency in opposition groups. With the interval of radical islamic groups, parallel with the decline in public support in Western countries, Syrian policy of Westren governments began to change. Active support to opposition declined and civil war turned into a vicious cycle. The most significant effect of this situation on Turkey is transformation of short-term guests into permanent refugees. Prolongation of the civil war reducing the Syrian's prospects of return, made Turkey host one of the most populous diasporas in the world. With increasing economic and social burdens, Turkey's ‘human-rights based approach’ to Syrian refugee policy bagan to show signs of exhaustion and ‘security based approach’ came up to the agenda. Main factor causing this condition is perception changes of Turkish people against Syrian refugees. In this paper, factors affecting the perception of the Turkish people will be examined.
    Keywords: Refugees of Syrian Civil War, Urban Refugees, Host-Refugee Relations
    JEL: F22
  2. By: Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça; Aşkar, Petek
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide the determinants of participation in adult education in a non-EU developing country, Turkey. The analysis is conducted on a set of data on individuals engaging in adult education using the Adult Education Survey (AES), applied by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment, significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education and characteristics of men and women who take courses in the most popular fields of education vary. Moreover, younger, more educated and employed individuals are more likely to take part in adult education activities in Turkey. A person with none or only a primary school education is not active in adult education independent of gender.
    Keywords: Adult education, economic growth, Turkey, non-formal education
    JEL: I21 I25
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Vanessa Tinker (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: For the past three decades, the Government of Turkey has endured three decades of internal conflict with the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). Then late in 2012 the political and social climate was ripe for a ceasefire and to enter into negotiations between the Government of Turkey and the PKK about finding a solution to the “Kurdish Question”. Literature and research has covered different aspects of this peace process, however little attention has been paid to the role of women, not just as victims but active agents in this process. This paper seeks to address this overlooked and yet vital dimension of the peace process. Despite being a signatory of both the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 Turkey has so far failed to develop a holistic and comprehensive framework for gender mainstreaming in both its national and foreign policies and peace building initiatives. By failing to pay attention to their role we fail to understand the contribution women have made to this process and society at large. This paper intends to fill this gap in both literature and research by providing policy recommendations for a more inclusive participatory approach of women as active players in the peace process. This paper will provide an overview of the current situation in Turkey. It will also analyze the impact the process has had on women in Turkey, especially in the South Eastern region. It will identify barriers to their full participation in conflict transformation and peace building. Furthermore it will examine the roles they have placed in negotiations, reconciliation, peace building, recovery, and reconstitution. Also it will highlight examples of existing case examples of women engagement engaged in the existing peace processes and identify the best practices and lessons learned in order to pave the way for greater participation in the peace process of Turkey.
    Keywords: women, peace building, conflict management, security, and Turkey
    JEL: H10 H12 D74
  4. By: Gunes, Pinar (University of Alberta, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper explores the causal relationship between female education and teenage fertility by exploiting a change in the compulsory schooling law (CSL) in Turkey. Using variation in the exposure to the CSL across cohorts and variation across provinces by the intensity of additional classrooms constructed in the birth provinces as an instrumental variable, the results indicate that primary school completion reduces teenage fertility by 0.37 births and the incidence of teenage childbearing by around 25 percentage points. Exploring heterogeneous effects indicates that female education reduces teenage fertility more in provinces with lower population density and higher agricultural activity. Finally, the CSL postpones childbearing by delaying marriage, thereby reducing fertility.
    Keywords: Economic Development; Fertility; Female Education; Compulsory Schooling; Instrumental Variables; Turkey
    JEL: I25 J13 O10
    Date: 2015–05–01
  5. By: Alperen A (Institution of Social Sciences Hacettepe University)
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between financial development and economic growth has been handled in the light of causality linkage through the concerning variables in Turkey during the period 1984-2013. Four major variables for financial development have been used to evaluate this relationship. Moreover, investments are thought to be an effective variable to complete the causality between financial development and economic growth. To this end, the relationship has been observed by adding the investment variable to the model with the financial development indicators. Granger causality tests have been applied by using Johansen’s co-integration and vector error-correction methodology. Additionally, to ensure the effects and directions of causality impulse-response tests have been employed. Although there are several results and contributions for the direction of causality among the literature, this study reveals that there are causality from financial development to economic growth with significant variables. Growth, on the other hand, causes to financial development by only one important variable. Banking and financial regulations are crucial for a solid growth and reliable financial markets. The politics regarding to financial markets had to be applied substantially.
    Keywords: Financial Development, Economic Growth, Turkey, Granger Causality, Error Correction Model, Co-integration
  6. By: Fatih OKUR (Social Sciences); Özgür Bayram SOYLU (Social Sciences)
    Abstract: The aim of this study, to analyze the relationship between economic growth, exports and government expenditures in the period of 1980-2013; to test If export-led growth hypothesis holds in Turkey. In this analyze, ADF unit root, Johansen Co-integration and Granger Causality tests are used. According to ADF unit root test, all the variables are stationary in their first levels. Johansen Co-integration results show that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth, exports and government expenditure. Because there is co-integration between the variables, VECM is used to test causality. Empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality which runs from export to economic growth in the short-run period. In the long-run period, While it is found that the causality runs as bidirectional between economic growth and government expenditure, there is a unidirectional causality which runs from export to economic growth and government expenditure.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Export, Government Expenditure, VECM, Causality
  7. By: Riham Ahmed Ezzat (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne & Faculty of Economics and Political Science - Université du Caire)
    Abstract: Since the 1980s, developing countries started adopting telecom reforms due to pressures from international institutions. However, Middle East and North African (MENA) countries lagged in adopting such reforms. Even after introducing telecom reforms in the MENA region beginning in 1995, not all countries became better off in terms of various performance indicators. Therefore, this paper empirically assesses the effects of regulation, privatization and liberalization reforms, as well as their simultaneous presences, in the telecommunication sector on the sector's performance using a sample of 17 MENA countries for the period 1995-2010. We assume that different reforms are affected by institutional, political and economic variables with respect to the level of democracy, the legal origin, the natural resources rents per country and the year of independence from colonization. We correct for the endogeneity of telecom reforms, and we use IV-2SLS (Instrumental Variable-Two Stages Least Squares) estimation to analyze their effect on telecom performance in terms of access, productivity and affordability. We find that the privatization of the main incumbent operator and the fixed-line market's liberalization affect the sector's performance negatively in terms of fixed access and affordability. Moreover, we find that the simultaneous presence of an independent regulator and a privatized incumbent helps to eliminate the drawbacks on the sector performance resulting from privatization. However, the simultaneous presences of the other reforms in terms of regulation-competition and privatization-fixed competition do not help to improve the sector's performance
    Keywords: Regulation; privatization; competition; Telecom industry; MENA region
    JEL: L11 L14 L33 L43 L51 L96 O38 O50
    Date: 2015–04
  8. By: Selma (Selcuk University); Menek Ulusoy (Selcuk University); Esra Uslu (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Aim: This systematic review study is to determine the effects of the contraceptive methods, which are used by males, on the sexual quality of life and sexual satisfaction of couples.Method: The study was carried out by checking PubMed, EBSCOhost, Ulakbim Medical and Medline Turkey databases. English key words are determined as Vasectomy AND Sexual satisfaction, Vasectomy AND Sexual satisfaction AND couples, Vasectomy AND Sexual quality of life, Vasectomy AND Sexual quality of life AND couples, Condoms AND Sexual satisfaction, Condoms AND Sexual satisfaction AND couples, Condoms AND Sexual quality of life, Condoms AND Sexual quality of life AND couples, Turkish key words which were checked out via “Turkey Science Terms Directory” and the translation of English key words in to Turkish were used. 670 articles were reached and the duplicate articles were removed, the rest six articles which are suitable for the inclusion criteria, were evaluated. Findings: It is seen that two of the studies included in the systematic review carried out in America, one of them was carried out in China, one of them was carried out in South Africa, one of them was carried out in Austria and one of them was carried out in Iran. In these studies the sexual quality of life and sexual satisfaction of couples are evaluated by vasectomy and condom usage decision status which are modern contraceptive methods for males. Although, the status of sexual satisfaction changes according to the person who decides, it does not change for females. In addition, it is found that the use of condoms to reduce male sexual satisfaction but it does not affect the sexual satisfaction of female and vasectomy method increase the sexual satisfaction of couples. Result: This systematic review proves that the modern contraceptive methods for males focus on the sexual satisfaction of couples and the quantitative limitations of the studies related to the sexual quality of life. In addition, it is found that the use of condoms to reduce male sexual satisfaction but it does not affect the sexual satisfaction of female. It is suggested that the number of studies on this issue should increase in order to generalize the results and guidance to couples.
    Keywords: Condoms, vasectomy, sexual satisfaction, sexual quality of life
    JEL: I10
  9. By: Dincer, Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayça
    Abstract: This paper provides a firm level portrait of services exporters along with goods exporters in a developing country. Current findings of firm level services trade literature suggest that the stylized facts of goods trade apply to services trade as well for a set of developed countries. This paper investigates if similar results hold for a developing country, Turkey, for the period 2003-2008. Most results lend support to the evidence found in the previous literature. However, the analysis of Turkish data shows that firms that export both goods and services are larger than those exporting goods or services only.
    Keywords: Goods and services exporters, services exports, firm heterogeneity, developing country
    JEL: F10 F14
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: Zouabi, Oussama; Kahia, Montassar
    Abstract: Unlike previous studies, this paper, by employing a cointegration technique on panel data, economically investigates the direct effect of climate change on the cereal production in the long-term via a new cereal disaggregated databases covering the period 1979-2012 for 24 governorates in Tunisia within a multivariate panel framework. The Pedroni (1999, 2004) panel cointegration test indicates that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between the considered variables with elasticities estimated positive and statistically significant in the long-run. The results generally confirm that in the long term there is a strong positive correlation between the cereal production and the direct effect of precipitation and temperature for the whole panel. At the micro-spatial level, results of the long-run equilibrium relationship show that the cereal production is extremely dependent on rainfall in most governorates of cereals producers, especially the Northwest region of Tunisia. In fact, there are several initiatives and policies that must be undertaken by Government in an attempt to improve the long term production of cereals in the most affected governorates by the phenomenon of climate change such as the development of several important and regionally-based institutions and cooperation, providing subsidies to farmers.
    Keywords: Climate change, Cereal, Tunisia, Panel cointegration.
    JEL: C33 Q13 Q54
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Ben Rejeb, Wajdi
    Abstract: This research deals with the contribution of good board practices to perceived business continuity in Tunisian corporate groups. This paper aims to identify the components of good board governance that can promote business continuity in Tunisian corporate groups through the study of the directors’ perceptions. Large Tunisian business groups form the pillars of the country economic development and reflect the ownership structure as well as the management style of Tunisian companies. In this regards, corporate governance and continuity issues are particularly important for Tunisian corporate groups. In this regards, Family-controlled businesses remain the predominant form of corporate groups in Tunisia. Good corporate governance can be a driver of business continuity by introducing good management practices allowing corporate groups to face succession problems and to improve company performance and its sustainability. The conceptual study has allowed us to identify the components of good board governance: Principles (Responsibility, Transparency, Fairness and Accountability), Board Roles (Control and Strategist), Directors skills and Board procedures. The survey was conducted on a sample composed of 50 Tunisian corporate groups using a questionnaire designed to be filled by the directors and the top management members. The regression analysis revealed the perceived business continuity is positively related to Board Strategic Role, Directors Skills, Board Procedures and Board Accountability. However, the results showed that Board Control Role and Board Fairness are negatively linked to perceived business continuity in sampled Tunisian corporate groups.
    Keywords: corporate governance, business continuity, board of directors, corporate groups, developing economies, Tunisia
    JEL: G3 G30 G34 M0 M00 M1 M14
    Date: 2014–12–20
  12. By: Adel Al Khattab (Al Hussein Bin Talal University)
    Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to examine risk perception in transport among a representative sample of the Jordanian public.The results are based on a questionnaire surveys carried out among a representative sample of the Jordanian public in 2013. The results showed that transport risks fell into two main categories: public and private mode of transport. Respondents assessed the probability of experiencing risk as lower for themselves than others, and they were also more worried about others experiencing a transport threat.Overall, worry was found to be the most important predictor of risk perception. Female subjects were found to emphasize worry in regard to both public and private transportation. Worry was found to be most important in regard to public transportation whereas probability assessments (i.e. cognitive evaluations) were found to be most important in regard to private mode of transport. This difference may guide how risk is communicated to the public.
    Keywords: Risk perception, Transport, Jordan.
    JEL: M16
  13. By: Khalifa Abdulrhman (United Arab Emirates University); Selini Katsaiti (United Arab Emirates University)
    Abstract: This study investigates the job stability pattern in the United Arab Emirates and the effect of satisfaction on job stability for nationals and expatriates, in both the private and public sector, for male and female workers. It investigates the micro factors that affect the employee’s decision on whether to stay in a job or quit. This paper have read several paper studying the job stability pattern of different countries and we have found that this kind of pattern strongly effect the number of people unemployed and therefore effect the output of the economy. We use cross-sectional data from the survey that is conducted by the Ministry of Labor in 2013. Due to the lack of panel data, our job mobility control is proxied using the average number of jobs changed by each employee. In our investigation of job stability, we use the current job ratio. We find that job mobility increases with age, job stability increases with salary and qualifications and is greater in the private sector, by controlling for the satisfaction variables, boring unimportant jobs and the feeling of staying long affects positively, while the feeling of quitting soon gives lower number of jobs. Employees from the northern side of the country tend to have lower job ratio. While receiving assistance, satisfied with salary, satisfied benefits, and satisfaction index increases the job ratio. On the other side, we found a negative effect from low training, and hard work motivation.
    Keywords: UAE, Job Mobility, Job Stability, Job Satisfaction
    JEL: J01 J08 J60
  14. By: Asl KAHRAMAN Ç (Bozok Universitesi Social Faculty)
    Abstract: Numbers have been used in each civilisation for the purpose of ritual from past to present. When the Ancient periods of Central Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Anatolia are analysed, it is realized that 1,3,5,9,13,40 numbers are frequently used for religious traditions, rituals and superstitions. The holiness of these numbers is seen in the religious structre, number of gods, pantheon organisation, the sacrifices for god, mythology. The holiness of numbers are also both polytheist and monotheist religion.In this study, holy numbers used by ancient civilisations will be compared with various applications used stil in Anatolia which is called craddle of civilisation. Anatolian territories today is a geography in which common religious and cultural values of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia civilisations are blended. Mythology, religion, ritual, proverbs, idioms, tales, lullabies, superstitions of th
    Keywords: Ancient Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Central Asia, holiness, holy numbers, ritual and numbers, superstitions
    JEL: Z12
  15. By: saif Alharbi (Plymouth University , UK)
    Abstract: Since the 1970’s when privatization began in the UK under Margaret Thatcher, it has become the main vehicle of structural change from developed to developing countries. It is changing the way businesses are seen and also the economic market in which they operate. Some see them as the progress to development and the free market economy, while others see them as neo colonialist and capitalist movement for supremacy led by the US. Privatization is one of the most fundamental organizational changes that a company can undergo. In the case of large state owned organizations such as the Saudi Telecoms Company (STC) it takes years to accomplish and the disruption to organization systems and personnel is vast. Thus the interviews with the STC staff formed the core source of empirical evidence of employee perceptions of the change process under investigation. More than 200 managers from STC and from all ethnic groups will be interviewed to identify differences in HR practices before and after privatization and their attitudes towards the social transformation regulations. The interviews were of middle level managers in departments in STC that the HR department who coordinated the interviews permitted the researcher to reach. The current study partly falls into the descriptive category since its purpose is to describe the effects of the privatization process on the employees in STC but also it is explanatory because it aims to explain the effects of the privatization on the workforce. The research will therefore be carried out within STC entirely, taking the views of employees who worked in the organization before privatization, and those who joined the organization after the process of organizational change from a public corporation to private company was complete.
    Keywords: privatization, HR practices
  16. By: Avinoam Meir (Dept of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben Gurion University of the Negev)
    Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed intensive discussion in planning literature on gray space. From a geographical perspective it revolves primarily around gray settlements. We raise two issues of planning relevance: first, gray spacing may serve established planning processes despite their inherent contradiction; second, while roads are spatial entities, their analysis in planning theory and practice literature is marginal.Our research deals with Road 31 in the northern Negev and Bedouin unrecognized gray space villages. Recently the state has initiated a massive road upgrade project but state planning officials, planning firms and Israel Road Company did not pursue any public participation of the Bedouin who refused to evacuate their places and cooperate. The IRC hired therefore an informal "expropriation team" with profound acquaintance with Bedouin unique indigenous culture, society and polity. This unique mechanism, which is neither commensurate with official state policy of non-recognition, nor is under state formal support, facilitated intensive and creative negotiation and mediation with individual Bedouin families over financial and other terms of evacuation. The rate of success is very high, expediting the pursuance of the project considerably.Our research reveals that only by leaving the informal Bedouin reality intact, through team's firm obligation for state avoidance from taking uni-directional radical measures in Bedouin property rights and village recognition issues, could the conflict be resolved satisfactorily and the project expedited, despite the formal policy of non-recognition. Paradoxically thus, informality may facilitate efficient dialogical mechanisms benefiting both sides. This insight carries important conceptual implications for understanding planning of gray spaces, as well as for understanding the special role of roads in this unique and complex indigenous socio-spatial system.
    Keywords: Indigenous people, planning, space, politics, Bedouin.
    JEL: O20 O20

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