nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
thirty-six papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  2. Renewable Energy's Current Position in Turkey By Irem DIDINMEZ
  3. Profiling the dietary supplement users in Turkey By AHU ERGEN; FILIZ BOZKURT
  4. Inequality of Opportunities of Educational Achievement in Turkey over Time By Aysit Tansel
  6. Inequality Of Opportunities Of Educational Achievement In Turkey Over Time By Aysit Tansel
  8. Did banks and financial markets developments lead to economic growth in MENA region? Evidence from Dynamic panel data estimation By Hamdi, Helmi; Hakimi, Abdelaziz
  10. A New Risk Appetite Index and CDS spreads: Evidence from an Emerging Market By Fatih Kiraz; Ozgur Uysal; Yakup Ergincan
  12. Innovation in small and medium enterprises in the United Arab Emirates By Schilirò, Daniele
  13. Scientific Views and Religious Beliefs of Turk By Ünsal Umdu Topsakal
  14. Working in Groups or Alone? By Mine Dikdere
  20. Teacher Voice in Curriculum Development in Saudi Schools By Noura Alamri
  21. Ideas, increasing return to scale, and economic growth: an application for Iran By Farhidi, Faraz; Isfahani, Rahim; Emadzadeh, Mostafa
  23. The role of content analysis of biology textbooks in process of their teaching and designing in Iran By Fatemehsadat Kashi; Natalya Andreeva; Abbas Naeimi
  24. Keeping an Eye on the Team: Developing an Observational Tool for Student Teams By Nausheen Pasha-Zaidi; Andrea Dallas; Jaby Mohammed; Wael El-Sokkary; Ameera Shoukry; Samira Fahmi
  26. 21st Century, Trans-Disciplinary Curriculum in the Arab World By Mary Gene Saudelli
  27. Geographic Indicators and Rural Development in North Africa Implications for TTIP Negotiations By Petit, Michel; Ilbert, Helene
  28. Corporate Governance in Jordan and the Compliance of Public Limited Organisations By Saleh Alsharari; mahmaod al-rawad
  29. A Woman in the Ottoman Empire: Poet Nigâr Han By REF ALTIKULAÇ DEM
  30. Paving the way for better telecom performance: Evidence from the telecommunication sector in MENA countries By Catherine Bruneau; Alexis Flageollet; Zhun Peng
  33. An Exploratory Investigation of Consumers’ Perceptions of the Risks of Online Shopping in Jordan By Mahmaod Al rawad
  34. The effect of trust and risk perception on citizen's intention to adopt and use e-government services in Jordan. By Adel Al Khattab; Hasan Al-Shalabi; Khamis Al-Khattab; Mahmaod Al-Rawad
  36. Corruption et développement économique: Application aux secteurs de l’éducation et de la santé dans la zone MENA By Mtiraoui, Abderraouf

  1. By: Esra USLU (Selcuk University); Menek Ulusoy (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Aim: This systematic review study is to determine the effect of PLISSIT model (permission, limited information, special suggestions, intensive therapy), which is used in the care of individuals having sexual problems, on these sexual problems.Method: The study was carried out by checking PubMed, EBSCOhost, Ulakbim Medical and Medline Turkey databases. There are two key word directories were used to determine the key words of the study. In the study, English key words which were checked out via MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) directory (PLISSIT model, PLISSIT model AND sexuality, PLISSIT model AND sexual dysfunctions) Turkish key words which were checked out via “Turkey Science Terms Directory” and the translation of English key words in to Turkish (PLISSIT model, PLISSIT model VE cinsellik, PLISSIT model VE cinsel i
    Keywords: PLISSIT model, care, sexuality, sexual dysfunction.
    JEL: I19
  2. By: Irem DIDINMEZ (Hacettepe University Faculty of Economics & Administrative Science Department of Public Finance)
    Abstract: Since energy is an important input for the economic growth of countries and the development of industry, it has become an ever-gradually increasing concept. Countries have started to look for the alternative energy sources and to use it in order to ensure the energy security of supply and to decrease their foreign dependence. Turkish economy is an energy intensive economy. Turkey has been in search of sophisticated energy policy to vary the sources on providing energy security. Turkey is located in a relatively advantageous geographical position, so there is an encouraging atmosphere for the environmental technologies and renewable energy in Turkey. Energy policy, energy efficiency and enviromental sustainability play a critical role in Turkey’s energy agenda. The final objective of the energy policies of Turkey is to use the energy and natural sources efficiently and environment conscious, and to provide the highest contribution for the welfare of the country. Increasing the share of renewable energy sources at producing energy is one of the foremost targets at the energy policy of Turkey. For this reason, renewable energy sources are supported and promoted by government regulation, especially at the begining of operation. Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share and to maximize benefit from existing potential until 2023.
    Keywords: energy resources, renewable energy, Turkey
    Abstract: It is observed that the number of health conscious individuals in the society is increasing. This is mostly due to the promotion of healthy lifestyle by media, the awareness campaigns held by governments and the global trend of LOHAS. Parallel to that, the dietary supplements market in Turkey is also growing. So, understanding the demographic profiles, awareness and user profiles of these consumers is important for companies, governments and also media to define their strategies accordingly. The study involved 666 (66,5% women and 33,3% men) Turkish consumers from Istanbul, over eighteen years of age. Data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires. The study examines the characteristics of the respondents regarding demographics, dietary supplements recognition and consumption. This research presents the opportunity for further casual research in healthy lifestyle products market.
    Keywords: dietary supplements, consumer, demograpy, vitamins, healthy lifestyle
    JEL: M31 L66 M19
  4. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, IZA, ERF Cairo)
    Abstract: This study investigates inequality of opportunity in educational achievements in Turkey over time. For this purpose we use test scores of PISA in mathematics, science and reading achievement of 15-year-olds over the period 2003-2012. Since the different waves of the samples cover only a fraction of the cohorts of 15-year olds we take into account the inequality of opportunity in access to the PISA test as well as the inequality of opportunity of the academic achievement in the PISA test. This procedure enables proper over time comparisons. We estimate the effect of circumstances children are born into on their academic achievement as evidenced in their PISA test scores. The main findings are as follows. First, confirming the previous studies we find that inequality of opportunity is a large part of the inequality of educational achievement in Turkey. Second, the inequality of opportunity in educational achievement shows a slightly decreasing trend over time in Turkey. Third, the inequality of opportunity figures based on the mathematics, science and reading achievements exhibited the similar trend over time. Forth, the family background variables are the most important determinants of the inequality in educational achievement which is a consistent pattern over time. However, there is also evidence of slight weakening of these factors over time. Policies are necessary to improve equality of opportunity in education in Turkey.
    Keywords: Inequality of opportunity, Education, Turkey.
    JEL: I24 D63
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Nezir Akyesilmen (Selcuk University Department of International Relations)
    Abstract: The peace process aiming to end violent and long lasting Kurdish Problem in Turkey, has been continuing peacefully for more than two years. When comparing Turkey's peace process to the equivalent cases of Northern Ireland, the Basque and South Africa, it has been much more peaceful despite minor escalations. In spite of some existing problematic issues in the process, there has progress. The literature has so far been dealt with many aspects of the Kurdish peace process in Turkey, but few has analyzed the threats to and opportunities of the process. Thus, this paper, aims to replenish the missing part of the literature. The peace process arose out of the opportunity provided by a proper environment of both domestic and global political climate. Yet, by the time the process was underway, it faced new threats and opportunities. Peace processes can face structural, cyclical, and contextual threats, such as lack of a mediator, usage of conflict language, absence of mechanism that deals with transitional justice, change in the international environment, problems of transparency and participation. Therefore, it is critical for a sustainable peace process that the structural necessities, procedural developments and contextual requirements are carefully dealt with. As of now, Turkey does not appear to be well-protected from these threats. However, this paper identifies a number of potential opportunities to strengthen the peace process to better cope with these threats, one of which includes the existence of a strong political will on both sides. With the recent geo-political and strategic developments in the region, it has denoted the need for cooperation of both parties and the transformation of the negotiation process into a new and comprehensive stage. So while the future of the peace process in Turkey remains vulnerable to both real and perceived threats, it also entails some opportunities, all of which this paper explores.
    Keywords: Peace Process, Turkey, Kurdish Problem, negotiations, participation, cooperation.
    JEL: F01 L38 H12
  6. By: Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study investigates inequality of opportunity in educational achievements in Turkey over time. For this purpose we use test scores of PISA in mathematics, science and reading achievement of 15-year-olds over the period 2003-2012. Since the different waves of the PISA test cover only a fraction of the cohorts of 15-year olds we take into account the inequality of opportunity in access to the PISA test as well as the inequality of opportunity of the academic achievement in the PISA test. This procedure enables a proper over time comparison. We estimate the effect of circumstances children are born into on their academic achievement as evidenced in their PISA test scores. The main findings are as follows. First, confirming the previous studies we find that inequality of opportunity is a large part of the inequality of educational achievement in Turkey. Second, the inequality of opportunity in educational achievement shows a slightly decreasing trend over time in Turkey. Third, the inequality of opportunity figures based on the mathematics, science and reading achievements exhibited similar trend over time. Forth, the family background variables are the most important determinants of the inequality in educational achievement which is a consistent pattern over time. However, there is also evidence of slight weakening of these factors over time. Policies are necessary to improve equality of opportunity in education in Turkey.
    Date: 2015
    Abstract: Banking has an important place in the financial sector in Turkey and so that low or high banking performance affects the financial system and hence the whole economy. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the performance of state-owned and privately-owned deposit banks in the Turkish banking sector between 2002-2011. Thus the affects of the bank-specific variables and macroeconomic variables on the return on assets and the return on equity and net interest margin of the banks are investigated by using panel data analysis. At the end of analysis; it is concluded that, the ratio of equity to total assets, the ratio of deposits to total assets and the ratio of non-interest expenses to total assets from the bank-specific variables have the significant impacts on the performance of the banks. It is also concluded that interest rate and the inflation rate from the macroeconomic variables have the significant impacts on the performance of the banks. As a result it was determined that the private banks' profitability performance was better than the state-owned banks.
    Keywords: bank performance, return on assets, return on equity, net interest margin, panel data analysis
    JEL: M21 G21 C23
  8. By: Hamdi, Helmi; Hakimi, Abdelaziz
    Abstract: This study examines the consequences of banks and stock markets developments on economic growth for eleven Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries for the period from 1995 to 2010. We perform dynamic panel data estimation and we use GMM estimator as suggested by Arellano and Bond (1991). The overall results suggest a positive relationship between banking and financial developments and economic growth. The results reveal that stock markets in MENA countries are still at an early stage of development and the sector needs the implementation of deep policy reforms to attract investors and to promote the contribution of the financial market in economic development.
    Keywords: Financial development, Economic growth, MENA, Dynamic Panel Data
    JEL: E44 G20 O16
    Date: 2015–05–12
    Abstract: “Homelessness” has been a serious social problem in developed countries especially since the 1980s. It has been provoked by the increase in poverty, inadequate incomes, unemployment, lack of care for mentally retarded people, unemployment and the increase in the number of individuals and families who live below the normal standard of living. In Turkey, the low number of homeless people means that homelessness is not accepted as a social problem. The fact that homelessness is not accepted as a social problem causes some problems, including a lack of services, the inadequacy of the existing services, and the lack of social policy concerning homelessness. Today, in Turkey the homeless population is much more diverse than in the past, and includes more women (both with and without children), families, young persons, working poor, socially excluded peoples and those with diagnoses of mental illness. Services to the homeless in Turkey are given by ASPB [Ministry of Family and Social Policies] in Behice Eren Children’s and Youth Center and in some municipality. In this study the interventions of social workers to the homeless people in our country is discussed.
    Keywords: Homelessness, social work, social exclusion
    JEL: Z00
  10. By: Fatih Kiraz (MKK (Central Securities Depository of Turkey)); Ozgur Uysal (MKK (Central Securities Depository of Turkey)); Yakup Ergincan (MKK (Central Securities Depository of Turkey))
    Abstract: The aim of this study is introducing a new risk appetite index (RISE) methodology and then elaborating especially on its benefits while dealing with sovereign default probabilities. More specifically, providing two types of risk appetite indices, both calculated at individual investor level before aggregation, we present the relationships of these indices with 5y CDS spreads and then discuss the possibility of some new financial instruments which could well be used for hedging or speculating. The core weekly data include all investors’ individual holdings of all securities on the stock exchange (BIST) of Turkey, closing prices of largest 100 firms’ index (BIST100), and 5y CDS spreads of Turkey since 2008. Because of data limitations, the evidence comes from only one developing country but generalization of the main finding seems to be quite possible and testable since the new methodology introduced is flexible enough to be applied in different settings and / or countries.
    Keywords: Risk appetite, CDS, Sovereign, Emerging markets, Turkey
    JEL: E44 G00 G01
  11. By: Zeynep Birce Ergor (Cankaya University); Elif Akagun Ergin (Cankaya University)
    Abstract: There is an increasing use of social media on a global scale and it has been causing organizations to restructure and adjust their marketing activities. The goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage makes it crucial to adapt to the ever-changing trends in the market. Social media contributes to this goal since it has a considerable impact on constructing the brand value for organizations. The social networks helps organizations to enhance the development of strong brands not only through promoting their products and services but also providing them the platform to build strong and reliable relationships with their customers. This paper aims to investigate the role of social media on brands by examining the active role of banks on social networks. For this purpose, the “tweets” of the five Turkish banks with the highest brand values in the banking sector have been analyzed by content analysis method. The sample banks are drawn from the Banker’s annual Top 500 Banking Brands 2014 report. Brand value is used as the selection criteria of the sample banks and “Twitter” social network is considered as the primary social media outlet. The data is composed of the “tweets” and gathered from the official Twitter accounts of the banks having the highest brand values in Turkey. The “retweets” and the texts sent by other Twitter users are excluded. The findings indicate that, the sample banks are active users of social media. They do not only use Twitter but also other social networks in addition to their official websites. In addition, the paper displays specific purposes the banks have for using social media sites.
    Keywords: Social media, Twitter, Turkish Banking Sector, Brand Value, Content Analysis
    JEL: M00 M31 M30
  12. By: Schilirò, Daniele
    Abstract: This paper focuses on innovation as the main driver of the competitiveness and market success of small and medium enterprises in the United Arab Emirates. The study overviews the still limited literature dedicated to innovation in SMEs in the UAE. It also analyzes the innovation model of small and medium enterprises in the UAE, and focuses particularly on Dubai’s SMEs. The paper highlights the need to strengthen the entrepreneurial culture and promote the development of innovative SMEs with high value added in the UAE. The general purpose of this study is to contribute to the business and innovation literature on SMEs in the context of an emerging economy, namely the United Arab Emirates.
    Keywords: Innovation; SMEs; Firm Strategy; Business Model; UAE’s Economy
    JEL: L0 L53 M21 O31
    Date: 2015–05
  13. By: Ünsal Umdu Topsakal (Y)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is diagnosing Turkish Theological Faculty students’ ideas about genetic engineering studies and biyoethic with their existing religious beliefs. The data gathered from 20 students (10 male and 10 female) who are attending second class of Theological Faculty in Turkey. The data was collected in 2014. In this study qualitative research method is used. A survey instrument that includes 20 open-ended questions was applied and semi-structured interviews are made. The open-ended questions iclude that responses about (a) their understanding of the genetic engenering studies and biyoethic, (b) their perception of conflict between these studies- biyoethic and religion. The data was treated by qualitative data analysis - open coding. As a consequence of this research, it has been revealed that theological faculty students have mostly negative attitudes towards genetic studies.
    Keywords: Biyoethic, genetic engineering, science teaching, religion
    JEL: I29
  14. By: Mine Dikdere (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to project into pre-service ELT students perceptions about group work. The study is carried out by the researcher to find out prospective teachers beliefs’ about group work and to design more effective group work tasks and projects, and to help students work in groups more efficiently. The study has been conducted at the University of Anadolu, Education Faculty, English Language Teaching Department in Turkey. Thirty pre- service ELT teachers were asked to complete a five Likert scale questionnaire and also they were requested to answer open ended questions regarding their opinions towards participating in group work tasks and mini projects. By asking students to complete the questionnaire, quantitative date gathered. By asking them to answer open ended questions has led them provide written comments on group work, by this manner qualitative data gathered. Both quantitative and qualitative data has been analyzed. The results of the findings and implications will be discussed in the conference.
    Keywords: Perceptions, Pre-Service ELT Students, Group Work,
  15. By: Alev Y (Selcuk University, Aksehir Kadir Yallagöz School of Health,)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study is systematic review conducted in order to evaluate the acupressure application on hemodialysis patients and its effects on depression.Method: In this review, Ulakbim, Turkish Medline, PubMed, Ebscohost databases were checked and titles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken under review (n=80). Repeating studies were identified and deleted (n=14). (n=61) studies that were off-topic were excluded from the review. The studies that were suitable for the purpose of this review were identified (n=4). A non-experimental article was excluded from the review since it didn’t meet the inclusion criteria. All of the studies were randomised controlled studies. The studies were conducted in Taiwan and Korea. Medical Subject Headings index was used for English keywords and Turkish translations of English keywords on Türkiye Bilim Terimleri (Turkish Scientific Terms) were used for Turkish keywords. Findings: The findings of the studies that were included in the systematic review have shown that about 65% of hemodialysis patients had a depressed mood. Their levels of depression have been reported to be between 25-60%. It has been found in these studies that acupressure application decreased the depression level significantly in hemodialysis patients. The study group consisting of hemodialysis patients who were massaged with acupressure had a high psychological well-being, decreased depression level and increased life quality. The average acupressure application duration changed between 12-20 minutes and acupressure was applied three or four times per week. KI1, SP6, ST36, GB34 acupressure application points were used in the studies. The studies didn’t report any side effects for acupressure.Conclusion: As a result of this systematic review, although the number of studies included in the review was limited, it was found that acupressure application had positive effects on depression in patients who received hemodialysis treatment.
    Keywords: Hemodialysis, acupressure, depression
    JEL: I19
    Abstract: Occupational accidents are one of the most crucial problems in working life. A good many people lose their lives because of these accidents around the world. Thousands of people from different sectors die because of the accidents, which are one of the leading problems in Turkey. In this context, it is very obvious that legislative regulations are not enough in terms of preventing occupational accidents and making people aware about these kinds of accidents and training them about their sectors are also crucial.Despite the differences between the work risks of craft who are going to work in different sectors, they are expected to have a certain level of perception about hindering occupational accidents. The aim of this study is to determine the level of occupational health and security perceptions of the students at Technical Vocational School. A questionnaire was used in this study in order to identify their perceptions.Security education, security communication, security awareness and fatalism scale were used in order to detect the security perceptions of the students. The results of this study are expected to guide and shed light on the regulations for creating a healthy and safe working environment and to develop the awareness about occupational health and security of the students.
    Keywords: Occupational health and safety, perception of security, occupational accidents
    JEL: I00 I29
  17. By: Elif Akagun Ergin (Cankaya University); Nilay Sahin (Cankaya University)
    Abstract: Brand extensions refer to use an established brand name in new product or product categories and are extensively applied as a marketing strategy. Brand extension success factors vary according to cultures. Consumers’ attitude towards extensions is modified on the basis of their cognitional reactions and relations between the parent brand and extended product and/or product categories. This study aims at conducting an exploratory research and revealing the relationship between the parent brand and the extended brand. More specifically, the impact of parent brand loyalty on the extension is explored. Therefore, the main objective is to evaluate the attitudes of consumers towards brand extensions through brand loyalty. The study analyzes consumers’ attitudes towards brand extensions specifically in food and textile industries. This is in particular to portray that consumers respond positively to brand extensions in various industries due to different motivations.During the methodology application process, in-depth interviews were carried out with 16 participants who were selected from employees working for public and private institutions in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The interviews were conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the interviews lasted approximately 45 minutes and consisted of open-ended questions about participants’ brand choices, reasons for choosing the brands they use. The goal was to evaluate their brand loyalty levels. In addition, the participants were provided with the definition of brand extension and their reactions towards extension were noted. In the second stage, the participants were asked to evaluate their attitudes towards brand extensions in food and textile industries along with the factors that have impact on their evaluations. The participants were specifically observed in terms of their approach to brand extensions where the extension was in a totally different sector from the parent brand. The results indicate that brand awareness has a significant impact on brand extensions with regards to quality and trust. However, this impact is at the highest level when the extension is within the same sector with the parent brand. Whenever the extension is in a different sector, consumers not only have negative attitudes toward that extension but also become suspicious about the parent brand. Thus, quality and trust are pivotal factors influencing consumers’ positive attitudes towards brand extensions.
    Keywords: brand extensions, consumers’ attitudes, quality, brand, trust.
    JEL: M30 M31 M39
  18. By: Neslihan Lok (Akdeniz University, Nursing Faculty, Psychiatric Nursing Department); Arzu Kocak Uyaroglu (Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Science); Ilhan Gunbayi (Akdeniz University)
    Abstract: Introduction: Specific cultural practices as a vital phenomenon, which is comprised as collectively and repeatedly in society, reveal the effect of social attitudes and behaviors on health and illness. Aim: The objective of this study is to determine views related with specific cultural practices of chronic mental illness individuals’ families and experiences about these practices. Methods: the study was conducted in a psychiatry hospital in the province of Konya, in Turkey and planned as a qualitative study and in phenomenological pattern. 12 patient relatives were interviewed within the scope of the study. Results: Data, obtained with sub- structural interview, was examined under the heading as definitions related with illness, help- seeking, cultural practices and metaphors. Paranoid schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder and substance abuse are the diagnosis of patients. The majority of interviewed family members is women and graduated primary school. Plurality of patients’ relatives considers that the reason of psychiatric illness is fate, written by God, rather than an individual or a case. Religious help- seeking is often the first practice associated with mental illness. Conclusions: It is considered continuously in society that psychiatric disorders are taboo. The first applied place for psychiatric disorders is fake clergy due to the viewpoint that these patients seem as creatures that can think and have ability as people and also are obliged to obey religious rules according to religious belief in Islam. Praying, other rituals like praying in Islam (okutmak- üfletmek ), drinking water and taking a bath with water that made holly by praying are the most preferred cultural practices. However, the majority of patients’ relatives applied to the hospitals for medical treatment because they have not any benefits from these Hodjas. Interestingly, Hodja forwards the patients and relatives to the hospitals because of lack of doing anything.
    Keywords: Family, Cronic Mental Illness, Phenomenological study
    JEL: I29
  19. By: Mustafa BAL (Selcuk Univercity); Müjgan BAL (Selcuk Univercity)
    Abstract: Requests of individuals in order to access to information is increasing day by day with the expansion of communication fields and networks. While the desire of people to express themselves are increasing, the number of corporations preparing this environment shows a significant raise as well. All of the changes affecting social life are incleded with communicaiton world and particular sectors are influenced directly. Innovations and changes particularly in communication technologies, conveniences and benefits which those offer to target audience inspire specialization at communication. Currently, the number of corporations trying to realize this specialization in the best way and proving themselves both in national and international areas by slipping from localizaiton are increasing. Especially by the opportunuties offered to users via mobile communication and making those more attractive by social media influences the success of GSM operators. It is thought that the leading GSM providers of the world care about this inference and make effort in paralel among the competetive communication environment.Since public relations which aims to take the essential messages to the target audiences at the right time an in the right way maintaining its efficiency, it prefers the social media as a new applicaiton field by developping technologies at last years. Social media causing many organizations to change or renew the advertisement and merketing strategies, is seen advantageous in terms of public relations and been used actively as well. That is why GSM operators are using this field intensely for its advantages as easy access, continuous messages and low costs.In this study social media usage of three leading GSM operators of Turkey providing mobile communication, Avea, Turkcell and Vodafone are examined. Corporational social media accounts of GSM operators analyzed by content analysis method and the obtained data and information evaluated in terms of public relations. Efficient usage level of this platform of GSM operatos, announced applications via this way and whether they answer to the demands, complaints and questions of customer or not are some of the issues obtained from the study
    Keywords: Social Media, GSM Operators, Public Relations, Technology
  20. By: Noura Alamri (University of Exeter)
    Abstract: Little research into teacher voice in the area of curriculum development in Saudi Arabia has been carried out to date, and none in the area of Saudi native English Language teachers; therefore, this study contributed to this under-researched area and raised awareness of the issue in this context. This study aimed to find out more about how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers working in the public school system in Saudi Arabia perceive ‘voice’ and whether they use their ‘voice’ to contribute to curriculum development. The study presented the findings of a small, exploratory, critical study into teacher voice and curriculum development. The participants were six English as a Foreign Language teachers working in Saudi public schools, three male and three female. All the participants were Saudi nationals who work within agirls’ and a boys’ intermediate school in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was carried out using thematic analysis procedures and the three themes emerged from the interview data were: (a) lack of response to teacher voice, (b) top-down approach to curriculum design, (c) desire to be heard. This study has underpinned by a critical agenda with a focus on raising awareness of the lack of teacher voice in curriculum development and empowering teachers to make their voice be heard. The findings indicated that teachers had a clear idea of how and why they should contribute their voice to curriculum development, but that the current system marginalized their voice in favour of ‘experts’ at a higher level in the hierarchical education system. The study concluded with some Implications for empowering teachers to contribute to how curriculum is developed and teachers’ right to be involved in the decision-making process at all levels. Recommendations for future research are made.
    Keywords: Critical ideology; teacher voice;emancipation; power; culture; oppression; leadership, empowerment, English Language Teaching, Saudi Arabia
  21. By: Farhidi, Faraz; Isfahani, Rahim; Emadzadeh, Mostafa
    Abstract: Iran has experienced an increasing rate of economic growth during recent years. We need to explain the causes of this growth if we are to help maintain it. In this study, we try to calibrate and apply a model in the context of new growth models, based on Ideas derived from the Iranian economy. The results show that an increase in education levels and expansion in research activities are the main factors promoting economic growth in Iran during the studied period.
    Keywords: Economic growth, Ideas, Nonrivalry, Technological progress, Population growth
    JEL: O41 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2015–03
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish Language and Literature teachers’ views on performance assessment. Typical case sampling method is used to choose participants of the study group in the qualitative research, and it involves 15 Turkish Language and Literature teachers. The data were collected through interviews that were audio-recorded, and they were analyzed by content analysis. The results of the study show that most of the teachers think the performance tasks are useful for objectives such as revealing individual differences among students, improving high-order thinking skills and leading the students to do research. However, some teachers think they are not much more efficient than written examinations in terms of student assessment. Additionally, it is revealed that the teachers assign performance tasks based on both the samples in course books and the subjects given by them. They assume that one of the significant problems while preparing the performance task is students’ tendency to deliver the information directly without synthesis. It is also found that most teachers use a self-developed rubric to evaluate performance tasks, and they find it hard and time-consuming to assess the works in crowded classes. Besides, it is revealed that parents do not understand the aim of the performance assessment correctly, and they consider performance tasks unnecessary.
    Keywords: Turkish Language and Literature, performance assessment, teacher views, qualitative research
    JEL: I29
  23. By: Fatemehsadat Kashi (Herzen State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg, Russia); Natalya Andreeva (Herzen State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg, Russia); Abbas Naeimi (St. Petersburg Polytechnic University)
    Abstract: Textbook is the most important and available teaching tool which plays valuable role in the education system and it can provide better learning in students. One of the research methods used for investigation of textbooks is content analysis. It would be proposed strengths and weaknesses of biology textbooks for eventual modification of the content, according to the scientific principles and determined targets, and provide practices designed for managers, planners and authors of textbooks. In this study is used library research method to achieve a content analysis of biology textbooks. In this paper, have been evaluated the importance of content analysis of the textbook, definition and their concepts, use and their dimensions, and also have been proposed principles and theories in the design biology textbooks from the viewpoint text, image and shape in various sources in Iran. In the end, have been provided the role of content analysis in order to design better and more effective biology textbooks in Iran in the form of recommendations. Including the insertion of images is one of the most effective tools in the process of teaching and design of textbooks.
    Keywords: Biology textbook, Analysis, Library research method, Teaching, Iran
  24. By: Nausheen Pasha-Zaidi (The Petroleum Institute); Andrea Dallas (The Petroleum Institute); Jaby Mohammed (The Petroleum Institute); Wael El-Sokkary (The Petroleum Institute); Ameera Shoukry (The Petroleum Institute); Samira Fahmi (The Petroleum Institute)
    Abstract: Teamwork is an essential component of the engineering design process. Engineers in today’s globalized economy must be able to work in multidisciplinary teams. As such, graduates of engineering programs must be able to apply their technical knowledge in team-based environments where flexibility, communication, and cooperation are needed to solve problems that do not necessarily have well-defined technical boundaries. The current study is part of an ongoing project addressing teamwork skills at the Petroleum Institute (PI), an engineering university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Although a variety of soft skills, such as teamwork, communication, and project management are incorporated into the current curriculum at the PI, teamwork can be a particularly challenging soft skill to acquire and to teach. The quality of team experiences is dependent on team members’ perceptions of their group dynamics and the contributions that individuals make to the team. As students at the PI are segregated by gender (a common practice in government universities within the Gulf Arab region), the socio-cultural context provides a unique environment for the study of team dynamics. A number of tools are being used to investigate teamwork at the PI, including peer evaluations, student interviews, surveys, and teacher observations. However, in order to ascertain whether student teams are actually functioning in an effective manner (as compared to students’ perceptions of this phenomenon), it is important to specify the teamwork behaviors that are expected of effective teams. This is particularly relevant for student teams as the one of the goals should be to provide specific and measurable feedback to help students improve their performance. The present study provides insight into the development of an observational tool for identifying team behaviors among students at the PI. Although the project revolves around engineering students, the observation tool can be used to evaluate teamwork behaviors in any discipline. The tool adapts the competencies and behaviors of a computer-based peer feedback system known as Team Developer. The presentation will discuss the process involved in the development of the observational tool, its alignment to industry benchmarks, as well as the development of protocols and options for administering the behavioral instrument. The advantages and challenges of incorporating a behavioral assessment for teamwork will also be discussed.
    Keywords: teamwork behaviors, behavioral instrument development, student teams
    JEL: I23 I20 I29
  25. By: Salih KARATA (Selçuk University Faculty of Law)
    Abstract: One of the most threatening case against world peace and security is armament. This problem with the spread of weapons of mass destruction, has become inextricable. Like nuclear and biological weapons, chemical weapons in this context, regardless of the destination domain and cause heavy losses led to the deaths of millions of people until today. During the Second World War weapons of mass destruction often being referred to during international conflicts, but after the war this has been changed. Between the years 1963-1967 the chemical massacre carried out in Yemen, in 1988 Iran / Iraq War, the Iraqi government on the grounds that they help Iran, carried out chemical massacres against its Kurdish citizens (Halabja Massacre) and finally in 2013 during the Syrian civil war chemical massacres carried out against the citizens, these are all the evidence that the authoritarian governments in civil wars do not hesitate to use such weapons against their citizens. On disarmament initiatives Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) have an important place in international law. The number of countries that signed the Convention has reached 192 in 2014. However Israel and Myanmar has not ratified the Convention so it could not entered into force yet for these two signing states. The number of States parties to the Convention reached 190 with the latest Syria's participation. This number corresponds to approximately 90% of states. CWC was signed with the desire to eliminate mass destruction weapons in 21st century. To reach this aim the Convention established a regulatory and inspectionary mechanism. Since its foundation The Organisation For Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) carrying its duty to prevent developement, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and to manage their destruction process. In cooperation with the United Nations since 2013 OPCW is managing the process for the destruction of Syrian chemicals. For its clear efforts to provide peace in the world OPCW was awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013.
  26. By: Mary Gene Saudelli (University of Calgary in Qatar)
    Abstract: This is an ethnnographic case study of curriculum design and implementation at Dubai Women’s College (DWC) by a team of international educators from across the globe. It explores the question of: what can be learned for 21st century education from educators who choose to traverse the globe, teaching and learning in their third spaces (Bhabha, 1994)? These educators shed light on the complex interplay of global, local, social, cultural, and religious factors affecting curriculum design and educational practices for indigenous female higher education students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Discussions explore the role of contemporary educational curricular theories such as constructivist learning theory, transformative curriculum theory, and sociological theories and situates these theories in a global and local curricular space. Presented will be a 3-fold model to embrace the global and the local through curriculum design and implementation, international standards of English proficiency, task-based assessment, globalization and affiliation among educational institutions, teaching for relevance in higher education, and concludes with a discussion of implications for a globalized and interconnected educational future. Ultimately, this study captures a discussion from this unique group of educators who understand 21st century curriculum design and implementation as a “contextualized” construct that incorporates global and local emphases. They envision a globalized educational landscape with theory and practice understood embracing an international perceptual lens.
    Keywords: internationalization, interdisciplinary studies, curriculum, teaching and learning, learning theories
    JEL: I23 I21 I29
  27. By: Petit, Michel; Ilbert, Helene
    Abstract: In an earlier paper we interpreted the resolution of the 2005 WTO dispute on GIs as a stalemate and suggested a shift of the balance of power in favor of the pro-GI coalition. Since then, international negotiations continue to be stalled. The record of GIs as a tool for the promotion of rural development shows that few non-European GIs have been registered. The case of Morocco illustrates the difficulties faced by a government eager to use GIs as a development instrument. International recognition of GIs is difficult. The TTIP might not resolve institutional and doctrinal GIs problems.
    Keywords: Geographical Indication, Rural Development, European Registration, Moroccan Terroir Policy, Bilateral Free Trade Agreement., Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–04
  28. By: Saleh Alsharari (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University); mahmaod al-rawad (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University)
    Abstract: Over the last few decades the business world have wittiness a wave of high profile financial scandals and corporate failures that hundred the investors trust in stock markets (e.g. in the UK Polly Peck, Maxwell, Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) in the USA world come, Enron in the USA). Following these major events, governments and regulatory authorities start to investigate the cause of these events and to reform their corporate governance as an attempt to prevent similar scandals from happening. In Jordan, this ‘movement’ was slow in being adopted or implemented. Despite to issuing the Bank Director’s Handbook of Corporate Governance in 2004, the Central Bank of Jordan (CBJ) is continuing in its efforts to enhance corporate governance in the Jordanian banking system by preparing this Corporate Governance Code which is intended to promote international best practice in the corporate governance of, Jordanian banks. In the course of the past few years, as reported by CBJ (2007), Jordan has undertaken a major overhaul of its corporate governance structures, particularly with respect to organisations listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). Such events include changes in business, strategic decisions or agreements, decisions to launch a tender offer, changes in management, mergers, important changes in financial condition, and so on. Hence, the current research investing corporate governance framework in Jordan and the compliance of public limited organisations on the (ASE). Further, this research aims to identify whether organisations listed in the (ASE) are complying with the very recent corporate governance legal framework. This aim is divided into three objectives: a) to identify any relevant changes in corporation law over the last ten years and also identify any guidance Jordan has developed over the same period; b) to review the theoretical economical reasons of why and when organisations comply with regulation and legislation and c) to analyse the degree of compliance of public limited organisations listed on the (ASE) and analyse patterns of non-compliance.
    Keywords: Corporate Governance, Public Limited Organisations, Jordan
    JEL: G30
    Abstract: Poet Nigâr Han
    Keywords: Literatüre, Nigâr Han
  30. By: Catherine Bruneau (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Alexis Flageollet (Natixis Asset Management); Zhun Peng (EPEE - Université d'Evry)
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a flexible tool to estimate the risk sensitivity of a high-dimensional portfolio composed of different classes of assets, especially in extreme risk circumstances. We build a so-called Cvine Risk Factors Model (CRFM), which is a non-linear version of a risk factor model in a copula framework. Our tool allows us to decompose the risk of any asset and any portfolio into specific risk directions depending on the context. As an application, we compare the sensitivity of different types of portfolios to extreme risks. We also give an example of a view-type analysis as usually performed by portfolio managers who examine what their portfolio becomes under specific circumstances: here we examine the case of a low inflation context. These analyses allow us to detect changes in the diversification opportunities over time
    Keywords: Regular vine copula; factorial model; extreme risks; risk management; portfolio management; diversification
    JEL: G11 G17 G32
    Date: 2015–04
  31. By: Sirin Pepe (Selcuk University Sports Management Department Postgraduate Student); Ozden Tasgin (Nev)
    Abstract: Objective: In this study, the objective has been set to present the occupational burnout condition of the physical training teachers. An answer for the sub-problems developed has been sought in line with the said objective.Materials and Method: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the questionnaires used in the study, has been developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) and adapted into Turkish by Ergin (1992). The target population of the study was constituted by total 104 physical training teachers residing in the center of the province of Konya, working at the schools acting under the supervision of the Ministry of National Education, selected through a random sampling method, and consisting of 20 Female and 84 Male teachers. The difference of the occupational burnout levels according to genders was determined by way of using Independent-Samples T Test in the analysis of the data.Results: In terms of the relations between the marital status and burnout sub dimensions of the physical training teachers and the levels of their emotional burnout, it appears that the single female teachers have high emotional burnout while the married female teachers have high, normal, and low emotional burnout. Single male teachers have high and love emotional burnout and single female teachers have high, normal, and low emotional burnout levels. Emotional burnout of female teachers according to their age statuses was high and moderate in the 33–38 age group, while emotional burnout was low and moderate in the male teachers. In regards to desensitization, low and moderate were apparent in female teachers and male teachers in line with their age statuses. In terms of personal success, high level appeared in the female teachers and male teachers in line with their age statuses. In regards to the relations between the emotional burnout levels according to their state of carrying out the profession of teaching by loving it, the level was low in the female teachers and male teachers.Conclusions: As a result, when the emotional burnout of the physical training teachers are compared according to their genders, there was a statistically meaningful difference (p<0.05), while there was no such statistically meaningful difference in the comparison of the desensitization and personal success points according to gender between the male and female physical training teachers.
    Keywords: Bornout levels, Physical training, Teachers
  32. By: Ahmad Abu Jrai (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University)
    Abstract: This study seeks to compare the utilization of health services and expenditures between two groups and to assess the effect of socioeconomic factors (income, age, gender education and family size) on utilization of medical care services among AHU university. The first one is the staff of Al-Hussein Bin Talal University ( under cost sharing plans) and the second one is the staff of Ministry of Education ( Under free care). Data on health care services utilization were collected for the periods (2009-2014). Utilization of health services for both groups was measured by several variable including, inpatient care, routine checkups, specialty care, dental care, laboratory tests, X-ray, prescription drugs, and hospital length of stay. In this investigation there were several sources for error. The main error is that some individuals in both samples may be covered through other health insurance plans such as public health insurance, military health insurance, and other private health insurance arrangements. Preliminary analysis of the current research show that employees' visits under the free care plans provided by the Ministry of Education were around 30% higher than the employees' visits covered by the cost sharing plans.
    Keywords: cost sharing insurance, health insurance, Jordan, heath services
  33. By: Mahmaod Al rawad (Al-Hussein bin Talal University)
    Abstract: Purpose: The current research seeks to identify the most relevant dimensions of risk perceived by online shopping customers in Jordan, by identifying risk dimensions cited in the literature and testing empirically their relative importance to such customers. Design: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a random stratified sample of adults. The response rate of 62.5% was adequate to ensure that the survey results were accurate, useful, and representative of the target population. The data were analyzed using parametric statistics including means analysis, factor analysis, and the t-test.Findings: The participants perceived functional and financial risks most strongly, while social risk was the lowest ranked dimension. Furthermore, previous experience and future intention to use were significantly correlated with the strength of participants’ perceptions of each category of online shopping risks. Limitations/Implications: A practical implication of this study is the possibility that the findings will provide insight regarding consumers’ perceptions of online shopping risks, and help businesses to pinpoint the risks of greatest concern to customers.Originality: This study is one of the first to provide important information on the perception of online shopping risks by Jordanian customers.
    Keywords: Jordan, Perceived Risk, Perceived Risk Dimensions, Online Shopping, Consumers’ Risk Perception
    JEL: D80 D81
  34. By: Adel Al Khattab (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University); Hasan Al-Shalabi (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University); Khamis Al-Khattab (Al-Hussein Bin Talal University); Mahmaod Al-Rawad (Al Hussain Bin Talal University)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study was undertaken with the primary aim of identifying, examining and providing an understanding of the factors that could affect citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Jordan.Design: The preliminary research model used here has been developed from the Technology Acceptance Model by incorporating additional constructs from other models, namely, web trust and perceived risk. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by the selected sample. The response rate of 59.2%. The data were analyzed using parametric statistics including ANOVA, MANOVA, means analysis, and the t-test.Findings: The finding of this study revealed that there are four main factors that affect citizen's intention to engage in electronic government services; these are perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived risk, and trust in electronic channels. The findings have also revealed that the modified research model can explain 58.1 per cent of the variance in citizens' intention to adopt and use electronic government services. Limitations/Implications: A practical implication of the findings and conclusions of this study is that governments are urged to take into account the importance of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust and perceived risk in influencing the intention of citizens to use e-government services. This study also serves as a tool for understanding user acceptance of Internet applications such as e-government technology. Originality: This study is one of the first to provide important information on factors affecting citizens intention to adopt and use electronic government services in Jordan.
    Keywords: Jordan, electronic government, technology adoption and acceptance, Perceived Risk, trust.
    JEL: D80 O32
  35. By: MÜJGAN BAL (Selcuk Univercity); Mustafa BAL (Selcuk Univercity)
    Abstract: Time as a relative notion being perceived and interpreted differently for everyone, is influenced by the position and conditions as well. The importance of the time usually understood by people when irreversible results occur. People make a habit of work without planning because of the lack of consciousness, system and strategy about managing the time. However time which is thought that spending without control of individual means nothing after it is been spent, in fact to order and manage the time is possible. Currently, individuals who can not audit their time getting face to face with negative ceses in various fields. These cases cause motivation decrease and stress increase and sometimes lack of satiety and success. In the case of time management slef confidence of individuals would rise and the time they allow for personal development increase thus accrual of productivity and performance would lead progress on career. Currently social media is the first reason for youngsters complicating to control and manage their efficient time. While there is is a differentation at social media usage purpose, time limit as a result of social media usage and avoidance of responsibilities are similar. Spending most of their times at share platforms at internet for individuals actually cause to postpone or cancel their duties. Thus university students might have difficulties about management of time.This study is focused on how university students in Konya manage their time and determination of the role of social media at this management. In this context, its is examined that if the students use their time in a proggrammed way or not, frequency and aim of social media usage by obtained data. It is also among the examined issues that if there is a correlation between social media usage ratio and academical success of students.
    Keywords: Social Media, Time Management, Communication, Technology
  36. By: Mtiraoui, Abderraouf
    Abstract: Abstract : In this work, we must first, to study in more detail the concept of corruption, its definitions and its genesis. Then we will try to develop approaches to corruption. For most economists as D. Kaufmann et al. (2007), corruption has roots in the content of economic power. The representative indicator is a global phenomenon which particularly affected developing countries, corruption is rooted in the structural weakness of local institutions and the failure of public policy and decision control officials to lute against this social scourge. It denotes a problem of allocation of resources essential to the welfare of the individual. That is why, finally, we will study later the determinants of corruption namely microeconomic determinants and macroeconomic determinants while focusing on human capital factor.
    Keywords: Corruption, Humain capital, economic growth, contol of corruption, education, health.
    JEL: I0
    Date: 2015–05–12

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