nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒04‒25
five papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. How Corruption affect Growth in MENA region? Fresh Evidence from a Panel Cointegration Analysis By Hakimi, Abdelaziz; Hamdi, Helmi
  2. Trade liberalization, FDI inflows, Environmental quality and Economic growth: A comparative analysis between Tunisia and Morocco By hakimi, Abdelaziz; Hamdi, Helmi
  3. Are women in the MENA region really that different from women in Europe? Globalization, conservative values and female labor market participation. By Fischer, Justina AV; Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel
  4. Participation of Developing Countries in Global Value Chains: Implications for Trade and Trade-Related Policies By Przemyslaw Kowalski; Javier Lopez Gonzalez; Alexandros Ragoussis; Cristian Ugarte
  5. Rôle du syndicat dans la détermination de la valeur de la vie statistique en Tunisie By Benkhalifa, Abdelaziz

  1. By: Hakimi, Abdelaziz; Hamdi, Helmi
    Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing the effects of corruption on investment and growth in 15 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries during the period 1985-2013. We used the International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) corruption index and we conducted a panel cointegration analysis and Granger causality procedure to detect the dynamic relationships between the variables. The main findings of this paper show that corruption is a serious hurdle to economic growth in MENA countries since it affects investment activities and foreign direct investment inflows. In this case, policymakers have to implement effective anticorruption strategies to avoid the epidemic of corruption.
    Keywords: Corruption, Investment, Growth, MENA
    JEL: F15 O11 O43
    Date: 2015–04–18
  2. By: hakimi, Abdelaziz; Hamdi, Helmi
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the economic impacts of the trade liberalization on the environmental quality in Tunisia and Morocco. Specifically, the paper inspects whether liberalization of the trade sector has harmed the quality of the environment in both countries. To this end, we conduct various econometric models: a VECM and cointegration techniques for single country case study and a Panel VECM and Panel cointegration when using data of both country as a group. We also include a dummy variable in each model to see the real impact of trade liberalization for both countries. In the empirical section, we found bidirectional causality between FDI and CO2. This implies that the nature of FDI inflows to Morocco and Tunisia are not clean FDI. These results show that trade liberalization has a negative impact on environmental. The paper concludes that although trade liberalization boosted the economies of both countries by creating new employment opportunities, liberalization has harmed the environment.
    Keywords: Trade liberalization, FDI, environmental quality
    JEL: G28 O11 O19
    Date: 2015–04–20
  3. By: Fischer, Justina AV; Aydıner-Avşar, Nursel
    Abstract: This article aims to compare women in the MENA region with women in Europe as to how globalization affects their conservative values and attitudes, and, thereby, their labor market participation. The authors define conservative values as both religious values and socio-political attitudes relating to family issues and leadership. Using micro data from the World Values Survey covering over 80 countries between 1981 and 2014, we employ three distinct indicators of globalization that reflect, first, international trade, and, second, cross-national flows of information via persons and media. In Western Europe, during the Cold War period economic globalization appears to weaken those conservative values that directly pertain to female labor market participation, mirroring the current development in the MENA countries. After the Cold War, in Western Europe all remaining secular-conservative values appear equally weakened by international trade, possibly predicting changes to come in the MENA region. Eastern Europe appears distinct from the other two regions. In the MENA region, women respond to intensifying economic globalization with deeper religiosity, possibly as a manifestation of self-protection. Global exchange of information, however, weakens all kinds of conservative values in general in either region. For both MENA countries and Europe likewise, women who are more conservative are less likely to participate in the labor market. Overall, this study suggests that economic globalization transforms not only the economy but also those conservative values that present an obstacle to gainful employment of women.
    Keywords: Globalization; economic integration; media; female labor force participation; religion; conservative values; identity; MENA; Europe
    JEL: C33 D83 F14 F16 J16 J21 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2015–04–21
  4. By: Przemyslaw Kowalski; Javier Lopez Gonzalez; Alexandros Ragoussis; Cristian Ugarte
    Abstract: Although global value chains (GVCs) are often considered a defining feature of the current wave of globalisation, little is known about: i) what drives GVC participation; ii) what the benefits associated to growing participation are; or iii) how developing countries engage and benefit from GVCs. This paper tackles these questions empirically. The evidence indicates there are important benefits to be had from wider participation in terms of enhanced productivity, sophistication and diversification of exports. Structural factors, such as geography, size of the market and level of development are found to be key determinants of GVC participation. Trade and investment policy reforms as well as improvements of logistics and customs, intellectual property protection, infrastructure and institutions can, however, also play an active role in promoting further engagement. A more in-depth analysis of GVC participation and policy context in five developing sub-regions in Africa, the Middle East and Asia highlights key differences and similarities, and can be a starting point for policy makers in the regions to assess their countries’ GVC engagement and to consider policy options.
    Keywords: trade policy, investment, global value chains, intermediate inputs, Middle East and North Africa, GVCs, upgrading, West and Central Africa, South East Asia, developing countries, regional trade agreements, East and Southern Africa, South Asia
    JEL: F1 F2
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Benkhalifa, Abdelaziz
    Abstract: Résumé: Cet article étudie pour la première fois en Tunisie le rôle du syndicat dans la détermination de la valeur statistique de la vie humaine liée aux travaux dangereux et mortels. En utilisant des données originales à partir de la Caisse nationale de la sécurité sociale (CNSS), nous avons prouvé l’existence des écarts salariaux pour les travaux dangereux. Le syndicat joue un rôle très important dans la détermination des primes salariales pour le risque d’accident. Il en résulte une valeur de la vie statistique, au moins, deux fois plus élevée en présence du syndicat qu’en cas de son absence. Cependant, ces valeurs demeurent beaucoup plus faibles que les estimations menées dans les pays développés. Cette étude pourrait fournir des résultats très utiles pour les décideurs afin de réduire le risque de décès en Tunisie.
    Abstract: This paper examines for the first time in Tunisia the union's role in determining the statistical value of life related to risky jobs. Using original data from the “Caisse nationale de la sécurité sociale” (CNSS), we have proved the existence of wage differentials for hazardous work. The union plays an important role in determining wage premiums for accident risk. This results in a value of statistical life, at least, twice in the presence of the union than in the event of his absence. However, these values are still much lower than estimated conducted in developed countries. This study could provide useful results for policymakers to reduce the risk of death in Tunisia.
    Keywords: Prime salariale ; valeur de la vie ; syndicat
    JEL: J3 J31 J51
    Date: 2014

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