nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
47 papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Monthly Report No. 9/2014 By Serkan Çiçek; Vladimir Gligorov; Michael Landesmann; Roman Römisch; Hermine Vidovic
  2. PKK Suicide Attacks in Turkey By OZHAN HANCILAR
  3. Economic Impacts of Korea-Turkey FTA By Kilinc, Zubeyir; Mavuş, Merve; Oduncu, Arif
  4. Syrian Crisis: Turkey, Lebanon And Jordan News Agency's Perspectives By Bahar Ayaz
  5. A Case study in the framework of crisis communication: Turkish Airlines Crisis in 2012 By Emrah BAÅžER
  8. The Media treatment of the "Three Children" Discourse of Turkish Prime Minister in Media Texts By Nurullah Terkan
  10. The Effect of International Trade on Manufacturing Industry Wages: The Case of Turkey By Hacer Simay Karaalp; Sevcan GüneÅŸ
  11. The impact of the action of public power on economic development: Application to the education sector in the MENA region By Mtiraoui, Abderraouf
  12. Competitive Conditions in the Turkish Banking Systems By Ömer AkkuÅŸ; Taner Sekmen; Ä°lyas Şıklar
  13. Shaping the manufacturing industry performance in Turkey: MIDAS approach By Ibrahim Turhan; Ahmet Sensoy; Erk Hacihasanoglu
  14. Revisiting the Muslim Feminists’ Discourse on Gender Equality By Adibah Muhtar; Akmaliza Abdullah; Siti Suhaila Ihwani
  15. Product and Country Concentration In Foreign Trade: The Case of Turkey (2003 – 2013) By Ahmet Ay; Mehmet Mucuk; Mustafa Gerçeker
  16. The Development of Accounting in Turkey and Analysis of the Accounting Culture In Terms of International Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) By Esin Yelgen; Nilüfer Tetik
  18. Trust towards Administrative Institutions among Youth in Turkey: the Case of Konya By Erhan Örselli; Esra Banu Sipahi
  20. The prospects of developing Suez Canal Region – A futuristic vision By Naglaa Zaafarany; Sawyia AlSahar; Sawyia AlSahar
  21. TURKEY ON THE WAY OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE THROUGH THE HEALTH TRANSFORMATION PROGRAM (2003-13) By Jesse Bump; Susan Sparkes; Mehtap Tatar; Yusuf Celik; Meltem Aran; Claudia Rokx
  22. Effect of Current Residency Regions across Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors on Current Subjective Financial Situation in Egyptian Population By Amany Hassan Abdel-Karim
  23. Stock Financing as an Alternative Financing Technique and its Applicability in Turkey By Yunus Ceran; Gamze ÅžekeroÄŸlu; Merve Öz
  24. Symbols of the handkerchief in Turkish Culture By Ahu Fatma MANGIR
  25. Consumer Innovativeness in Purchase of Hi-Tech Home Appliances and the Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior in Electronics Market - A Field Study from Eskisehir , Turkey By Celil Koparal; Nuri Calik
  28. Development students' communicative competence in teaching Russian as a foreign language in the higher educational establishments of Turkey By Daria Lagutina Sariyildiz
  29. Toward a Viable Integrated Marketing Communications in Egypt By Hisham Ibrahim; Alfredo Moscardini; Aiman Ragab
  30. Empirical Evidence on the Long-Run Money Demand Function in the GCC Countries By Hamdi, Helmi; Sbia, Rashid; said, ali
  31. Saudi Arabian Plan to Transfer to Knowledge Society By Dr. Khalid Al Saud
  32. Iran and Czech Political and Cultural Relation By Mohsen Modir Shanechi
  33. Exploring Hotel Employees’ Individual and Work-Related Outcomes from the aspect of Customer Online Reviews: A Qualitative Approach By Alaattin Basoda
  34. A Study on Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) Scale in Turkish By SERDAR BOZKURT; ESIN ERTEMSIR; YASEMIN BAL
  39. Estimating the rebound effect of technological improvement in Iran’s industry sector By Mirhossein Mousavi; Mona Mash'hadi Rajabi; Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh
  40. The Relationship between public spending on health and economic growth in Algeria: Testing for Cointegration and Causality By Fatima Boussalem; Zina Boussalem; Abdelaziz Taiba
  41. Alcohol, Adultery and Prostitution in the Ottoman Period: Konya Example (1650-1750) By Cemal Çetin
  43. A Study on the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Higher Education Institution By Ziyana Al Hinai; Dr. Arun Bajracharya
  45. A Research of Various Work Variables on Pharmacists Operating in Service Industry: the Province of Erzurum Sample By Dilsad Guzel
  46. Total Quality Management for Better Hospital Services in Algeria By rahima Houalef;
  47. An Assessment of Lecturers Ability in transferring the necessary skills in Classroom: The College of Technological Studies, Kuwait; As A Case Study. By Salah Al-Ali

  1. By: Serkan Çiçek (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Vladimir Gligorov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Hermine Vidovic (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Graph of the month Regional gross value added in Turkey (p. 1) Opinion corner Turkey and the EU (by Serkan Çiçek, Vladimir Gligorov and Michael Landesmann; pp. 2-4) The Turkish economic conundrum (by Serkan Çiçek; pp. 5-8) Regional disparities in Turkey (by Roman Römisch; pp. 9-12) Turkey a ‘great power’ of migration? (by Hermine Vidovic; pp. 13-16) Recommended reading (p. 17) Statistical Annex Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe (pp. 18-38)
    Keywords: regional development, regional disparities, Turkey, EU accession, new EU Member States, monetary policy, exchange rate, interest rates, inward and outward migration, skill structure, age structure
    Date: 2014–09
  2. By: OZHAN HANCILAR (Pamukkale University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper will look at the suicide attacks of an illegal armed group in Turkey, the PKK, which is classified as a terrorist organization by Turkey, the U.S. and the European Union. The group has been waging a violent separatist campaign against Turkey since 1984. At present, a fragile peace process is underway between the Turkish government and the PKK. In recent years, suicide attacks have become one of the most effective ways of terrorism. Although most of these attacks have been carried out by Islamist extremists, suicide terrorism is not limited to Islamic fundamentalism. Several non-religious terrorist groups, have used suicide attacks for their political ends. The PKK began to use suicide terrorism in mid-1996. Most of the PKK suicide attacks have been carried out by women. The group’s suicide campaign, which left up to seventeen security personnel and seven civilians dead, has been one of the least effective suicide campaigns in the world. After providing a brief background on both suicide terrorism and the PKK, the paper will discuss the PKK’s suicide attacks. In addition to academic works, the paper will be based on sources from the media.
    Keywords: PKK, Suicide Attacks, Turkey, Female Suicide Bombers
    JEL: D74 H56 K14
    Date: 2014–10
  3. By: Kilinc, Zubeyir; Mavuş, Merve; Oduncu, Arif
    Abstract: The trade volume and diversity of the products traded between Korea and Turkey have been increasing since early 2000s. On top of this, the enthusiasm of the countries in exploring new opportunities led them to start the negotiations on signing a free trade agreement in 2010. The process was finalized in 2012. The agreement foresees that all of the trade tariffs on industrial products and most of the tariffs on agricultural products will be removed in seven and ten years, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one that investigates possible economic impacts of this agreement on Korean and Turkish economies. It employs a computable general equilibrium model and uses the Global Trade Analysis Project database. It finds that the agreement will benefit both parties in terms of GDP and export. In particular, total gains of Korea and Turkey would be as high as 0.129 and 0.054 percent of their respective GDPs. Finally, the exports of Korea might increase by up to 0.139 percent where that of Turkey might increase by 0.164 percent.
    Keywords: Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Analysis, Free Trade Agreements (FTA), Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), Korea, and Turkey
    JEL: F10 F14
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Bahar Ayaz (Gazi University)
    Abstract: Uprisings, which started in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, demanding freedom and democracy against dictatorships began to affect Syria in March 2011. Soon after, this uprisings created a crisis which media have shown a lot of interest. There have been many studies examining the attitudes of European and American media. The aim of this study is to show and compare Syria’s neighbours views according to this crisis. In this study, Turkey’s, Lebanon’s and Jordan’s news agencies news about Syria are analysed. Anadolu Agency (Turkey), the Lebanese National News Agency NNA (Lebanon) and Jordan News Agency PETRA (Jordan) are examined within the framework of this study. This news agencies have different ownership structures. Anadolu Agency is autonomous, Jordanian News Agency is independent and the Lebanese National News Agency has a state-owned structure. This different ownership structures are also analysed and compared. The three neigbours of Syria will be compared with a method of content analysis. The outstanding topics, prominent actors, neglected issues are examined. The fundemental differences are revealed. At the end of the study, it was clear that all agencies were reporting news correspondingly to their foreign policies, regardless of ownership structures. While Jordan news agency neglected the Syrian crises because of a fear of similar situation in the country, Lebanon news agency reflected states complex structure. On the other hand, Turkey’s news agency represented Turkish foreign policy which shows similar attitudes with USA.
    Keywords: Syrian Conflict, Uprisings, Content Analysis, Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan
    JEL: F50 F29 Y80
    Date: 2014–10
  5. By: Emrah BAÅžER (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: Crisis is an event that any kind of organization may experience any time. So crisis is an important concept for the field of public relations. While surviving any kind of crisis two key concepts grab attention, which are crisis management and crisis communication. In this case study, Turkish Airlines crisis in 2012 was examined in the framework of crisis communication. To explain the background of the crisis, after the proposal of the bill of law, which prohibits strike on aviation sector in Turkey to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Turkish airlines staff who are the members of The Voice of Aviation Workers in Turkey (Hava-iÅŸ) started a slowdown strike which caused the cancelation of 223 flight, damnification of more than 100 thousand passengers and dismissal of 305 workers. The strike which caused aforementioned crisis was carried out by Turkish airlines staff who are the members of The Voice of Aviation Workers in Turkey in Atatürk Airport in May 29, 2012 between 3.00 am and 11.30 pm. In the first part of the study, crisis, crisis management, concepts of crisis communication and crisis response strategies were defined. The second part of the study includes the methodology of the study, general information about Turkish Airlines, early warning signals, the crisis, the reactions of Turkish Airlines towards the crisis and lessons learnt from the crisis. The methodology of the study is determined as descriptive analysis. The reactions of Turkish Airlines towards the crisis were discussed through the perspective of Public Relations Response Typology. The remarkable points of the results of analysis are that the institution pursued monologism and used so-called “dark web siteâ€, which is used only in crisis period. The study ends with the discussion of all findings and implications for executives and researchers.
    Keywords: Crisis Management, Crisis Communication, Public Relations, Public Relations Response Typology, Turkish Airlines
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Mustafa Tahir Demirsel (Selcuk University); Adem Öğüt (Selcuk University); Mehmet Mucuk (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: In developing countries adequate and necessary investment cannot be realized since their domestic savings rate is low and foreign savings rate is very low. Here FDI helps diminish domestic and foreign savings deficits. Capital account liberalization in Turkey was initiated in conjunction with the process of economic and financial reforms that started in 1980, and was fully completed in 1989. In this paper, the objective is to analyze the relationship between FDI and economic growth in Turkey by using the data covering the time period between 2002:Q1 and 2014:Q1. For this purpose unit root test, Johansen cointegration test, and variance decomposition were applied. According to the findings there is no relationship between these variables in the long run.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Performance, Economic Growth
    JEL: A10 E00 F30
    Date: 2014–10
  7. By: Burcu Ozcan (Firat University);
    Abstract: We aim to analyze the stochastic convergence hypothesis for 14 major tourist source markets of Turkey using monthly data over the period January 1996 to December 2012. To this aim, we use recently developed the two-step LM (Lagrange multiplier) unit root test that allow for two structural breaks in data. Our findings indicate that 10 out of 14 markets are stochastically converging, meaning that tourism polices and strategies directed at these markets are successful. In other words, the presence of convergence in the tourism market indicates that the difference between total visitor arrivals to Turkey and visitor arrivals from any one of the converging source markets is not drifting apart.
    Keywords: tourism market, convergence hypothesis, structural breaks, unit root tests
    JEL: L83 C22
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Nurullah Terkan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: It is seen that the population policies which appear as efforts to control the population may vary depending on the location and the strategies of the countries that they had in the course of history. The population policies in Turkey from the beginning of the republic until 1965 called for an increase in population, but after that year the policies demanded that population be brought under control by reducing the population growth rate. Today it is claimed again that the population should increase. According to data of the Turkish Statistical Institute, the population of Turkey is expected to increase at a slow rate until 2050 and reach its highest point in 2050 with 93,475, 575 people. Expected to start decreasing by 2050, the population is anticipated to fall down to 89,172,088 in 2075. If current trends in demographic indicators remain the same way, it is predicted that population in Turkey will continue ageing. This situation is marked as a problematic issue by the government; Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the leader of Justice and Development Party (AKP) and Prime Minister advices that each family have at least three children. This study is intended to put forward how the discourse of “three children†of the prime minister was presented in media texts and what kind of discourses were produced out of the three children discourse. The texts that were taken up for this analysis are all newspaper columns. Columns of four national and daily newspapers with different ideologies (Cumhuriyet, Hürriyet, Sabah, Yeni Åžafak) were analyzed with a time period from the year 2008 when the prime minister started this discourse of three children until today.In the study, critical discourse analysis was used in an effort to point out how the discourse of “three children†of the prime minister was depicted in newspaper columns and the types of discourse that were generated through this issue in the same columns. Critical discourse analysis provides important data in bring out the ideologies that are re-produced by way of discourse in media texts, in determining around what themes any given subject is presented in media discourse, and finally in identifying the relationships between media-government-ideology and discourse by way of analyzing ideological representation through texts.
    Keywords: Children, Population Policy, Three Children Discourse, Turkish Media.
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: The most important feature of non-governmental organizations is comprising of people consensually. Primarily, non-governmental organizations’ force is related with that feature. So, communities which coexıst readily and intended for the same aims are able to have a big energy. If like communities increase in number, different ideas will be able to find voice in the society and in this way democracy culture will be able to settle further in the society. Non-governmental organization is a broad concept , which must examine in every respect. But this study is about only the non-governmental organizations which have legal personality in Turkey and theirs capacity to sue in the actions for nullities in administrative procedure.In the first part of the study which is comprised of two parts; meaning, covering and activities of non- governmental organization will be clarify and non- governmental organizations in Turkey will be researched with their’s legal and constitutional basis. In the second part; firstly the concept of “advantage aggression†which is the prior condition of actions for nullities in administrative procedure will be explained. Besides, Turkısh councıl of states decions in the actions which have been filed by the associations, the unions, the endowments and the public occupational organizations in Turkey will be researched.
    Keywords: Non-governmental organization, association, union, endowment, public occupational organization, actions for nullities, advantage aggression.
    JEL: K30 K30 K30
    Date: 2014–10
  10. By: Hacer Simay Karaalp (Pamukkale University, Department of Labour Economics and Industrial Relations); Sevcan GüneÅŸ (Pamukkale University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: As a result of international trade liberalization policies, what is the effect of increasing volume of trade between developed and developing countries on wages of the countries have been the subject of many studies. The goods composition of international trade between developed and developing countries, also called north-south trade, consists of technology and capital-intensive exports goods of developed countries where skilled labor used and labour intensive, light industry and agricultural exports goods of developing countries where unskilled labor is intensively used. Stolper Samuelson Theorem, based on the Heckscher–Ohlin Model, stated that factor incomes between two open economies would convergence through the increasing volume of trade. In this context, many empirical studies in the literature revealed that trade lead to increase and decrease income inequality. In this study, the relationship between Turkey’s top five manufacturing exports sectors to EU-15 which are manufacture of motor vehicles, wearing apparel, textiles, electrical equipments and food products and total manufacturing and wages are analyzed by employing a time series unit root, the Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests for the period of 2005:Q1-2014:Q1. Data for the individual exports (Million U.S. Dollars) are provided from TurkStat (Turkish Statistical Institute) according to the ISIC Rev.4 classification and the gross wages-salaries index which is used as a proxy for real wages, were also taken from TurkStat according to the NACE Rev.2 classification. According to the findings, test results revealed a uni-directional long-run and short-run relationship between exports of labour intensive products of Turkey such as manufacture of wearing apparel, textiles and food products. While the increase of exports leads to increase the real wages of manufacture of wearing apparel, textiles, food products and total manufacturing in the long-run, exports also affected real wages in the manufacture of wearing apparel and food in the short-run.
    Keywords: Exports, Manufacturing Sectors, Granger Causality test, Turkey
    JEL: F14 J31 C32
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Mtiraoui, Abderraouf
    Abstract: The interest of this paper is to show the effect of the action of the public power over the management of public expenditure on education. Our empirical attempt tries to clarify the direct and indirect effects of the efficiency of the government on the development of public spending for the education sector during the 1984-2012 period in the MENA region while using the model of simultaneous equations.
    Keywords: Public Spending, Economic Growth, Government Effectiveness, Public expenditure on education, model of simultaneous equations.
    JEL: I2 I22
    Date: 2015–03–20
  12. By: Ömer AkkuÅŸ (Anadolu University); Taner Sekmen (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Ä°lyas Şıklar (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate competition in Turkish banking sector over the period 2003– 2012. In order to understand the competitive condition in Turkish banking sector, we use the well-known Panzar-Rosse model based on a nonstructural estimation of the H-statistic by employing the quarterly panel data set. The emprical evidences indicate that the Turkish banking sector operates under conditions of monopolistic competition. Therefore, although there have been growing structural changes in the Turkish banking sector since 2000s, there is no remarkable change in the market structure of the Turkish banking sector and it can still be characterized by the monopolistic competition.
    Keywords: Competition, H-Statistic, Panzar-Rosse Model, Turkish Banking Sector
    JEL: D00 G28 L10
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Ibrahim Turhan; Ahmet Sensoy; Erk Hacihasanoglu
    Abstract: We aim to and out whether the exchange rate (against US dollar) or the interest rate (in local currency) is a better variable in predicting the capacity utilization rate of manufacturing industry (CUR) of Turkey after the 2008 global financial crisis. In that manner, we implement dynamic mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model to forecast monthly changes in CUR by using daily changes in the exchange rate and the interest rate separately. The results show that exchange rate has a better forecast performance suggesting that it is a stronger determinant in shaping the manufacturing industry.
    Keywords: MIDAS, forecasting, capacity utilization rate, exchange rate, interest rate
    JEL: C53 E47 E61 F31 O40
    Date: 2015–03
  14. By: Adibah Muhtar (UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA (UTM)); Akmaliza Abdullah (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia); Siti Suhaila Ihwani (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
    Abstract: The concept of gender deals with women's and men's place in society and social expectations from them. Gender relations vary from society to society and they are shaped in historical process. Gender equality, concisely defined as equal rights, opportunities and treatment between men and women, is yet an on-going contentious concept among Muslim feminists and women activists. Of late, gender studies have garnered a large number of interests from researchers across the globe, not to mention the Muslim World. The awareness of gender and Feminism in Muslim societies emerged by end of 19th century, namely in Middle East countries like Egypt, Turkey and Iran. Initially, Muslim women’s movement had been focusing on claiming women’s rights in public sector particularly in education, along with the Nationalism campaigns. However, as the Muslim feminist scholarship expands and grows, the discourse is shifted to contending Islamic Law pertaining women, attempting to reinterpret and re-read Islamic sources, and eventually reconstruct the Shari’ah or Islamic Law.The Muslims by and large are looking into this debatable notion from three standpoints. First, those who advocate total equality between men and women in every spheres of life, regardless of the differences in the natures and traits between both parties, physically and psychologically. Second, at the opposing end those who deny much of women’s rights and inevitably practice bias towards women in their customs and traditions, which subsequently create some kind of defensive and rebellious reactions from women. Third, those who advocate the moderate approach in dealing with gender issues, and seeking for the best appealing viewpoint by highlighting the ‘complementary idea’ in men-women relation. Hence, this paper attempts to revisit the trajectory of Muslim feminists and put forward the discursive notion of gender equality among Muslim scholarships, accentuating the various perspectives and approaches in dealing with it. It proposes that even though gender is not specifically discussed as a distinctive theme in Islam by early Muslim scholars, it nevertheless allocates distinctive status, rights and opportunities for women, corresponding to their distinctive natures and traits.
    Keywords: Muslim feminist, woman, gender, equality, feminism
    Date: 2014–05
  15. By: Ahmet Ay (Selcuk University); Mehmet Mucuk (Selcuk University); Mustafa Gerçeker (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Foreign trade is playing a major role in Turkey’s economic development and prosperity. For this reason it is required to provide diversification of export products for obtaining the expected return on foreign trade. The aim of this study is to analyse the developments in Turkey’s foreign trade diversification. In this context Gini-Hirschman concentration method was made use of and concentration coefficients were calculated for import and export on the basis of both country and product making use of the concentration made. Statistical findings obtained on product basis have revealed that although diversification of products exported increased in both periods this increase did not realize at the expected rate. On the other hand, the change in the diversification of products imported is bigger than export but change occurred in the direction of decrease in diversification rather than in the direction of increase. Country based concentration decreased in terms of both export and import.
    Keywords: Export, Import, Concentration
    Date: 2014–12
  16. By: Esin Yelgen (Akdeniz University); Nilüfer Tetik (Akdeniz University)
    Abstract: Culture may be defined as ‘the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another’. Each human group shares its own social norms, consisting of common characteristics, such as a value system which is adopted by the majority of constituents. Moreover accounting is determined by culture and the lack of consensus in accounting practices between countries, because the purpose of accounting is not technical but rather cultural. The culture of a country determines the choice of its accounting techniques and the perception of its various accounting phenomena. For this reason, the accounting culture is to limit the style of financial reporting by determining the principles and rules to be followed in financial reporting and by determining the principles, rules, and valuation measures that the financial reporting based on. Globalization, increase in the international movement of capital, the development of capital markets, changing conditions of competitions, legislative regulations and specialization are the factors affecting accounting culture. Another factor which affects accounting culture is the unfolding experience with the implementation of international accounting and financial reporting systems. International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) is formulated for the standardization of accounting regulations all over the world. A growing number of countries have adopted IFRS developed by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and other countries plan to adopt or converge with IFRSs in the near future. IFRS is a set of accounting principles that is generated to support processes of principle based reporting. IFRS is very useful for making the comparability, intelligibility and transparency of the financial statements. Because accounting standards necessitate the development of one unique accounting system across the globe, this necessity leads to changes in the perceptions of accounting and thus a decline in the affect of culture on accounting. When the accounting regulations in Turkey are considered, it can be seen that accounting culture is shaped in parallel with economic and political relations. Accounting culture in Turkey has been discussed within the culture model of the Continental Europe through uniform accounting plan which has to be implemented as from 1994. On the other hand, with IFRS applications, it tends to be closer to the Anglo-American culture model. In the light of these developments, the aim of our study is to discuss the term of accounting culture theoretically; and analyze the affect of International Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) over accounting culture in Turkey.
    Keywords: Development of Accounting in Turkey, Hofstede-Gray Theory, Accounting Culture, Accounting Valuations and IFRS
    JEL: M41 M48 M49
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to measure the efficiencies of participation banks, which conduct interest-free banking transactions, and commercial banks within the Turkish finance system and determine whether they have made progress in a year-by-year process or not. In this context, using the continuous financial data between the years 2011 and 2013 belonging to 4 participation banks and 16 public and private commercial banks operating in the banking sector, efficiencies of the banks were measured through the Data Enveloping Analysis and whether or not there was progress in their efficiency on a yearly basis was investigated using the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index. According to the results of the analysis conducted using input-output components by adopting the mediation approach, although the efficiency levels of the banks exhibited a slight drop by the years, an increase was observed in their total factor productivities. When the efficiency scores of commercial banks and participation banks are evaluated within themselves, it is seen that with the exception of 2013, the mean efficiency values of participation banks are higher than the mean efficiency values of commercial banks.
    Keywords: Participation Banks, Commercial Banks, Turkish Banking Sector, Data Envelopment Analysis, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index, Efficiency.
    JEL: C14 G21
    Date: 2014–07
  18. By: Erhan Örselli (Necmettin Erbakan University); Esra Banu Sipahi (Necmettin Erbakan University)
    Abstract: The concept of trust is one of the important signs of living together and a reflection of one’s feelings about social others. Although social, administrative and political consequences of the concept has been a subject of research, there is an increase in the attention paid to the concept after Putnam’s inclusion of trust as one of the component of social capital. The concept of trust is defined very differently in different social science disciplines and therefore there is no consensus on a single definition. Coleman has defined the concept as ‘decision to cooperate under uncertainity’ while Hardin defines it ‘interconnected interests’. According to Braun, trust is a characteristic of a the relationship between two people. Miller and Listhaug defines the concet as a summary of those attitudes that political system will be responsive even when there is no permanent survelliance. Since trust towards public institutions is an abstract concept, it is difficult to measure it. In the literature, there are different theories about the source of trust and its determining factors as well as its explanations. Trust emerges from the legitimacy of administrative-political system, specific experiences of public insitutions and services and the dynamic interaction between these two factors. Further, the volatility of public opinion about public institutions and cognitive chaos makes research about the concept of trust more problematic.Young people are most dynamic actors of social and political life. Notwithstanding their dynamism, recent research shows that among youth there is a decrease in interest and trust towards political and social life. This study aims to understand the level of trust among youth in Turkey towards social, administrative and political institutions. The study utilizes Uslaner’s three dimensional classification and defines trust as ‘trust towards institutions’. A survey has been conducted among mainly university students in Konya to determine their level of trust towards institutions. The study uses data from a 2012-2013 Project to increase political participation of youth and supported by the Ministry of Turkish Youth.
    Keywords: Trust, trust towards institutions, Youth
    JEL: H83
    Date: 2014–06
  19. By: Veli Erdinç Ören (UÅŸak University, Banaz); Merih Tetik (Anadolu University, Graduate of School of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: Globalization trend that spreads widely in the world of economical and technological development has provided many values to be shares at international levels, by removing the borders of the countries. In the globalised world, changes happen in activities of companies as in many fields with the help of developments in information and communication technologies. Companies have been starting activities globally and the number of multinational companies has been increasing, and in this context, the movements of goods, service and capital have been passing the national borders. Globalization has affected the science of accounting as the other disciplines. Depending on these developments, the applications of accountancy which is used at national level before have been inadequate in providing information that the users of financial tables have required. Works that were launched to solve this problem in developed countries resulted in the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) which have been gradually adopted by other countries as the common language of accounting. International Accounting Standards Board has been formed and International Accounting Standards have been published in the process of making up common accounting language. European Union accepted these standards in 2005 and wanted all the members and candidate states to accept them. These standards have been accepted in our country since 2006 and started to apply at the enterprises depending on The Capital Markets Law. The New Turkish Commercial Code enacted on 14 February 2011 obliges to implement “The Turkish Financial Reporting Standards†by the 1 January 2013. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the perception of accounting standards by accountants. Furthermore, previous studies on the subject were examined and comparisons were drawn. Universe of the study consists of accountants in Uşak Chamber of Certified Public Accountants. Face to face surveys with the questionnaires have been carried out and the results have been analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). According to the survey results, the accountants expressed their perception that IFRS supply accurate, transparent and reliable financial reporting. On the other hand, the findings of the study reveal that the accountants also have information about IFRS, but they are not completely ready for the adaptation of IFRS.
    Keywords: Turkish Financial Reporting Standards (TFRS), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), UÅŸak, Turkey.
    JEL: M41 M41 M41
    Date: 2014–10
  20. By: Naglaa Zaafarany (Madar); Sawyia AlSahar (Pension); Sawyia AlSahar (Pension)
    Abstract: Located strategically between three continents which hold thousands of markets and industrial global zones, the Suez Canal is considered to be the shortest link between the east and the west due to its unique geographic location.This importance is getting augmented with the evolution of maritime transportation of the world trade, being the cheapest means of transportation, whereas more than 80% of the world trade volume is transported via waterways.Saving the distance for ships has its potential effect on the cost of time and on operational costs for materials and commodities that are shipped through the Canal, maximizes this importance.After the Egyptian revolution on 2011 and the increasing need to develop the national economy of Egypt, a major project to develop the Suez Canal passage way was launched by the Egyptian government on 2012. This paper aims to investigate the impact of developing the region of the Suez Canal passage on Egyptian economy and the world economy. In order to achieve this purpose a research methodology consisting of literature review is used to achieve an in depth understanding of the importance of Suez Canal in global trade. Second part of the paper investigates the plans laid by the Egyptian government to develop the corridor as a world logistics hub. The third part introduces the idea of constructing a similar route of Suez Canal in Sinai to maximize the benefits of the developed area and the impact this can have on Egyptian and global trade.
    Keywords: Suez Canal, Egypt, Egyptian Economy, Economy, world trade, maritime transportation
    JEL: A30 A19 A10
    Date: 2014–06
  21. By: Jesse Bump; Susan Sparkes; Mehtap Tatar; Yusuf Celik; Meltem Aran; Claudia Rokx
    Abstract: Beginning in 2003, Turkey initiated a series of reforms under the Health Transformation Program (HTP) that over the past decade have led to the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC). The progress of Turkey?s health system has few ? if any ? parallels in scope and speed. Before the reforms, Turkey?s aggregate health indicators lagged behind those of OECD member states and other middle-income countries. The health financing system was fragmented, with four separate insurance schemes and a ?Green Card? program for the poor, each with distinct benefits packages and access rules. Both the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and Ministry of Health (MoH) were providers and financiers of the health system, and four different ministries were directly involved in public health care delivery. Turkey?s reform efforts have impacted virtually all aspects of the country?s health system and have resulted in the rapid expansion of the proportion of the population covered and of the services to which they are entitled. At the same time, financial protection has improved. For example, (i) insurance coverage increased from 64 to 98 percent between 2002 and 2012; (ii) the share of pregnant women having four antenatal care visits increased from 54 to 82 percent between 2003 and 2010; and (iii) citizen satisfaction with health services increased from 39.5 to 75.9 percent between 2003 and 2011. Despite dramatic improvements there is still space for Turkey to continue to improve its citizens? health outcomes, and challenges lie ahead for improving services beyond primary care. The main criticism to reform has so far come from health sector workers; the future sustainability of reform will rely not only on continued fiscal support to the health sector but also the maintanence of service provider satisfaction.
    Keywords: access to health care, access to health care services, access to health services, administrative control, allocative efficiency, antenatal care, Capita Health Expenditure ... See More + child mortality, Childbirth, citizen, citizens, communicable diseases, deaths, Debt, delivery system, demand for health, demand for health services, doctors, Economic growth, economic resources, emergency vehicles, Employment, expenditures, financial protection, financing of health care, focus group discussions, fragmented financing system, General practitioners, Health Administration, Health Affairs, health care, Health Care Costs, health care delivery, health care expenditures, health care facilities, health care providers, health care sector, health care services, health care system, health centers, HEALTH COVERAGE, Health Data, health delivery, health delivery system, Health Expenditure, Health expenditure growth, Health Expenditure per capita, health expenditures, Health facilities, health finance, Health Financing, health financing system, health indicators, health infrastructure, health insurance, health insurance scheme, Health Insurance System, Health Organization, health outcomes, Health Planning, Health Policy, health posts, health professionals, Health Project, health reform, health reforms, health risks, health sector, health sector reform, health sector workers, health services, health spending, Health status, health status indicators, health supply, health system, Health System Efficiency, Health Systems, Health Systems in Transition, health workers, health workforce, Health-Care, Health-Care System, Health-Financing, Healthcare Spending, hospital autonomy, hospital beds, Hospital management, Hospital Sector, hospitals, HR, human development, human resources, illness, Immunization, income, income countries, income households, individual health, induced demand, infant, infant mortality, infant mortality rate, inservice training, insurance, insurance coverage, insurance schemes, integration, labor market, level of health spending, life =expectancy, life expectancy, life expectancy at birth, live births, local authorities, maternal health, maternal health services, medical centers, Medical Policy, medical school, medical specialties, medicines, Midwives, Ministry of Health, morbidity, mortality, National Health, National Health Insurance, National Health Policy, Newborn Health, nurses, Nutrition, old system, outpatient services, paradigm shift, paramedics, parliamentary seats, party platform, patient, patient care, Patient Cost, patient satisfaction, patients, pharmaceutical expenditures, pharmacists, pharmacy, physician, physicians, pocket payments, policy change, policy decisions, policy goals, Policy Research, political power, political turmoil, popular support, Pregnancy, pregnant women, prescription drugs, preventive health services, primary care, primary health care, primary health care facilities, private insurance, private pharmacies, private sector, private sectors, professional associations, progress, provision of health care, Public Expenditure, Public Health, public health care, public health expenditures, public health system, Public Hospital, Public Hospitals, public providers, public sector, public service, public support, purchaser-provider split, purchasing power, purchasing power parity, quality assurance, quality of care, quality of services, rural areas, scientific evidence, series of meetings, service delivery, service provider, service provision, service quality, service utilization, Social Insurance, Social Policy, Social Security, social security schemes, socioeconomic development, socioeconomic status, State Planning, supply of health care, Sustainable Development, Trade Unions, Under-five mortality, urban centers, workers
    Date: 2014–09
  22. By: Amany Hassan Abdel-Karim (Faculty of Commerce, Tanta University)
    Abstract: To the best of our knowledge, no study has been undertaken concerning the role which residency plays in determining poverty level in Egypt as a developing country. Therefore, this paper explores the impact of current residency regions for Egyptian households on current subjective financial situation as an indicator of poverty level across demographic and socio-economic factors. Residency regions involve less developed and developed areas in Egypt and residency in Italy as international migration. The data set was obtained from Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute that was collected by local research teams in Egypt and Italy. Questionnaires information was concurrently collected from domestic and migrant households in a manner that comparable survey instruments in both countries share the same basic modular design and layout. Ordered logit model is constructed to analyze these data since the response variable in this study is expressed in four categories which have natural ordering. The results indicate that migration to Italy and moving from less developed to developed regions in Egypt enhance current subjective financial situation. Improved past financial situation is an indicator for acquiring better current financial situation which is obvious in less developed regions more than developed regions and Italy. Households migrated to Italy and have current work improved their current subjective financial situation.
    Keywords: Egypt. Financial situation. International migration. Italy. Ordered logistic model. Residency regions
    JEL: A13 F22 R19
    Date: 2014–10
  23. By: Yunus Ceran (Selcuk University); Gamze ÅžekeroÄŸlu (Selcuk University); Merve Öz (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Banks are important institutions that finance economies by collecting deposits and lending those deposits as creditors. Today, most of the businesses that need funding sources primarily apply to the banks for receiving loan. Loans provided by banks are classified according to the nature of the loans and the cost of each varies according to their attributes. The important thing is for businesses using the most appropriate loan with the least cost.The concept of “stock financing†which is often heard recently emerges as an alternative financing technique. Here the main aim is minimizing the cost of seeking new funds and trying to find new funds at the financial value of current inventories of business. In this respect in the study the applicability of stock financing techniques, appearing very attractive for business, in Turkey are discussed.
    Keywords: Inventory Management, Stock Financing, Banking, Loan
    JEL: G21 G32
    Date: 2014–12
  24. By: Ahu Fatma MANGIR (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: Accepted as cultural value, the handkerchief which was introduced into Anatolia from Central Asia has still persisted its importance as both functional and symbolic meanings. Even it has been known and used since B.C., introduction of the handkerchief in Turkish life based on Central Asia with the evidence of images in stones belonging to century.The handkerchief has introduced in Turkish culture as metarial item and several symbolic meanings and these symbols which has been still continued in our times can be understood due to the different usage of the handkerchief. It has been also used as communitacation tool for the people’s feelings, emotions and thought. They all have been expressed through the handkerchief.The handkerchief which was seen in Central Asia with the evidence of images in stones, balbals and miniature has been persisted its existence as a part of Turkish culture. The portrait of Turkish Rulers with smelling a rose in one hand and holding a handkerchief in the other were drawn traditionally. Especially, the handkerchief became essential part of those portrate of Ottoman Empires. In this study, the cultural and symbolic functions of handkerchief will be studied and the importance of the handkerchief in Turkish culture will be explanied.
    Keywords: Handkerchief, Symbol, Culture, Symbols of the reign
    JEL: Z00 Z00
    Date: 2014–10
  25. By: Celil Koparal (Anadolu University); Nuri Calik (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: This study intends to find out the consumer innovativeness and perceived risk in high technology product adoption. A survey on 460 respondents who are selected via stratified sampling of whom 452 are found eligible to be analyzed. The respondents are required to answer 50 questions of which three on ordinal scale and the five are related to demographic characteristics of these respondents. The rest 42 are statements which are designed to reflect the purchase and usage behavior of high-tech products of these people. The study consists of five parts. The first part is an introduction where the scope and the purpose of the study are concisely stated. The second part relates to the theoretical background of the subject matter and the prior researches carried out so far. The third part deals with research methodology, basic premises and hypotheses attached to these premises. Research model and analyses take place in this section. Theoretical framework is built and a variable name is assigned to each of the question asked or proposition forwarded to the respondents of this survey. 42 statements or propositions given to the respondents are placed on a five-point Likert scale. Three statements are placed on ordinal scale and reflect the traits attached on hi-tech products ranking in terms of importance. The remaining five questions about demographic traits as age, gender, occupation, educational level and monthly income are placed either on a nominal or ratio scale with respect to the nature of the trait. Ten research hypotheses are formulated in this section. The fourth part mainly deals with the results of the hypothesis tests and a factor analysis is applied to the data on hand. Here exploratory factor analysis reduces 42 variables to seven basic components as "Technological innovativeness, perceived risks, creative reuse, consumer innovativeness, cognitive innovativeness, technology readiness and technological sophistication. Cronbach's Alpha for scale reliability is (ï¡ = 0.747) and the sample adequacy ratio (KMO ) is 0.938. In addition non-parametric bivariate analysis in terms of Chi-Square is applied to test the hypotheses formulated in this respect. The fifth part is the conclusion where findings of this survey is listed.
    Keywords: Consumer innovativeness, risk perception, creative reuse, technological sophistication, cognitive innovativeness.
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: Due to social, physical or economical reasons that countries could not meet their requirements by own resources, international trade was appeared. Also with the development of global economy, the borders between world trades were disappeared. Due to effect of more than one national law to a trade relation, confusion causes on the determination of the norms to be applied and problems occur between the parties during determination of norms. Since there is no supranational jurisdiction system is available to take role during the solution phase of problems, national courts become competent judicial authority; thus, they remain incapable of objectivity and area of specialization. In the commercial life where international actors take place, the requirement of international solution mechanism is inevitable. As a result of seeking fulfillment for this need, on 11.04.1980 in trust of United Nations the diplomatic conference was held in Vienna and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods under common name Vienna Sale of Goods Agreement (“Vienna Sale of Goods Agreementâ€) was accepted. As of January 2013, 80 state parties are existed to CISG . Austria is one of the first 5 countries who constituted and signed the convention . In Austria, CISG officially become valid on 01.01.1989 and the validation is still continued. Turkey become a party to a convention on 07.07.2010 and agreement become valid as of 01.08.2011. Hereunder CISG Agreement is applied for the sale of good agreements between the parties where their business places are in different countries and upon the condition that, these countries are the contracting states. In addition to this, CISG application area can be performed if attributed the international law rules to a contracting state.The purpose of our study is, to discuss the passing of risk matter which incorporates many problems, in national and international sale of goods agreements within the frame of CISG and Turkish Code of Obligations regularizations. In our study, primarily risk and passing of risk concepts were mentioned in general; then the moment that, damage was devolved, conditions and exceptions were emphasized. At the final section of our study, in sale of goods agreements passing of risk results were discussed and in case of violation of agreement, the status of circumstances was indicated in the point of CISG.
    Keywords: Sale of Goods, Passing of Risk, CISG.
    Date: 2014–06
  27. By: MAHMUT TEKÄ°N (Selcuk University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences); ERTUÄžRUL TEKÄ°N (Selcuk University, Vocational School of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: Logistics is a young sector in Turkey, and it has made progress in recent years. Local companies not only compete among themselves, but also compete with international companies. Nowadays businesses a competitive advantage in the global market and provide products andservices in order to maintain this condition , the speed , cost and must give importance to quality. For this advanced technology supply chain and logistics systems are obliged to make it available. This study e- logistics and e- logistics applications in the pharmaceutical sector was conducted to investigate. Working in the pharmaceutical sector in the province of Konya located in the pharmaceutical supply chain distribution warehouses and pharmacies and drug procurement and distribution system was carried out to investigate the e- logistics applications .E- logistics and e- logistics applications in drug delivery, this study examined consists of three basic parts. In the first chapter of logistics, supply chain management, logistics management and marketing issues are discussed. In the second part of the study , e- logistics applications in the pharmaceutical industry and from various sources have been investigated theoreticall yexamined . In the third chapter of Konya e- logistics applications in the pharmaceutical industry practices were analyzed through the SPSS program. The study results were evaluated according to the survey findings related recommendations are presented.
    Keywords: Logistics, E-Logistics, Competition, Pharmaceutical Sector, Supply Chain
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2014–10
  28. By: Daria Lagutina Sariyildiz (Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Foreign languages)
    Abstract: The influence of Russia on the worlds' political arena and global economy led to dynamic integration of Russian language into the world community. Russian language holds a particularly important place among the foreign languages taught in the higher educational establishments of Turkey. The main challenge of teaching Russian is developing students' communication competence. In this regard, we believe that the most effective method is interactive teaching, with the following tools: a) maps, slides, multimedia, modern computer and Internet programs as means of implementation of communicative situations in the classroom; b) communicative games.When using modern effective technologies of interactive learning high motivation, focus, verbal activity, personal interest is observed among students at high level of all communication functions. A peculiar feature of interactive learning is teacher’s attitude towards a student not as an object but an equal partner of the learning process. In this respect teacher should master numerous and diverse technologies of communicative education.Modern educational technologies considered in this study promote students’communicative competence, enhance students' motivation and thus, optimize learning process. The use of interactive technologies for teaching Russian makes lesson entertaining and truly modern. Such formation of educational activity plays an important role in the development of the communicative competence of foreign students, promotes development of their speech capabilities, develops an interest in the Russian language and Russian culture.
    Keywords: Russian language, educational technologies, communicative competence, interactive methods.
    JEL: I23 I20
    Date: 2014–07
  29. By: Hisham Ibrahim (Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AAST)); Alfredo Moscardini (Cardiff Metropolitan University); Aiman Ragab (Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AAST))
    Abstract: The concept of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) has received significant coverage in literature. However, there is a problem in translating this concept into reality due to the difficulties of coordinating all communication tools in one program. The advances in communication technology threatens advertising agencies working in the Egyptian market, as the future of communications tends to be specialized and the need for coordination between communication agencies became essential. Thus there is a need for a new organisational structure for agencies that reflects these changes, This paper proposes the viable system model (VSM) developed by Stafford Beer as such a structure. The VSM will help organisations discover and solve their problems to remain viable and successful in the future, It also provides a framework for better coordination between communication agencies to maintain successful IMC campaigns.
    Keywords: Integrated Marketing Communications, Viable System Model, Egyptian Communication Market.
    Date: 2014–12
  30. By: Hamdi, Helmi; Sbia, Rashid; said, ali
    Abstract: The broad aim of this paper is to estimate the money demand function for the case of six Gulf Cooperation Council countries. By applying panel cointegration tests, the empirical results reveal strong evidence of cointegration between the variables of the model for individual countries as well as for the panel. Moreover, the results support the existence of a stable money function in the long-run estimation. The Granger non-causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure shows evidence of a bidirectional causal relationship between money demand and income for panel estimation. At an individual level, the results change from one country to another one.
    Keywords: Money Demand; GCC, Panel Cointegration; Toda-Yamamoto
    JEL: C22 C23 E41 E42 E52
    Date: 2014
  31. By: Dr. Khalid Al Saud (Saudi Shura Council)
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia nowadays is executing plans to transform  it's  economy from being dependent on the wealth of oil reserves to be based on the products of knowledge and technology . Nothing is more difficult than developing knowledge , skills ,and capabilities of people In order to enhance  and stimulate their minds for more discoveries and inventions . Saudi Arabia beside oil has little  economical resources ,therefore Saudis has no choice except to depend on human  minds and capabilities . Development of education in terms of minimizing illiteracy and improving the quality of outcomes to be more competitive with international  standards and measures  are of the most important issues being focused on in this research paper King Abdullah project for the development of general education and the establishment of the authority of education evaluation are among the important initiatives to improve the outcomes of the general education .   Expansion of the vocational and technical training, and establishment of joint training programs with  major  manufacturing companies resampling  private sector are among the successful steps to built capabilities of Saudi technicians Opening new universities, especially research and technology universities such as king Abdullah university for science and technology KAUST , and initiating king Abdullah program  to financially  support saudi students to complete their graduate and undergraduate studies abroad in distinguished universities in medical, engineering , and computer and communications sciences are among the efforts to empower Saudis to be highly skilled and qualified to execute sophisticated technological  tasks . However, more  than 150,000 students are currently enrolled in king Abdullah  program .  Science and technology incubators such as bader is among other incubators established by king abdulaziz city for sciences and technology to help intellectuals and inventors . It aims to create  enhancing environment  for inventors to transfer their  ideas and inventions to become commercial products.  Many other initiatives such as the custodian of the to holy mosques prize for gifted and inventors and the establishment of the king abdulaziz and his companions establishment for giftness and invention are supporting and magnifying the role of Saudi efforts in the process of  transferring   of the society of saudi arabia to the so called  knowledge based economy. Finally, this paper will focus on the strategy set by the government to achieve it's goal of transfer to knowledge society by the end of 2030.
    Keywords: Saudi Arabian, Transfer to Knowledge Society
    Date: 2014–05
  32. By: Mohsen Modir Shanechi (Department of Political Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad)
    Abstract: In this article, after noting the first point in relations of Iran and Europe in modern times, the historical relations between Iran and Czech in political and cultural sides would be considered. This relations could be studied both in formal or state and public spheres. In formal side, the relations between two countries started around nine decades ago. In public side, in political aspect, Czechoslovakia was one of the Eastern European countries during cold war in where some of the leaders of the Iranian Communist Party leaved and politically activated. In public cultural aspect however the main point is the situation of some Czech figures such as Vaclav Havel among Iranian intelligentsia.
    Keywords: Iran, Czech, politcal relations, cultural relations
    Date: 2014–10
  33. By: Alaattin Basoda (Selcuk University, Faculty of Tourism)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine hotel employees individual traits and work-related attitudes and behaviors based on customer e-reviews. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze the data gathered from 522 foreign customers e-comments in English for three resort hotels (high scored in top-3 on an international online commercial travel platform, dated to the year 2013) located in Antalya Region, southern coast of Turkey. Firstly, results indicated that customers have generally evaluated hotel all employees as highly friendly, helpful, hard-working, polite, lovely, amazing, smiling, efficient and attentive persons. Secondly, they evaluated individual traits of the only certain departments staff; Entertainment Staff as highly entertaining, hard-working, and friendly persons; Food and Beverage (service) Staff as highly friendly and smiling persons; Front-Office Staff as highly friendly and helpful persons, and Housekeeping Staff as neat, smiling and brilliant persons. Finally, customers evaluated employees work-related attitudes and behaviors as the aspect of interaction, relationship, service performance, extra-roles and service/customer orientation. A discussion of the findings, implications, and recommendations for future research were all presented.
    Keywords: Employee outcomes; customer reviews; human capital; E-WOW; decision making
    JEL: J24 J29 J89
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: High-Performance Work Systems (HPWS) are generally defined by the combination of single practices that collectively affect organizational performance. High performance human resource practices can be listed as provision of job security, extensive skills, training, promotion, results-oriented appraisal and broad career paths. HPWS foster employees’ shared perceptions of an organizational environment that motivates discretionary behaviors that contribute to organizational performance (Sun, Aryee & Law, 2007). HPWS are expected to contribute to employees in a positive way in terms of certain skills and duties due to flexibility and empowerment they provide (Yalabık et. al., 2008). HPWS has the greatest potential to provide sustained competitive advantage to companies they adopt it. The main idea of HPWS is to create an organization based on employee involvement, commitment and empowerment without employee control. HPWS organizations use an approach that is fundamentally different from the traditional hierarchical or bureaucratic approach which is known as control oriented approach (Tomer, 2001). The aim of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of the HPWS scale in Turkish which was developed by Sun, Aryee and Law (2007) and analyze the relationship between HPWS and demographic variables. In this perspective, the theoretical background and literature review about HPWS is given and then the statistical results are discussed in the context of the validity and reliability of the scale. The scale developed by Sun, Aryee and Law (2007) has 8 dimensions as “Selective Staffingâ€, “Extensive Trainingâ€, “Internal Mobilityâ€, “Employment Securityâ€, “Clear Job Descriptionâ€, “Results-Oriented Appraisalâ€, “Incentive Reward†and “Participationâ€. The method which was proposed by Brislin et. Al. (1973) is used for the translation of the scale. This method consists of a process as translating to the target language, evaluating the translation, translating back to the source language, evaluating the translation again and consulting to the experts. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis is used for the scale. Then the results and findings are discussed according to the current literature of HPWS.
    Keywords: High performance work systems, human resource management, reliability, validity.
    JEL: M12 M19
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: The regulatory transactions performed by the Executive Power in Turkish laws are statutory decrees, decrees, regulations and other unnamed regulatory transactions. The unnamed regulatory transactions are the title to a set of general regulatory transactions. In other words, it is a general concept to express many transactions with unlimited numbers. The reason to selection of this concept is that such transactions cannot be mentioned by the constitution which is the highest norm. The hierarchy of norms which were introduced to the legal World by Hans Kelsen are also applicable in the operation of the regulatory transactions of the administration. However since the general regulatory transactions enacted by the administration increase rapidly day by day cause different arrangements to be brought forward in the same matters. The solution to some problems incurred by during the implementation stages cannot be achieved by Kelsen pyramid only. The administrative units at the same hierarchy stages may include contradictory provisions, then it is also possible that they may contradict with some regulatory transactions emanated under public administration. This paper studies what kind of a hierarchy is present between the general regulatory transactions of the administration, the solution to the legal issues between the general regulatory transactions encompassing contradicting norms, how the general regulatory transactions breaching the superior norms can be abolished and how the senior management will act in case when the people of execution.
    Keywords: General Regulatory Transactions, Hierarchy of Norms, General Regulatory transactions of the Administration in Turkish Law, Abstract Transactions of Executive Power, Statutory Decrees, Decrees, Regulations, Unnamed Regulatory Transactions.
    JEL: K30
    Date: 2014–06
    Abstract: As English spreads and becomes a dominant language of power in global commerce, science, and technology, the need to teach and learn through it has also grown. It is not surprising that the aim of most education curriculum around the world, including the Arabic governments, has been developed to suit the curriculum of teaching and learning English inside their countries. Libya is one of the Arab countries where the government has invested heavily in the English language teaching curriculum, which is geared towards improving the teaching and learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in schools and universities. The aim of this emphasis on the teaching and learning of English is to enable Libya to catch up in the development of its economy and to promote international exchange. However, in spite of the government’s efforts towards improving English language learning, there have been claims from various quarters in the education field that students at all education levels are not performing successfully in the language, with regard to literacy and the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Very few studies have been done so far on teaching English in Arabic countries in Africa and classroom interactions in the Arabic social context, especially at the university level. Hence, this study was undertaken using a qualitative research design, and the data was collected through classroom observation and a questionnaire issued to the lecturers in Sirte University in Sirte, Libya. Recommendations and suggestions are offered, based on the findings of this research.
    Keywords: Linguistics, Competency, Discourse Analysis, social context.
    Date: 2014–05
  37. By: Åžükrü BALCI (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Salih TÄ°RYAKÄ° (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: The social networks such as Facebook and MySpace provide opportunity to individuals for presenting themselves, develop relations with other people and also offer ability to continue of them. Furthermore, social networks are used to interact with the people they know and also the new people they want to meet. By naturally Facebook is a very helpful social networking when it is used consciously. But use of excessive and pointless of it carries with the problem of addiction. Facebook addiction is a fairly common problem among young people. Addiction may lead an experience of erosion in social relations. Facebook addicts may experience problems with their families, friends, at work or in school. Addicted people may pass less time outside of their home and may spend less time with their friends. They may be insensitive to the happenings around while they are with computer. They may prefer to meet their friends on computer to face to face relations outside. Here, in the sample of the area survey conducted with the high school students in Konya City tries to reveal the addiction profiles of students. The data of research are collected by questionnaire technique based on the face to face interviews with 494 participants. In the results it is found that, the addiction levels of female students are higher than the levels of male students. The Facebook addiction level increase when the time passing in using of Facebook in a session and weekly using of the frequency of Facebook increase. Also results show us the using experience of Facebook has a significant positive correlation with Facebook addiction.
    Keywords: Keywords: Social sharing networks, Facebook, addiction, high school students
    Date: 2014–06
  38. By: Hanan AlMazrouei (United Arab Emirates University)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to examine the effect of building working relationships, communication ability, and office politics on expatriate leaders’ work adjustment in the UAE. Questionnaires and interviews were utilised to explore the elements effecting expatriate work adjustment in UAE organizations. Building working relationships and ability to communicate with staff were both positively correlated with expatriate leaders’ work adjustment. However, there was no relationship between office politics and expatriate leaders’ work adjustment. This research provides a new perspective to the relatively limited theory available on cross-cultural adjustment in UAE organizations. Analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data was found to predict work adjustment. The organization can assist expatriate leaders’ work adjustment by offering support in the form of a reward system such as trips or bonuses for successful work adaptation. This can be facilitated by providing team building and development opportunities such as workshops and off-site activities aimed at improving working relationships with host staff and developing networking opportunities. Providing support in the form of a host country mentor, a long-term resident expatriate or their family may also assist. They will have the knowledge and experience in the host culture to provide expatriate leaders with the advice they need. A suggestion for further research would be the use of unstructured and in-depth interviews. These may have provided richer data leading to the ability to develop deeper and stronger analyses of the points raised
    Keywords: Expatriate Leadership, Adjustment, Building Working Relationships, Communication, Culture, UAE.
    JEL: M19
    Date: 2014–05
  39. By: Mirhossein Mousavi (Alzahra University); Mona Mash'hadi Rajabi (Graduated from the University of Alzahra); Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh (Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh)
    Abstract: Rebound effect refers to the phenomenon that energy savings from improvement in energy efficiency are lower than expected due to unintended second-order effects. The main reason of improving energy efficiency is Technological improvement. According to Khazzoom formula, the rebound effect of improving technology is equal to price elasticity of demand so in this research natural gas demand function is estimated. In addition to the economic drivers (natural gas price, price of substituted energy factors, industry value added), there are number of exogenous factors that drive energy demand. This research therefore uses Structural Time Series Model to estimate natural gas demand in Iran`s industry sector during 1988 to 2009 and then Khazzoom rebound effect is calculated. Estimated short run and long run rebound effect in Iran`s industry sector are 63 percent and 133 percent respectively, with a generally increasing UEDT in a decreasing rate. UEDT has upward sloping but level of UEDT is fixed during the period of research so the model is “smooth trend modelâ€. Relating to the research findings improving technology in Iran`s industry sector reduces Natural gas consumption up to 37 percent in short run. But in long time period increases Natural gas consumption up to 133 percent. So in short run technological improvement can reduce consumption approximately but in long run price policy reform should be used simultaneously.
    Keywords: Rebound effect , industry sector, natural gas, technological improvement, structural time series model
    JEL: C59 L69 Q31
    Date: 2014–10
  40. By: Fatima Boussalem (University of Jijel); Zina Boussalem (university of jijel); Abdelaziz Taiba (university of chlef)
    Abstract: This paper investigated the causality and co-integration relationships between public health expenditure and economic growth in Algeria during 1974-2014 using annual data. This paper concentrated on time series co-integration and causality in VECM framework. The findings revealed that there is a long-run causality from public health expenditure to economic growth, while it is not observed any short-run causality from expenditure health to economic growth. The lack of strong link from health to economic growth is not necessarily a reason to reallocate health investment away from the health sector. The improvements in health status will be worth the effort even if they turn out to have little effect on growth.
    Keywords: public Health Expenditure, Economic Growth, Co-integration, Causality
    JEL: I18 I15 C10
    Date: 2014–05
  41. By: Cemal Çetin (Faculty of Letters, Departments of History, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey)
    Abstract: It is possible to mention crimes and criminals wherever people dwell. Definition of offence may vary according to societies in accordance with the influences of culture and religion. In Ottoman Law which has its roots in ecclesiastical and customary sources, it is observed that crimes are categorized in three groups as the ones requiring boundary, ones requiring retaliation and finally the ones requiring corporal punishment and political ban. Demonstration, prescription, jurisdiction and penalisation processes of these offences are all defined by ecclesiastical and customary law. While the ecclesiastical law is characteristically precise with regards to the jurisdiction and penalisation of offences, customary law adopted more practical solutions on these. In case of discrepancy, predicaments were overcome by bringing Islamic scholars’ views into action.In Ottoman law, adultery and prostitution which are regarded in boundary offences and drinking alcohol which was regarded in corporal law are observed to constitute integrity both as they cause liability to each other and are all related with recreation. In addition to being the actions banned by Islamic Law, they also drew the reaction of the society. In this reaction, individuals’ fear of being seen to be keeping quiet about these offences committed in the neighbourhood as well as the religious and moral worries played important roles. On adultery, prostitution and consuming alcohol, there are complementary judgements in both ecclesiastical and customary law with regards to occurrence, proving and punishment. When these judgements and court registries are compared, it is observable that not always is this theory valid and did the course proceed in the same way. Accordingly, sometimes inhabitants are observed to change the direction of prosecution process directly with their statements and moreover they are also seen to get involved in the process as a direct source of law.In this study, incidents of adultery, prostitution and alcohol incidents devolved to the court of Konya is going to be analyzed based upon the Konya Şer’iyye Registers generated in between 1650 and 1750 years. In this process, questions about how and where these incidents took place, which section of the society the criminals were from, how they were taken to the court, how the prosecution process went on, what the punishments were and what the reactions of the society were to these incidents are all going to be answered.
    Keywords: Alcohol, Adultery, Prostitution, Konya, Ä°slamic Law
    JEL: K36 K11
    Date: 2014–06
  42. By: Ramazan KIRAC (Selcuk University); Yunus Emre OZTURK (Selcuk University); Cetin Bebe (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: To evaluate the effect of the JCI quality document on the potential of patients coming from abroad in these cope of health tourism from the point of view of administratorsImportance: Studies examining the effects of JCI on health tourism are limited, the geographical position of our country is suitable for tourism, and there are new policies in the health sector. For these reasons we were motivated to conduct this study. The opinions of 60 administrators working in different positions in Group 4 A, JCI certificated hospitals on the Anatolian side of Istanbul were evaluated. The study was carried out over two months between February and March. For the reliability of collecting instruments, the value of Cronbach alpha was calculated and found to be 0.93. Thus, the survey had internal consistency. Validity analyses were conducted. It was established that the data were compatible with normal distributions, and parametric significance tests were used. 80% of those participating in the study were females and 20% males. 30% were in the 20 -29 age group; 53% between 30 -39; and 16.7% between 40-49. 65% were married. 36.7% had Bachelor’s degrees; 25% had tertiary training; 20% had postgraduate degrees; and 18.3% were high school graduates. 40 % had 1-5 years of service in the institute, 36.7 %, 6 - 10 years; 16.7%, less than one year; and 6.7%, more than 10 years. 43.3 % worked as middle level managers; 36.7 as middle level managers and 20% as top level managers. There is an inconclusive attitude about whether JCI is cost effective. In terms of JCI to the cost effectiveness, most administrators were undecided. The managers remained uncertain about whether better communication would be made between health professionals and the patients and their families and whether patients and their families would participate in all processes. Administrators were undecided about time loss occurring in the course of patient care.Administrators agreed with the view that JCI provided an image of international reliability and competitiveness.
    Keywords: JCI, Health Tourism, Quality, Accreditation, Hospital Accreditation, Administrator
    JEL: M10 I12 I19
    Date: 2014–06
  43. By: Ziyana Al Hinai (The British University in Dubai); Dr. Arun Bajracharya (The British University in Dubai)
    Abstract: Job satisfaction of academic staff in Higher Education Institute (HEI) is important because it influences their motivation and performance that are so very influential in delivering quality education services. This research aims to explore the factors that affect job satisfaction of academic staff on the basis of a study in a HEI in the Sultanate of Oman. In the process of exploring the factors, first a wide range of the literature were reviewed to identify the most common factors that affect job satisfaction of academic staff. It was followed by interviews of selected six academic staff members in a College in the HEI in Oman. The literature review and the interview data analysis revealed six factors that would affect job satisfaction of academics: Remuneration and development, Management support, Students, Colleagues, Workload, and Status of job. A quantitative questionnaire survey was then conducted in the same university to study the influence of the six factors on job satisfaction of academic staff. From the analysis of the survey data it was found that all the six factors were positively associated with job satisfaction. Among them the work load was most strongly associated with job satisfaction followed by the perception about colleagues, status of job, management support, and remuneration and development. The perception about students was found to be relatively weakly associated with job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, academic staff, higher education institute, The Sultanate of Oman
    Date: 2014–10
  44. By: Hüseyin MuÅŸmal (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: The study that called as the incidents of violance to women and abortion according to court records of Konya at the first half of XVIII. Century, in general scale aims to investigate view of man to woman in familiy in Ottoman Public. Besides, it targets determination of difference of man and woman’s attitutes and behaviors in the scale of case that was seen in court records particularly in Konya.As unspoken topic, there are cases that pegnant women demanded punishment or purchase Money when they aborted or gave prematüre birth after argument and beating. Particularly this study aims to investigate determination of historical bound of leaning about violance to woman; and in generally, aims to investigate view of man to woman in example of Konya public in Konya city which was one of the biggest city of Anatolia in Ottoman Empire era an deven now is between the biggest cities of Republic of Türkiye and is known with conservative side, by using these cases.
    Keywords: Woman / Konya / Ottoman
    Date: 2014–06
    Abstract: Pharmacists are people who sell instant drugs prescribed by doctors to customer prepare other necessary drugs and conduct research regarding the development and analyses of drugs in laboratories.Their education and experience on health issues and their accessibility make them an important actor in healthcare and patients generally prefer them to the other health organizations .In addition being the first and the last health workers consulted by patients make them a vital part of healthcare system.In this study ,the public and private pharmacists operating in the province of Erzurum is examined in terms of work stress,ergonomics,job satisfaction an performance .According to the data obtained from 13.regional chamber of pharmacist,there are 115 private and 18 public pharmacists operating in city center and other districs of Erzurum.In this study,a total of 133 pharmacists were surveyed.The data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0 software and the results were discussed.
    Keywords: ergonomics, job satisfaction, job performance
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2014–10
  46. By: rahima Houalef (Faculty of economy & management - university of Tlemcen - ALGERIA);
    Abstract: The last decades has witnessed a revolutionary array in health care dimensions. Terms like 'Total Quality Management', 'ISO-9000', 'Continuous Quality Management', 'Reengineering', 'Benchmarking' and ‘Accreditation' have embraced and got incorporated in the delivery of health care services.Health Care Systems throughout the world are undergoing significant changes. These changes are due to acknowledgment of either medical errors or system errors. Other factors responsible for these changes include: Legal obligation for quality management in some countries, assessment of service quality provision, the sophistication of medical care and increasing costs of health care.This study attempted to examine the extent to which MUSTAPHA DAMERJI Hospital in Algeria, as a case study, implemented TQM constructs. The study also aimed at investigating if there were significant differences in the respondents` perception on TQM implementation due to demographic variables (gender, age, education, and years of experience). For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to (280) employees. Number of (250) questionnaires were returned which comprises 89.28% of the target sample.The study made some recommendations regarding TQM implementation that would assist management of hospitals to increase their organizational performance and effectiveness.
    Keywords: Total Quality Management (TQM); TQM Factors. Government Hospitals. Factor Analysis.
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2014–10
  47. By: Salah Al-Ali (College of technological Studies)
    Abstract: Recently, there is a considerable gap between what is learned in the classroom and the real life context of vocational and technical students’ present and future workplace. This problem mostly occur in developing countries where lecturers in vocational and technical education have limited knowledge and experience of the real practice of industry and thus their experience is limited within the bounders on their institutions. This paper examine whether lecturers take into consideration those skills mostly needed by industry in their classes. In other words, do lecturers know the skills needed for today’s workplace? The study also examines the degree of industrialist’s involvement with vocational and technical lecturers in determining the types of knowledge, skills and attitudes that need to be stressed in the classroom. The study would consists of: a review of the related literature; a questionnaire that would be distributed to a sample of lecturers at the College of Technological Studies; Personal interviews with the head of the department; dean of industrial liaison offices; and the department trainee’s direct supervisors in local industry. This paper would conclude that lecturers must emphasis and develop the mostly needed knowledge, skills and attitudes by industries in their classes, otherwise industries would heavily depend on expatriates for years to come.
    Keywords: Vocational and technical education, Education and Industry, education and training
    JEL: A00 I29 I23
    Date: 2014–10

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