nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
ninety-one papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Human Rights in Foreign Policy: The Case of Turkey By Nezir Akyesilmen
  2. US-Iranian Rapprochement -Motives and Implications By Amin Ali Alazzam
  3. A Comparing Analysis of Gender Equality in Scandinavian States and Turkey By Özlem Altunsu Sönmez; Alper Sönmez
  4. The Effects of Oil Price on Turkish Economic Growth By AyÅŸen Edirneligil; Mehmet Mucuk
  6. Turkey: From Torn Country to Pivotal Country By Erdem Ozluk
  7. Human Development and Gender Equality Performance Analysis of Middle Eastern and North African Countries with Special reference to Turkey By Hakan Mihci
  8. The Effect of Current Account Deficit on Economic Growth: The Case of Turkey By Ä°brahim Erem Åžahin; Mehmet Mucuk
  9. Turkish Foreign Policy and the Middle East: New Challenges & New Approaches By Arif Behiç Özcan; KürÅŸat Kan; Engin Kılıçarslan
  11. Difficulties with Students with Low Language Difficulties Face in Language Learning Process: Turkey Case By Seyda Sari
  13. Portfolio Investments and Asset Prices Relationship in Turkey By Bilge Bakin; Gozde Gurgun
  14. An Analysis of the World Market for Tobacco Production and International Trade and Its Importance for Turkey By Alper Sönmez
  15. Development Efforts by Modern Turkey: The Report of Moscow Ambassador (1937) By Çağatay Benhür
  16. The Nature of Shocks to Turkish exchange rates: what panel approach says? By Ceyhun Can Ozcan; Ahmet Sahbaz; Ugur Adıguzel; Saban Nazlioglu
  17. The Ongoing Stagnation in EU-Turkey Relations By Engin Kılıçarslan; Arif Behiç Özcan; KürÅŸat Kan
  19. Promoting Sustainable Development: A case study between Turkey and Czech Republic By Bilal Özel; Ahmet Ay; Mustafa Gerçeker
  20. Estimation of the Distribution of Remaning Life Time of the People in Turkey By Mehmet Fedai KAYA; Muslu Kazım KÖREZ; Süleyman DÜNDAR
  22. In recent years, an analysis of Turkey's social and economic development By Ali Acar
  23. Valuing the Effects of Air and Noise Pollution on Health Status in Turkey By Ozdamar, Oznur; Giovanis, Eleftherios
  24. Using Grey Relational Analysis to Determine the Financial Performance of Turkish Football Clubs By Ä°lker Sakinc
  25. Performance Analysis of Banks in Turkey Using CAMEL Approach By Dr. Mikail Altan; Habib Yusufazari; Aykut Bedük
  27. Market Share Analysis of Mobile Operators in Turkey By Hulisi Öğüt; Asunur Cezar; Merve Guven
  31. The Algerian political and economical reforms After the “Arab Spring†By Keltouma BOUFATAH
  32. Women’s Refuges as a Lifebuoy for Women Exposed to Domestic Violence in Turkey By Esra Banu Sipahi; Erhan Örselli
  33. Thailand vs. Egypt: reflections on the concept of ‘electoral dictatorship’ By Kawee Jarach; Mark Speece
  34. Analysis of the Political Discourses of the Ruling and Opposition Parties Regarding the New Regulations in the Internet Law in Turkey By Banu Terkan; Nurullah Terkan
  35. Competitive Conditions in the Turkish Banking Systems By Taner SEKMEN; Ömer AKKUÅž; Ä°lyas ÅžIKLAR
  37. Effects of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth in Turkey: An Empirical Analysis By Mustafa Gerçeker; Bilal Özel; Ahmet Ay
  39. The Criticism Directed to the Case Preparation Panel in Economic Courts in Egypt By Mohamed Abdelnaby Elsayed Ghanem
  41. The Determination of the Satisfaction Levels of the Society about Family Medicine System By Necmettin CihangiroÄŸlu; Musa Ozata
  42. Effectiveness of Monetary Policy In Economies in Democratic Transition: Evidence from Tunisia By Guizani, Brahim
  43. Mobile Crowdsourcing Technology Acceptance and Use In the Crises Management of Arab Spring Societies By Saad Yaseen
  44. Consumers´ Information Search Behavior on Wholesome Nutrition and their Attitudes towards Health Products; A Field Study from Eskisehir, Turkey By Nurcan Turan; Nuri Calik
  45. Political Power, Resistance and Squares By Emek Bayrak; Makbule Åžiriner Önver
  46. The Necessity and Functionality of Information Management Safety: A Case Analysis in Turkey Perspective By Hacer Tugba Eroglu; Hayriye Sagir;
  47. Alternative Track of Energy in Egypt By yasmine Gharieb; Zeinab Ibrahim
  48. Monetary Policy Responses to Foreign Financial Market Shocks: Application of a Modified Open-Economy Taylor Rule By Parinaz Ezzati
  49. Risk Assessments for Construction projects in the KSA By Abdulmohsen Alrashed; Ibrahim Alrashed
  50. The Use of Social Media as a Means of Political Communication: Comparision of AKP and CHP’s Facebook Comments in the Local Elections of 30 March 2014 By Emine Kılıçaslan; Hale Bozkurt
  52. Linguistic Backgound of Misconceptions on Mass and Weight By Ramazan Çeken
  53. The Content of health News and Programs in Television in Turkey By Abdullah Kocak
  55. Forecasting The Runoff Data Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) By Alpaslan YARAR; Mustafa ONÜÇYILDIZ; Nuri PEKÇETİN
  56. Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing among Service Employees By Canan Nur Karabey
  58. Costs of trade and self-selection into exporting and importing: The case of Turkish manufacturing firms By Dalgic, Basak; Fazlioglu, Burcu; Gasiorek, Michael
  59. Performance Measurment of State-Owned Banks in Turkish Banking Sector with Grey Relational Analysis Method By S. Öznur Sakinc
  61. Balassa–Samuelson Effect in Iran By Saleh Ghavidel; Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh; Hamideh Radfar
  62. Destructive Leadership, Psychological Capital and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A structural Equation Modelling By Sabiha Isci; Engin KaradaÄŸ
  63. Quality Function Deployment Approach to Evaluate Supply Chains Strategies in Turkish Automotive Industry By Zeki Ayag
  64. Food Waste in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Need for Extension Education Programs to Increase Public Awareness By KHODRAN AL-ZAHRANI; MIRZA BAIG
  65. Organizational Commitment and Determinants of the Commitment in the context of Changing Working Conditions: Turkey Example* By Selda TASDEMIR AFSAR
  66. Analyzing patterns of spatial distribution for girls' high schools in districts of Burydah city – Saudi Arabia By Mohammed Aldagheiri;
  67. Saudi High School Teachers – Recipients, Agents or Partners in Implementation of Saudi Education Reforms? A Case Study Exploring Saudi High School Teachers’ Perceptions. By Alhasan Allamnakarah
  68. “Teaching intercultural communication through the multicultural contact zone in the UAE†By Zsuzsanna Mikecz Munday
  71. Assessing mathematics teachers’ practices based on a Quality Teaching framework By Khalid Alsharif
  72. Effective Use of Lesson Plans to Enhance Education in U.S. and Turkish Kindergarten thru 12th Grade Public School System: A Comparative Study By Volkan Cicek; Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hidayet Tok
  73. Circumstances of the Usage of Technological Tools in History Education in Elementary Level By Emine Özel
  74. Public spending on education and Economic Growth in Algeria: Causality Test By Yousra Mekdad; Aziz Dahmani; Monir Louadj
  75. Job Embeddedness in Hospitality Industry: An Empirical Study in Alanya By Boran Toker; Sedat Çelik
  76. Non-Competitive Potential in the Iranian Electricity Market By Ali Nazemi; Anahita Farsaee
  77. Evaluation of Activities Related to Beautify, Maintenance and Repair of School and Its Environment within the Scope of Community Service Implementations* By Zühal Çubukçu; AyÅŸe Dönmez; Elif Aydoğdu-Özoğlu; Zeynep Akın-Demircan
  78. Assessment of the public's perceptions about the transport services in Oman By Abdelaziz Mahrez; Sami Said Al Wahibi
  79. Sttock Market Behavoir: A Fractal Analysis of Saudi Stock Exchange By Shekar Shetty; Dhari AlAbdulhadi; Mansour AlShamali
  80. The Representation of Arabic Culture in TESOL/TEIL By Tariq Elyas
  81. Improving Saudi Technical College students Skills in Accounting Courses By Fahad Alamr
  82. Road Traffic Accidents in Kuwait (Triangulation Method Study) By Amer Alsaleh
  83. The Responsibility to Protect and Libya Intervention By Serdar Ornek;
  84. The Current Ideologies in ELT Programme in CAS- Rustaq and Its Implications By Munira Al-Siyabi; Dalal Al-Shekaili
  85. The impact of Human Capital Management on the Innovativeness of research Center: The Case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria By Samah SOULEH
  86. A Critical Reading of Filipino Transnationalism in Dubai By Neslihan Demirtas Milz
  87. Distribution of births by Anatolian Merino Sheep according to time of day By Ali Karabacak; Ugur Zulkadir
  88. Identification of Electronic Banking Acceptance Components in Branches of Keshavarzi Bank of Guilan Province (Northern of Iran) By Mohammad Taleghani
  89. Clusters and SMEs: An opportunity to be taken: Algerian Experience By Cherroun Reguia
  90. Integrative Enclave: When Israeli Policy Makers encounter Ultra-Orthodox Society By Gilad Malach
  91. An Exploratory Study of The Level of Sophistication of Management Accounting Practices (MAPs) in Manufacturing Companies Libya By Nassr Saleh Mohamad Ahmad; Abdulghani Leftesi

  1. By: Nezir Akyesilmen (Selcuk University, Department of International Relations)
    Abstract: This study argues that since the transition to democracy Turkey's foreign policy has gradually shifted from a traditional realpolitic understanding , to human rights understanding, as well as accepting international and regional patrolling of its domestic human rights situation. Turkey has traditionally been viewed human rights with suspicious as a means for foreign intervention in domestic affairs. However, as Turkey has democratized the engagement with human rights has increased. The EU membership process, zero problems with neigbours, pecae process regarding the Kurdish question, legal and political reforms in recent years and active foreign policy in the Middle-east are some examples of the ehgagements. However, Turkey's foreign policy regarding human rights remains unclear with some contradictions. This is because of some internal and external factors, including: continuing human rights violations; slowing down of democratization process; Arab spring in recent years etc. Hence more, Turkey has been quite selective in applying human rights in foreign policy.
    Keywords: Human Rights, Foreign Policy, Turkey
    JEL: H70 D70 D63
    Date: 2014–10
  2. By: Amin Ali Alazzam (Al al-Bayt University- Bayt Al-Hekmah (House of Wisdom))
    Abstract: Since Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution, several attempts to improve Iranian-American relations have been made, but failed. However, the present efforts such relations, since Hassan Rouhani assumed office on August 3, 2013, appear to be far more serious. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is threefold. First, it explains the elements of rapprochement in the US-Iranian relations since Rouhani came to power in 2013. Second, it clarifies the internal, regional and international developments that have influenced and shaped the relations between the two countries. Third, it aims at discussing the implications of a U.S.-Iran rapprochement for the Middle East.The study reveals that US-Iran relations are experiencing fundamental and dramatic changes started by rounds of negotiations about the Iran's nuclear programme. As it is known in politics, there are no permanent friends or foes, only permanent interests. Accordingly, Iranian and US foreign policy has been and will continue to be based on permanent interests rather than permanent friends or foes. As a result, the study shows that there are three major factors that have shaped the course of relations between Iran and USA. The first factor is the new approach of the Iranian and US leaders which called to dialogue and openness to settle outstanding issues, ending hostilities and restoring relations on an equitable basis for mutual benefits. The second issue is geopolitics that represented by the Iraq crisis. The one common interest of the regimes in US and Iran is their need for clearing up the shambles in Iraq and to quell the al Qaeda-inspired Islamic State of Iraq and Syria sweeping northern Iraq. The last major factor related to the convergence of the American and Iranian project in managing the area and their ambitions in the Arab region, particularly after the Arab spring results. US and Iran found that Arab spring in different countries in the Middle East (such as Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Syria) has led to rise (anti Iranian and anti-American Islamists). Moreover, Arab spring has shown the limits of American and Iranian power in the Middle East, which pushed both sides to adopt a new policy toward each other to get as much of the pie as possible.Based on this study, it can be concluded that, although US and Iran are making approaches towards each other by slow steps, but their rapprochement might change the political map in the Middle East as a whole
    Keywords: Rapprochement, US-Iranian relations,mutual benefits, Middle East.
    JEL: H73
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Özlem Altunsu Sönmez (Selcuk University); Alper Sönmez (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the gender equality in four Scandinavian social democratic welfare states (Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Sweden) and Turkey by using a brief literature survey. Comparing gender equality between Scandinavian countries and Turkey is chosen because of distinct feature of gender egalitarian policies of former countries. There are a number of studies about gender equality in the literature, however the literature comparing of Turkey and Scandinavian has not been encountered, and therefore this paper aims to fill a gap in this area. For this aim, we compare Turkey with these countries in order to indicate Turkish case about gender equality. This paper is constituted from three main parts. The first one is about gender and welfare state theories, the second one is about the policies of Scandinavian countries and the third one is about Turkey.
    Keywords: gender, welfare states, Scandinavian countries, Turkey
    JEL: D63 I38 P35
    Date: 2014–10
  4. By: AyÅŸen Edirneligil (Selcuk University); Mehmet Mucuk (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Although the oil price is determined by demand and supply, it is also affected by lots of variables such as economic, political and technical conditions. On the other hand, fluctuations in oil price have also effect on macroeconomic stability. Oil price has an important role in Turkey, since Turkey is a country that has external dependency in energy sources. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of oil prices on Turkish economic growth. In this respect, the relationship between variables will be analyzed by using annual data between the years 1980-2013. For analyzing variables, it will be used Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse-Response Function, and Variance Decomposition tests.
    Keywords: Oil price, Economic growth, Turkish Economy
    JEL: A10 E00 E21
    Date: 2014–10
  5. By: Adem Öğüt (Selcuk University); Mehmet Mucuk (Selcuk University); Mustafa Tahir Demirsel (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Foreign direct investment has an important role for developing countries. This study aims to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment on export in Turkey over the period of 1992:01-2014:05. The Johansen cointegration, impulse response functions and variance decomposition techniques are used in order to analyse the causal relationship between foreign direct investment and Turkish export. According to obtained findings there is a relationship between these variables in long term. In other words, foreign direct investment and export are cointegrated. Impulse response functions showed that Turkish export reacts positively to shocks in foreign direct investment. Empirical findings suggest that export is affected by foreign direct investment.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Turkish Export, Turkish Economy
    JEL: A10 F00 F21
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Erdem Ozluk (Selcuk University, Department of International Relations)
    Abstract: The studies on Turkish Foreign Policy have recently increased. There are three main reasons of this increase: The first one is the relative political and economic stability stemming from single party government in Turkey since 2002. This factor has shaped the making and implementation of the Turkey’s foreign policy. Second one is the regional changes in Iran, Syria, Iraq and the effects of the so-called Arab Spring. The last reason is the leadership skills which are also called as Erdogan/Davutoglu factor. These three factors have led to some changes in the traditional patterns of Turkish foreign policy.This study deals with how to analyse these changes. Many concepts have been used to identify the main determinants of Turkish foreign policy and determine the real position of Turkey in the international system. Zero problem, strategic depth, proactive diplomacy, rhythmic diplomacy, pivotal country are among these determinants. However, there are some critiques that there is an axis shift in Turkish foreign policy. For about twenty years ago, Samuel Huntington, described Turkey as a “torn†country, which has been unable to reconcile its internal, cultural differences, and settle for a stable democracy unhampered by the temptations of authoritarianism. Today Turkey is believed to be a completely different country.This study also tries to show the real place of Turkey within divergent debates. Therefore firstly the traditional principals of Turkish foreign policy since the foundation of Turkey are to be analysed. Then the major changes in the last decade will be emphasised. In the last part, the pros and cons of the claims on the shift in Turkish foreign policy will be comparatively discussed.
    Keywords: Turkish Foreign Policy, Torn Country, Pivotal Country, Strategic Depth, Zero Problems
    JEL: F50
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Hakan Mihci (Hacettepe University)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold: The first concentrates on the very recent development performance of two country groups, namely Middle Eastern and North African countries, and the second focuses on Turkey in an attempt to determine the position of the country in the context of human development.To reach the above mentioned aims, very simple methods are followed: Descriptive statistical analysis is used and existing data is assessed in a comparative way to be more specific about the position of Turkey in her path of human development. The analysis period is restricted with the last five years. The main argument to be tested throughout the current study can be formulated in the following way: Although Westernization and secularization attempts of the country have prevailed since the establishment of the Republican period, recent human development outcome of the Turkish economy seems to coincide with those of Middle Eastern and North African countries where Arab and Islamic cultures dominate socio-economic life rather than highly developed European countries. To put differently, one may suggest that the development path of Turkey considerably deviates from the European trends not only in terms of economic performance but also with respect to societal, cultural and in particular with gender-based developments.An additional argument can be associated with the fact that certain resource-rich but relatively underdeveloped countries included in the sample of the current study provides us an appropriate ground to understand better the need to construct human development index in considering development level of the countries not via solely relying on the indicators biasing the material well-being of the countries such as absolute level of income or per capita GDP and ignoring the rest but also through concerning with the humanitarian aspect of development like looking at the achievements associated with education, healthcare, gender equality, social participation and so on. In the light of this preliminary information, the organization of the paper can be stated as follows: Next section reviews the origins and the emergence of the human development index. Third section deals with descriptive statistical analysis of the main human development indicators of the Middle Eastern and North African countries especially focusing on the position of Turkey, and final section evaluates the findings alongside with the main arguments of the paper.
    Keywords: Development, Human Development, Middle East, North Africa, Gender Equality, Turkey
    JEL: O10 O15
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: Ä°brahim Erem Åžahin (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Mehmet Mucuk (SELCUK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: Current account deficit ise a measurement of a country’s trade in which the value of goods and services it imports exceeds the value of goods and services it exports. Current account deficit has an important role on economic growth for developing countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between economic growth and current account deficit for Turkey using time series analysis. For this purpose, Gross Domestic Product and Current Account Deficit data of Turkey between the quarterly data including 2002-2013 were used. Empirical findings show that current account deficit affect economic growth negatively for Turkish economy.
    Keywords: Current Account Deficit; Economic Growth; Time Series Analysis; Turkish Economy
    JEL: A19 F40 F43
    Date: 2014–07
  9. By: Arif Behiç Özcan (Selcuk University); KürÅŸat Kan (Selcuk University); Engin Kılıçarslan (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: In the post-cold war era, Turkey has been attempting to redefine its place in the international system. Middle East plays a central role for Turkey in this context in terms of politics, economy, security and history. Almost every crisis or event in the region influences Turkey in a direct or indirect way. Political authorities in Turkey generally cannot remain indifferent to the developments in the region although the approaches may change from time to time. The ruling AKP, which is in office for about twelve years, has a “proactive†foreign policy. Turkish Foreign Policy has been based on some other discourses such as “normalization of history†and “civilization†which increase the capabilities of Turkey to struggle against political and security problems in Middle East. However, the IS (so-called Islamic State) terrorism, erupted in Iraq and Syria, has dramatically decreased the capabilities of Turkey. Especially during the hostage crisis in Mosul, Turkey’s choosy and reluctant declarations was pointed out by all the world. After the hostage crisis ended up, Turkey took a deep breath and now Turkey may imply more effective policies against the challenges from the region such as Syrian Civil War or the IS. The changes in Turkish political life in recent times may also influence its foreign policy. Ahmet Davutoglu, who is believed to have constructed the intellectual background of Turkish foreign policy, has become the new prime minister. His government supports international initiatives against the problems of the region and that’s why Turkey has clearly supported the US attack on the IS. The inception of negotiations between the United Kingdom and Iran on terrorism in the region and the IS threat should be seen as an important step in supporting Turkey’s approach. In this study, after making a general evaluation of the recent developments in the Middle East, the attitude of Turkish foreign policy against these developments will be discussed.
    Keywords: Turkish foreign policy, Middle East, IS, terrorism, hostage crisis
    JEL: F50
    Date: 2014–12
  10. By: Metin Aksoy (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: The generally accepted assertion that Turkey democracy has provided the period of progress and reach a point to overcome chronic problems during AK Party Government. So, this assertion has become a tautology. However, the way of struts of the claims of those who adopt this view, it is the main reason of the obstruction of the social sciences in Turkey. Because of the succession of any social formation depends on the ability to solve the crisis while by referring to Turkey’s past action of the AK Party Government, managing the way, validating the approach to issues, the assessment made in this regard is the beginning unfounded leave. In the other words; in the historical process isn’t to provide any progress while it will create an anomaly contrary to the nature of things, the assessment of the post-2002 period of Turkey by the referring single-party period which has impact on social and political environment, it comes to mean that this is an aim to become empty of allegations that democracy of Turkey has improved. Beginning from this point; the Gezi Park demonstrations which had great impact on Western Media rather than Turkey media, this is sustainable parameter for evaluating Turkey’s democracy. In spite of the maintained debate on initiation, development, participating in demonstration and actions of the demonstrators political stance on style, Gezi Park is finally faced crisis of AK Party Government. Therefore, the demonstrations and ways to solve problem of Turkish Government on mentioned crisis, whether it will provide an solution over problematic or not.
    Keywords: Democracy, Turkey, Western
    JEL: F59
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Seyda Sari (SELCUK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: There are many students in Turkey having some problems in learning English as a second language in schools and language centres. Nowadays the term’ English language learning difficulty’ is very important because English language is the communication language in each field. This difficulty is not realised only now it was already present years ago but now because of the educational demands these difficulties are becoming more and more foreground (Garcia, 2000). In addition, there are very limited researches on difficulties which children face in their schools in Turkey. Therefore this research aims to present what kind of difficulties students face during teaching-learning language process in Turkey. These difficulties are analysed in terms of students, families, teachers, head teachers and consultants. Semi-structured interview technique is used and to gain the data content-analysis technique is used.
    Keywords: English Language, Learning difficulties, learning English as a second language, teaching English as a foreign language,
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Gökçe Altınel (Selcuk University); Murat Tumay (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: This study aims to explore matters about procedures followed up at the stages of national case law Tuncer Gunes v Turkey dated September 2013 of ECHR and compare the national and international approaches. We aim to look at the matter before it was carried on to European Court of Human Rights and be analyze the stages of court of appeals and the supporting decisions and the effects on Turkish Laws. Tuncer Gunes lawsuit was decreed upon the request of lawsuit filed by the woman’s demand for using her maiden’s surname and it is the last of many lawsuits ruled by the court. By means of this study, we will on one hand analyze the applicable Turkish law arrangements in this regard and on the other hand, we will analyze the proceedings of European Court of Human Rights on the other hand. We will also have the opportunity to analyze discourses within domestic law regarding the applications for use of a woman’s maiden’s surname including Turkish public, domestic law, non government organizations and similar fields and the discourses brought forward starting from the first applications made. This is because, under the domestic law, the proceedings which started in 1995 were followed by Unal Tekeli vs. Turkey case filed before European Court of Human Rights which was filed, then adjudicated in 2004 and from 1995 until recently, it enabled means to Turkish courts and the public to discuss this matter including different opinions and suggestions of solution. During this process, the stage of involving the legislative packages being submitted before the parliament were on the agenda and different decisions were adopted which were different from the previous decisions. Furthermore the doctrinal matters were also considered and many articles analyzed the subject and from the solutions envisaged by Turkish laws.
    Keywords: Maiden’s name, Woman’s Surname, Equality among the
    JEL: K36
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Bilge Bakin (Yildirim Beyazit University, Business School, Department of Banking and Finance); Gozde Gurgun (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the linkage between portfolio investments and asset prices in Turkey for the period of September 2008-December 2013. The accommodative policies implemented in advanced economies in order to cope with the global crisis and fragilities in the global financial system have led to considerable volatility in capital flows. Capital flows towards emerging economies have been volatile, particularly to those with large external financing needs such as Turkey. This situation has created risk of macroeconomic and financial instability in these economies. Accordingly, this paper examines the effects of portfolio investments on the main financial assets such as equity market, exchange rate and interest rates in Turkey. Toda and Yamamoto (1995) method and generalized impulse response analysis have been utilized in this study. It is found that portfolio investments have a considerable and steady impact on the exchange rate. However, severe impacts of portfolio flows are not observed on the stock market and interest rates in the long run.
    Keywords: Capital Flows, Portfolio Investments, Asset Prices, Turkey
    JEL: E44 F30 F40
    Date: 2014–06
  14. By: Alper Sönmez (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: This research will focus on the analysis of the world market for tobacco and its importance for Turkey covering the years 1990-2004 before the privatization of TEKEL. The reason for choosing specifically tobacco market is the importance of it for the specified years in Turkey. In these periods, as we will see in the analysis, Turkey was achieved to be the fifth largest tobacco producer and sixth largest tobacco exporter in the world. In addition, she was the world's leader in oriental tobacco production and exports. Although Turkey was a significant producer and exporter of oriental tobacco, the monetary value of tobacco imports and exports fluctuated over since 1960s and the composition of them had changed over the years. On the other hand, while oriental tobacco demand was decreasing in World and Turkey, other tobacco and cigarette imports had been growing considerably in Turkey. Turkey strategically placed between Europe and Asia was understandably seen as a key market by tobacco companies with increasing liberalization. However, various global issues such as serious economic problems in key markets in Asia and the former Soviet Union, decreases in support policies of the governments for the tobacco production with increasing liberalization in the World, decreasing demand of cigarettes especially in developed countries, and changes in politics of the countries on tobacco due to its negative effects on health have led to a serious drop in tobacco-cigarette production and consumption in the World, and therefore in Turkey. To sum up, these factors have negatively affected Turkey’s tobacco production and policies for the later years as foregone conclusion.
    Keywords: Tobacco Production, Tobacco Export,Tobacco International Trade, Turkey
    JEL: L66 Q17 F10
    Date: 2014–10
  15. By: Çağatay Benhür (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: In historical process, the best period in Turkish- Russian relations was between the years 1917 and 1939. The good affair between the two countries was began with the mutual assistances on the eve of independence wars after newly established regimes in both countries. It would take another turn due to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s dead in 1938, and due to World War Two started in 1939 which Soviet Union was entered into the conflicts in 1941. In the period between the years 1935 and 1939, which the relations of Turkey and Soviet Union was at the highest level, Zeki Apaydın, who was the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow, sent a report to Ankara in 1937. He attached a wide appendix about the animal husbandry and the product storage techniques which composed of the information, the photographs and the drawings about new tech farm equipment in Soviet Union to his report. Turkish ambassador thought that these documents would be helpful in his country. In this article, Turkish-Soviet affairs will be handle in the frame of the report which was sent by Ambassador Zeki Apaydın to his government.
    Keywords: Zeki Apaydın / Turkish Soviet Relations / Ambassador
    Date: 2014–06
  16. By: Ceyhun Can Ozcan (Necmettin Erbakan University); Ahmet Sahbaz (Gaziantep University); Ugur Adıguzel (Cumhuriyet University,); Saban Nazlioglu (Pamukkale University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the behavior of Turkish exchange rates within the context of purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis, -employing ten Turkish real exchange rates during January 2002-May 2012-, by means of recent developments in panel unit root testing procedures. When we account for nonlinearity, smooth structural shifts, and cross-section dependency, the empirical analysis supports that PPP hypothesis is valid for Eurozone and European countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom), while it does not hold for non-European trading partners (Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and USA). From the empirical results, we can conclude that PPP hypothesis is hold in the countries which have the free trade agreement, while it is violated in the countries in which there are trade barriers and greater distance. The findings therefore provide important policy implications for Turkey about determining equilibrium exchange rates with Eurozone and other European Union countries.
    Keywords: Purchasing power parity, Turkey, panel unit root
    JEL: C23 F31
    Date: 2014–07
  17. By: Engin Kılıçarslan (Selcuk University); Arif Behiç Özcan (Selcuk University); KürÅŸat Kan (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Since its inception in 1923, Turkey’s foreign policy has been characterised by a number of divergent orientations. Western orientation however, especially following the Second World War, has been a primary foreign policy priority for Turkey. Particularly, European Union (then EEC) membership has been at the very core of this priority. Despite no major change in this attitude over the years, some concerns have been raised that Turkey has begun to change its foreign policy in the last decade. Turkey has been charged with “Axis Shiftâ€, which means that it has shifted its foreign policy towards the East from the West.However, this might not be the case in the context of EU-Turkey relations. Both parts have strong political and economic ties with each other. Turkey has become a candidate country for EU membership at the Helsinki European Council in 1999. Throughout the early 2000s, many large-scale democratic reforms were launched to meet the requirements of the EU membership and the accession negotiations started in 2005. Nonetheless, today it has to be admitted that the pace of the accession talks has been slower than even expected. As of October 2014, just 14 (over 35) negotiation chapters have been opened so far in the accession process and only one of them was closed provisionally.After making a brief evaluation of the current status of the negotiations, this study will try to examine the reasons behind the loss of motivation of both sides towards the Turkey’s EU bid. The major changes on the parties’ attitude, legal obstacles to Turkey’s accession and some expectations for the future of the relations will also be discussed.
    Keywords: Turkey, European Union, EU membership, negotiations
    JEL: F50
    Date: 2014–12
  18. By: Mehmet Mucuk (Selcuk University); Mustafa Tahir Demirsel (Selcuk University); Ä°brahim Erem Åžahin (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: With the globalization process, economic, commercial and technologic boundaries have become uncertain and in this way capital transfer has been possible between different countries. Capital transfers which is realized through short term foreign portfolio investment and foreign direct investment are very important especially for the countries of which national savings are inadequate. This study examines the long run relationship between foreign portfolio investment and economic growth for Turkish economy over the period 1990-2012 within framework of cointegration. The cointegration test findings indicate that there is no relationship between these variables in the long run. According to this result, foreign portfolio investments should not only support consumption but also should be used in more productive areas.
    Keywords: Foreign portfolio investments, Economic growth, Turkish economy, Cointegration
    JEL: A10 E00 F30
    Date: 2014–10
  19. By: Bilal Özel (Selcuk University); Ahmet Ay (Selcuk University); Mustafa Gerçeker (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Throughout human history, unlimited resources were accepted. This unlimited acceptance with a growing population has led to the depletion of resources. This diminishing resource to be transferred to future generations with the aim of providing sustainable development concept has been developed. Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development is discussed in almost every area. Basically, economic, environmental and social areas are being studied. Notably the United Nations; All international organizations have set goals by working in this area. The studies for future generations basically include the same goals. In this study, the sustainable development between the Czech Republic and Turkey will be analyzed in comparative studies.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Czech Economy, Turkish Economy
    JEL: Q01 R11 O18
    Date: 2014–10
  20. By: Mehmet Fedai KAYA (Selcuk University, Science Faculty, Department of Statistics); Muslu Kazım KÖREZ (Selcuk University, Science Faculty, Department of Statistics); Süleyman DÜNDAR (Afyon Kocatepe University, Science Faculty, Department of Statistics)
    Abstract: The distribution of lifetime is one of the most important factors for the determination of the population volume. Knowing the population volume is of great importance for the future planning. For the future planning depending on the population volume, it is necessary to know the distribution of lifetime. Accordingly in this study, the distribution of lifetime of people in Turkey was examined. Obtained from the Turkish statistical Institute (TUIK) lifetime statistics of the years between 2004 and 2012 were used in this study. Data contain lifetime between 0-105 years. Lifetime distribution was found for each year. Furthermore the probability distribution was found that a person who was known to have lived at least c years might live more at least x years. Lifetime was modelled by three parameters Dagum distribution.
    Keywords: Lifetime Distribution, Dagum Distribution, Parameter, Estimation, Average Life
    JEL: C15 C13
    Date: 2014–06
  21. By: Fatih MANGIR (Selçuk University)
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy has taken a large part of the EU’s budget despite a steady decline of its share. This makes the member countries financially responsible for supporting and sustaining the CAP. The budget debate has played an important role in both the enlargement and the discussions on future reforms of the CAP. The CAP, one of the oldest and most controversial EU policies has been affected deeply by the political and economic integration of Europe. Upon possible accession to the EU, Turkey would need to transform its agricultural sector according to EU standards under the terms and conditions provided for in the Accession Treaty as determined by the outcome of the negotiations on Chapter 3 of the accession talks.EU enlargement and budgetary constraints will lead to some challenges for Turkey in the process of adapting its agricultural structure and policies in to the CAP. In this essay, we will assess and focus on the evolution of common agricultural policy within EU and its impacts of EU integration on Turkish Agriculture Sector
    Keywords: European Union, Common Agricultural Policy, CAP Reform, Turkey-EU Relations
    JEL: F15 A10
    Date: 2014–10
  22. By: Ali Acar (Selcuk University/Turkey)
    Abstract: Recording score improvements two years in a row, Turkey has achieved its highest economic freedom score ever in the 2014 Index. Deeper institutional reform to firmly establish the rule of law and improve regulatory efficiency will be developed to solidifying its transition to a more market-based economy.Turkey - Economic forecast summary (May 2014)In 2013 the capital market orientation, although tensions up interest rates, economic growth was positive. Despite the slowdown in private demand for credit and the Economic growth was achieved in the development. Although thesometimes political tension current deficit reduction current has occurredSustaining domestic and international confidence is crucial. Monetary, fiscal and financial policies should remain prudent. Improving fiscal transparency with timely general government accounts and comprehensive reporting on the activities of quasi-fiscal institutions is recommended. Disinflation is essential to preserve the bulk of recent competitiveness gains and to allowTurkey to benefit more from the projected recovery in GLOBAL TRADE . Increasing the share of foreign direct investment inflows by improving business conditions in the formal sector would help reduce external vulnerability.Social and Economic giant projects were implemented in the area. During this period, under the sea that connects the continents of Asia and Europe, was opened 150 years Marmaray dream. Turkey had met for the first time in this period by fast train Ankara-EskiÅŸehir, Ankara and Konya, Eskisehir-Konya High Speed Train (YHT) line after the last month in Istanbul-Ankara line put into service. Turkey thus more a dream realized. Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir in the construction of the highway project will connect started. Erdogan, the Prime Minister will be held during the 3rd Bosphorus Bridge will be one of the world's largest international airports in Istanbul 3rd foundations were laid Airport. To allow vehicles to pass under the Bosphorus Eurasia Tunnel construction began.
    Keywords: economic development,social development ,economic
    JEL: A13 A12
    Date: 2014–12
  23. By: Ozdamar, Oznur; Giovanis, Eleftherios
    Abstract: This study explores the determinants of health status in Turkey. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for reducing the air and noise pollution. The estimates are based on data from the annual Income and Living Conditions Survey (ILCS) in Turkey which took place in period 2006-2012. The effects of air and noise pollution on individuals’ health status and whether an individual suffers from chronic illness are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. This is the first study which examines the effects of noise and air pollution in Turkey using a great variety of econometric models as ordered Logit and binary Logit models for cross sectional data. Moreover using a pseudo panel data created based on age and region cohorts various panel data econometric approaches are followed. Regarding the health status the first model is the adapted Probit fixed effects, the “Blow-Up and Cluster” (BUC) and Ferrer-i-Carbonell and Frijters (FCF) estimators to account for intercept heterogeneity. The second approach is the Random Effects Generalized Logit Model to account for slope heterogeneity. Finally, two and three stage least squares instrumental variables approaches are followed using wind direction and regional complaint rates on air and noise pollution as instruments. Income and education are the most important determinants of health status. Based on the favoured estimates individuals who reported problems with air and noise pollution are willing to pay for air and noise quality improvement more by 20.00-21.00 Turkish Liras (TL) and 22.80-25.00 TL respectively than the individuals than did not report any complaint. Finally, the MWTP values of air and noise pollution effects on wages, working hours lost, house rents and expenses and moving dwelling are calculated.
    Keywords: Air pollution, Environmental valuation, Health Status, Noise, Pseudo-Panel
    JEL: I31 Q51 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2014–11
  24. By: Ä°lker Sakinc (Hitit University, Banking and Finance Department)
    Abstract: Football has become an important industry in the Turkey. A huge amount of sponsoring, advertising, betting funds into football and also television rights are sold for billions of Turkish Liras. In order to compete better in Turkish league, football clubs have done considerable investments and have aspired to be listed on the stock exchange. The pioneer was BeÅŸiktaÅŸ that went public in 2002. After that three football clubs were listed on Borsa Istanbul (BIST). The aim of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of four big (BeÅŸiktaÅŸ, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor) football clubs listed on BIST from 2009-2010 to 2012-2013. In order to evaluate these clubs, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used. GRA is widely used in various disciplines such as economics, engineering, sociology and finance. It can be used as a rating, classification and decision making technique to determine the important factors among those required for a system with a limited amount of data set.
    Keywords: Grey Relational Analysis, Financial Performance, Turkish Football Clubs, BIST.
    JEL: G14 L83
    Date: 2014–10
  25. By: Dr. Mikail Altan (Selçuk University İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi); Habib Yusufazari (Selcuk University Institute of Social Sciences); Aykut Bedük (Selçuk University İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi)
    Abstract: This study attempts to extensively investigate the performance and financial soundness of state-owned and private-owned banks in community of Turkish banks for the period 2005-12. We have chosen one of the most popular methods for measuring banking performance, the CAMEL approach, which is an acronym for the terms, Capital adequacy, Asset quality, Management quality, Earnings quality and Liquidity. This approach was initially adopted by the Federal Financial Institution Examination Council on November 13th, 1979; then adopted by the National Credit Union Administration in October 1987 in the U.S.A. After selecting the model, we have chosen three State-Owned banks and twelve Private-Owned banks from the Turkish banking sector, which represent more than seventy percent of the banking system in terms of total assets. For our purpose evaluating data for eight years, these data were analyzed by calculating 23 ratios related to CAMEL Model. The results indicated that on the overall performance, in the CAMEL rating model Ziraat Bank was in top position followed by Ak Bank and Vakif Bank. Tekstil Bank had the lowest rank in most positions. It was also observed that there is a significant difference between performance of state-owned and private-owned in Turkish banking system.
    Keywords: Banking, CAMEL Approach, Performance Analysis
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2014–12
  26. By: Osman AKANDERE (Necmettin Erbakan UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: The Turkish nation, State, and National cooperation with them in Fighting the invading Armenia and the Greeks against the East, South, and West had to battle fronts. All these fronts was taken prisoner as soldiers of the warring parties.Greek prisoners other than prisoners of war, in agreement with the national struggle to be released were provided. Greek warfare during the Lausanne Conference, while prisoners of Greece and Turkey as a mutual release of prisoners signed the contract for the garrison and the prisoner were created, ranging from the battalion are in.Both the number and the Greek prisoners of war have to Greece in the hands of the Turkish prisoners of war captured in the presence of senior generals and officers, plus a large number of civilian population is to take place, the parties to the issue of prisoners has led to pay attention. It's not just the Governments of the warring States, Greek and Turkish Red Crescent Red Cross to prisoners of war, he has worked closely with the State concerned. This community are put forward claims and reports prepared by international Red Cross Committee have complained about each other with. Therefore, the International Committee of the Red Cross from time to time in both countries, in order to make an inspection of the camp experts remained in post. Indeed, in 1922 and in 1923, various inspection delegations, including the Greek prisoners of war camps were sent to Turkey to review.We are the prisoners of the Greek warfare in Turkey this study regarding the status "prisoners were treated badly and is in difficult conditions of the prisoners" to what extent the Greek Red Cross claims is correct, commissioned by the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva to investigate Burnier-Burckhardt and his delegation, for their inspection visits and in Anatolia, it will consider the report and prepared
    Keywords: The national struggle, the Greek prisoners of war, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Inspection Visits, the report
    Date: 2014–10
  27. By: Hulisi Öğüt (TOBB Economics and Technology University); Asunur Cezar (TOBB University of Economics and Tehnology); Merve Guven (Agricultural and Rural Development Support Institution)
    Abstract: We investigate the factors influencing the demand for mobile voice services in Turkey using firm level data which spans from January 2008 to December 2012. The competition in mobile telecommunication market in Turkey has become more intense as a result of mobile number portability (MNP) service introduced in 2008 and 3G technology introduced in 2009. The intense competition not only helps to keep prices down but also supports subscriber growth. Besides prices, we believe that network effects have an impact on market growth. Approximating sales levels using subscription levels and churn rates and using revenue per minute (RPM) as a price measure, we find that while price has a significant negative impact on the demand for mobile services, network effects has a significant positive impact on demand for mobile services. We also estimate own and cross price elasticities of the firms operating in mobile telecommunication market.
    Keywords: telecommunication;3G; mobile number portability
    JEL: L96
    Date: 2014–06
  28. By: Mithat Korumaz (Yıldız Technical University); Esra Keskin (Fatih Sultan University)
    Abstract: All political events since 2002 when Justice and Development Party (AKP) with a liberal and moderate conservative policy came to power in Turkey have occurred at a dizzying speed and changed the course of the political, economic and social development of Turkey. Especially the adjustments in terms of education has made AKP one of the most prominent actors in the reform process. The fundamental educational reform areas of AKP that has been in power for 12 years without any interruption consist of providing equality of opportunity in education, redesigning of the curriculum, enhancing organizational capacity, internationalizing education and disseminating higher education. The main purpose of this research is to determine whether the educational policies of AKP that has been in power between the years 2002-2014 have succeeded in the fundamental reform areas or not. According to the results, it is concluded that the accomplishment of the goals related with education in the party programme of AKP has been expanded into 12 years. The fact that the goals of AKP and the developmental goals of the state are in accordance reinforces the attainability of these goals. As a result of the educational policies of AKP there has been a marked improvement in the field of the schooling and enrollment rate, the budget of Ministry of Education, decreasing gender differences in education. Furthermore the average of PISA 2013 has increased significantly in terms of various variables when compared to PISA 2003. Under the lights of assessments in education in 2013 progress report of EU, it has been determined that the increase in the numbers of universities in higher education and the schooling rate has not affected the quality of education given, there have been some problems as the adjustments of curriculum were not planned enough and despite the significant decrease of gender differences in education, the ratio is still far beyond the EU average. According to the results and findings of the research, it can be agreed that AKP can be regarded as successful since it pursued policies consistent with the goals of AKP. With regard to experience got through this long reform process, it can be said that it is necessary for the educational goals of AKP in 2023 to be based on a substantial philosophical ground and to be qualified enough to end the philosophical searchs of Turkish educational system.
    Keywords: Turkey, AKP, Education, Policy, Reform
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2014–10
  29. By: Ozgur UGURLUOGLU (Hacettepe University); Ä°pek Bilgin DEMÄ°R (Hacettepe University); Duygu UREK (Hacettepe University); Gamze BAYIN (Hacettepe University)
    Abstract: It is known that studies on leadership in health care in Turkey had gained increasing importance with the coming of 2000's and until 2000's, a very limited number of studies had been carried out on the subject. Moreover, there had not been any studies examining the previous studies on the subject in terms of the leadership characteristics that had been taken in focus, who were taken as samples or what kind of variables had been taken into account. The purpose of this study is to examine the studies on leadership in health care services that had been carried out between 2000 and 2013; and gather them into various categories besides trying to find out their common points and fundamental tendencies. Studies on the above mentioned subject between 2000 and 2013 in Turkey had been determined via browsing in various databases (n=70) and these had been examined in terms of the kind of the study, study design, the year of the study, participants, health institution at which the study had been carried out, the scale that was used and primary topic area.According to the findings, a considerable number (62.9%) of the 70 studies on leadership in health care services in Turkey between 2000 and 2013 was composed of Master's and PhD theses while the rest was (37.1%) composed of articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. 67 of these studies were based on research and in nearly half of them, nurses constituted the research participants. Most studies on leadership had been conducted in public health institutions and university hospitals.With the increasing number of scientific research in the field of health services since 2008, it had been determined that most studies had been conducted between 2010 and 2012. The most common subjects of study were various determinants of the leader, leadership perceptions and at a rate of approximately one-third of the studies were concerned with the effect of leadership styles of managers on their subordinates. This study shows that, despite many studies on leadership in the Turkish health care services literature; there are still health care profession groups that whose characteristics had never been studied, besides there are still fundamental areas and leadership characteristics which had never been or seldom studied. It is thought that the results of this study will help researchers who want to work on leadership in health care services in the future.
    Keywords: Leader, Leadership, Leadership Research, Health Care, Leadership in Turkey
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2014–06
  30. By: Abdullah Sürücü (Necmettin Erbakan University Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty)
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate with respect to certain variables the life satisfaction levels of guidance teachers working at educational institutions. In this context, the study attempted to determine whether life satisfaction levels among guidance teachers varied according to gender, the type of school/institution they worked at, and their length of service. The study was conducted according to a screening model. The study population consisted of guidance teachers working at educational institutions in Turkey. The study sample group consisted of 251 randomly-selected guidance teachers working at public and private schools, and in counseling and research centers. During the study; a personal information form, the Turkish translation by Simsek (2011) of the “Satisfaction with Life as a Whole†and the PWI-A Scale were used as data collection tools. The study data were gathered in an internet environment, and analyzed with the SPSS 16.0 package program. Data analysis demonstrated that guidance teachers generally had a high level of life satisfaction. The study results also showed that guidance teachers’ level of life satisfaction did not differ significantly with respect to gender, the type of school/institution they worked at (e.g. public school vs. private school), and their length of service.
    Keywords: Life satisfaction, guidance teacher, Turkey.
    Date: 2014–06
  31. By: Keltouma BOUFATAH (Faculty of Economic Science, University Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen)
    Abstract: The Algerian government won a third term in 2009 was boycotted by some political parties. After the “Arab Spring†protests swept neighboring Tunisia and Libya, this introduced some political and economical reforms, including an end to state-of-emergency restrictions that had lasted almost two decades. The socialist model adopted after Algeria gained its independence from France in 1962 has hampered development. Formal-sector unemployment remains persistently high, and there is a housing shortage. Algeria is the world’s sixth-largest exporter of natural gas and has the world’s 10th-largest natural gas reserves and 16th-largest oil reserves. in 2010 The government began a five-year, $286 billion program to modernize infrastructure and appears to be trying to attract foreign and domestic private investment and to diversify the economy . The Problematique is what is the vantages and the inconvignants of theses reforms?
    Keywords: Arab Spring, The Algerian government, reforms, program investment, economy
    Date: 2014–10
  32. By: Esra Banu Sipahi (Necmettin Erbakan University); Erhan Örselli (Necmettin Erbakan University)
    Abstract: From past until today, women have been exposed to many different types of poverty, deprivation, desperation and violence. The most dramatic one from all those destructive effects are the domestic violence and abuse of women. The domestic violence is a fact, which is mostly ignored and overpassed in many societies. When the lower chances of economic survival for women are also taken into account within this framework, the feeling of frustration worsens the dilemma between poverty and domestic violence for them. The solution search for this problem began in the last half of the twentieth century. Since then, the domestic violence is brought to the attention of mankind, regarded as violation of human rights and relevant legal and organizational arrangements have been made. One of these organizational arrangements is Women’s Refuges. Today, these Women’s Refuges have become an important part of the struggle strategies against domestic violence and women’s poverty. The idea of Women’s Refuge arose primarily in Europe, and then spread all over the world beginning from 1970s. In Turkey, Women’s Refuges started to serve in the 1990s. This study focuses on the existence of Women’s Refuges in Turkey as a struggle strategy against domestic violence and poverty. The concept of violence against women and the evolution of Women’s Refuges will be discussed from the beginning to the present. In this respect, the historical development process, the legal basis, organizational developments, implementations and the problems of Women’s Refuges in Turkey will be analyzed.
    Keywords: Domestic violence, Women's Refuges, poverty
    JEL: J12 L39 H83
    Date: 2014–06
  33. By: Kawee Jarach (Mahidol University International College); Mark Speece (American University of Kuwait)
    Abstract: Thailand and Egypt have seen some striking parallels in the past few years, culminating in military overthrows of elected governments, acts which were widely supported by the middle classes. This paper examines middle class thinking behind opposition to the governments, and subsequent support for the military takeovers.Both Pheu Thai and the Muslim Brotherhood won elections based on real support, including among middle class voters, although the margins of victory were smaller than sometimes portrayed. (The Muslim Brotherhood won slightly under 52% of the popular vote in 2012; Pheu Thai won just under 50% in 2011.) Once elected, they abused power, pursued their own narrow agendas, and seemed to be dismantling checks, balances, and liberties of truly democratic systems. Thailand’s middle class opposition labeled this ‘parliamentary dictatorship’. Whether it is called this, ‘electoral authoritarianism’, or ‘majoritarianism’, the concept is well known in political science. Pheu Thai and Muslim Brotherhood supporters frequently pointed to their election wins to justify simply doing what they wanted without regard for other views, for law, courts, or constitutions. To the urban middle classes, this is a very narrow understanding of ‘democracy’. They are more likely to agree with Yale law professor Robert Post: “It is a grave mistake to confuse democracy with particular decision-making procedures and to fail to identify the core values that democracy as a form of government seeks to instantiate†(Post 2005, p. 25).The middle classes became disillusioned with electoral ‘democracy’ and shifted hopes to institutions that were supposed to provide checks on government authority, notably the courts. Pheu Thai and the Muslim Brotherhood then tried to control and/or sideline the courts and other independent agencies. “The only remaining barrier (other than the military) to Islamist hegemony is the judiciary. If the Muslim Brotherhood and its FJP take control of courts and judges, this check will disappear, and Egypt could move from liberalized autocracy to electoral authoritarianism†(Brumberg 2013, p. 101).The urban middle classes in both Thailand and Egypt came out into massive street protests, polarization crystalized, and the situation rapidly degenerated. When the military stepped in, there was widespread middle class support for the moves, which is unlikely to dissipate quickly. Brumberg, Daniel. 2013. Transforming the Arab World's Protection-Racket Politics. Journal of Democracy 24(3): 88-103.Post, Robert. 2006. Democracy and Equality. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 603: 24-36.
    Keywords: Thailand, Egypt, parliamentary dictatorship, electoral dictatorship, military coup, middle class, political polarization
    JEL: D72 L38
    Date: 2014–10
  34. By: Banu Terkan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty); Nurullah Terkan (Selcuk University Communication Faculty)
    Abstract: Basic regulations regarding the internet in Turkey consist of the law no. 5651 which was accepted and went into effect in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TGNA) in 2007. Along with the law no. 6158 “The Law About Amending the Decree-Law Concerning the Organization and Duties of the Ministry of Family and Social Policy and Changes in Some Laws and Decree-Laws†which went into effect by being released in the Official Gazette at February 19 2014, a set of new regulations also were made regarding the law no. 5651. This study aims to put forth how the new internet law is given meaning in the political discourses of the ruling and opposition parties. The TGNA minutes of general meeting were examined in the study so that the discourses of the ruling and opposition parties regarding the regulations made in the internet law could be analyzed. In the sessions realized between December 17, 2013 and February 28, 2014, all assessments conducted regarding the subject at hand were included in the study. The reason why the minutes of general meeting in between the suggested years were examined is due to the fact that a proposed law regarding a set of changes made concerning the internet law was presented to the general meeting by some congressmen of the ruling party at December 17, 2013 and that another proposed law was also presented to the general meeting by some congressmen of the ruling party at January 6, 2014. These proposed laws form a significant aspect of the discussions made regarding the new internet law. The study also contains an approximate 10-day process after the release date of the bill in order to set forth the reactions given subsequent to it taking effect by becoming a law. In order to put forth how the new internet law is given meaning in the political discourses of the ruling and opposition parties, the minutes of general meeting that provide an important data in examining the political speeches of politicians were analyzed pursuant to the relations put forth by the ideological discourse analysis. In the political speeches which is a form of political communication, how the subject is handled in the political discourses of politicians, how the actors are defined, how the politicians present their policies and the reality attempted to be created on these discourses were tried to be established.
    Keywords: Political discourse, political communication, internet law, discourse analysis.
    Date: 2014–10
  35. By: Taner SEKMEN (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Ömer AKKUÅž (Anadolu University); Ä°lyas ÅžIKLAR (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate competition in Turkish banking sector over the period 2003– 2012. In order to understand the competitive condition in Turkish banking sector, we use the well-known Panzar-Rosse model based on a nonstructural estimation of the H-statistic by employing the quarterly panel data set. The emprical evidences indicate that the Turkish banking sector operates under conditions of monopolistic competition. Therefore, although there have been growing structural changes in the Turkish banking sector since 2000s, there is no remarkable change in the market structure of the Turkish banking sector as compared to previous studies and it can still be characterized by the monopolistic competition.
    Keywords: Competition, Panzar-Rosse Model, Turkish Banking Sector, H-Statistic
    JEL: A10 D40 E44
    Date: 2014–06
  36. By: Tuba Ünlükara ((ITU) Istanbul Technical University); Lale Berkoz ((ITU) Istanbul Technical University)
    Abstract: Today, Shopping centers are not places that only respond to shopping needs but they have become structures that offer social activities and various facilities, as well. Cinemas, children’s playground, entertainment and recreation areas, restaurants and food departments are the components of shopping centers; they immediately entered the daily life activities of costumers. Today, costumers mostly prefer these shopping centers that are in different sizes and categories and which are half-open or fully-covered; they have become places where people choose to go as they help protect people from unfavorable weather conditions, additionally they respond working population’s needs for shopping, sports and entertainment. This study looks into the factors that are influential on the preferences for shopping center location selection and explains these factors through a conceptual model. By means of a comprehensive literature search, the theoretical framework of the factors affecting the causes of preference is established and relevant research questions are chosen. Thus, the theoretical foundations of the model have been created. The field research includes the companies that operate in Istanbul but making shopping center investments all over Turkey. In this study, among the qualitative research methods, in-depth interview technique and interview form approach are preferred. Interviews have been held with people from project development departments of the companies investing on shopping centers pursuing different characteristics. The survey was maden in 23 different shopping center developer companies and 108 questionnaires in total have been given by using face-to-face interview technique. The results of the study have been evaluated by applying Analytical Hierarchy Process method. AHP can be defined as the decision-making and estimating method, which gives the percentage distribution of decision points in terms of factors affecting decisions; it is used in the identification of decision hierarchy. This study aims at becoming a source for shopping centre investors, developers, architects and other related disciplines; additionally, expects all these sides to act with the knowledge of what is expected from them.
    Keywords: Shopping Center, Site Selection, Real Estate Development, Analytical Hierarchy Process, City Planning
    Date: 2014–05
  37. By: Mustafa Gerçeker (Selçuk University); Bilal Özel (Selcuk University); Ahmet Ay (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: The entrepreneurship seems to be an important source for economic growth. For this reason, the emphasis on entrepreneurship with the importance for economic growth is increasing day by day. This study investigates the existence of the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth by using control variables including employment and savings. For this purpose, possible relations were tried to be determined by using bound test and ARDL method for the period 1988-2012 with annually data. The results of bound test, shows that there is a long-run relationship between economic growth and entrepreneurship. Afterward long-run coefficients and equations were estimated. The results of long run coefficients shows that there is a positive and significant relationship between economic growth and entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship,economic growth,ARDL method
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: Following the intense violation of human rights which occurred during WWII, a protective system for the human rights which arise due to their being human beings was attempted to be created and based on this enactment, the European Convention on Human Rights was prepared by the countries who are members of European Council. With the passing time, the member states of the European Council have signed the European Convention on Human Rights and they have made harmonious changes to the provisions of national regulations. European Convention on Human Rights which was signed by Turkey as well is also an integral part of our national regulations yet it is debatable how great an area of application it can find. The scope of the right to fair trials which is among the most essential parts of basic rights and freedoms enacted under article 6 of Human Rights Convention and what its parts were and the equality of arms principle governed under the same regulations and the observation and study of litigious right to trial concepts are the primary objective of this study.Thus, in the first section of the study consisting of two parts, the scope of right to fair trial and its components are to be considered as mentioned in the 6th article of European Convention on Human Rights and Ruling Cases of European Court of Human Rights and the equality of arms principle which is among the most important milestones of fair trial and the litigious rights will be explained. In the second part, the area of application of the equality of arms principle and litigious rights and their areas of application under Turkish Law will be studied. The main reason beyond this study is attempting to understand whether a fair trial can be achieved between the administration having the upper hand and the individuals as stipulated by European Convention on Human Rights.
    Keywords: Right to Fair Trial, Equality of Arms Principle, Litigious Lawsuit Rights, European Convention on Human Rights, Witnesses of administrative justice, Judge and Public Prosecutor’s Opinion in Administrative Litigation, Expert’s Examination in Administrative Justice, Access to the Information and Documents in Administrative Justice.
    JEL: K30 K33
    Date: 2014–06
  39. By: Mohamed Abdelnaby Elsayed Ghanem (Faculty of Law, Tanta University, Egypt)
    Abstract: Law and economy are firmly connected. Adding to that the economic life has an effect on the judicial thinking. So, rules of law should characterized the care of existed economic attitude in the state in a way that law seems to be a mirror in which the existed economic attitudes in most branches of law are reflected even if they are not of direct shape. judiciary may be an attracting factor for investment through understanding and the speed of settling the disputes achieving quick justice. On the other hand, it may be a factor of dispelling of investment and development via prolonging the period of litigation and being not aware of the nature of such disputes.So, Egyptian legislator created special Economic Courts to deal with economic disputes, and to avoid its negative effects, by Law No. 120 of 2008. Which decide that this kind of litigation can be solved by judges specialized in this kind of litigation, to encourage investment, and to provide maximum protection for economic activity and help develop the plans and ensure justice. But, There are some Criticism Directed to the Case Preparation Panel in Economic Courts in Egypt. So, I will discuss it in my paper.
    Keywords: Law, Economy, Economic Courts, Egypt, Slow Pace of Litigation, Crisis of Justice, Law No. 120 of 2008
    JEL: K00 K40 K41
    Date: 2014–12
  40. By: Murat KOÇYİÄžİT (Necmettin Erbakan University Tourism Faculty); Mustafa YILDIZ (Necmettin Erbakan University Tourism Faculty Department of Recreation Management)
    Abstract: In our world which develops in technologic and industrial fields people’s; life style, working conditions and time terms have changed. The fast industrialization and immobile life, have brought the important dangers in terms of health and social connection. Dramatically increases have been observed in diseases such as the cardiovascular diseases, stress, tension, fatness. The studies have accelerated in developed nations for removing those factors which threaten the human health in all aspects. For the development of the term Recreation in Turkey, and in order to access to the developed nations in terms of Recreation initially this term must be understood by all the people, teaching its principles and manufacture manners, the classification of kinds must be done. For this job in the fields related with the Recreation sector in Turkey, it seems the Recreation experts are required who are elevated in scientific environments, and can accord to the technologic developments and having enough academic sufficiency. The importance of recreation applications in local administrations have started to be understood newly. In this context the aim of the working, is to examine the recreation applications done by Ankara Municipality of Metropol, by researching the plants and applications methods about the recreation, to create the substructure which would form an example for a study to be example for the recreation applications in other Metropolitan Municipalities. In that study, the Recreation applications reports published by Ankara Metropolitan Municipality web page, have been examined by the content analysis method. From the content analysis method, it has been made firm that Ankara Metropolitan Municipality has got an immense study for increasing the recreation application fields and the recreative activities.
    Keywords: Recreation, Local Administrations, Ankara
    JEL: L83 L83 L83
    Date: 2014–06
  41. By: Necmettin CihangiroÄŸlu (Gülhane Military Medicine Academy); Musa Ozata (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the satisfaction levels of the society about family medicine system in Konya (Turkey). Data were collected by a questionnaire form developed by the researchers. The questionnaire form consists of 52 items and five main titles. The questionnaire was implemented to 287 volunteer participants. Statistical analyses were evaluated by using SPSS program and descriptive statistics and t test were used on the collected data. At the end of the study, it was concluded that the participants were almost satisfied with the family physcian and they wanted this system to be continued and improved.
    Keywords: Family Medicine System, Satisfaction, Family physcian
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2014–06
  42. By: Guizani, Brahim
    Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the meager literature on monetary policy effectiveness in Tunisia especially after the revolution of January 2011; a period during which the country entered a delicate democratization transition. On the basis of a monthly data of several macroeconomic variables during the period from 2000 through 2013 a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model is estimated. The VEC-generated impulse response functions show that the monetary policy stance, as measured by the short-term interest rate, has become increasingly more effective on real output and prices during the post-revolution period; i.e., (2011 – 2013) than the previous period; i.e., (2000 – 2010). The variance decomposition analysis not only confirms these findings but also it points out an increasing role to the real output in price variation during the political transitional period. This might be attributed to the increasing volatile environment that characterized this period, which perturbed the aggregate supply and exacerbated the aggregate demand. Another no less important finding uncovered by the model is the amplification and acceleration of the exchange rate pass-through during the transitional period with respect the pre-revolution period.
    Keywords: monetary policy, Vector Error Correction Model, impulse response function, variance decomposition, Exchange rate Pass-Through.
    JEL: E52 E58
    Date: 2015–03–20
  43. By: Saad Yaseen (Al-Zaytoonah University Of Jordan)
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a conceptual framework investigating the determinants of mobile crowdsourcing technology acceptance and use in the crises management of Arab Spring societies. To achieve its objectives, this research has extended the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) to study the major determinants of the behavioral intention to accept or adopt crowdsourcing technology. The proposed extended model incorporates five constructs, including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, subjective norms, hedonic motivation, and cultural values.It is highly acknowledged that organizations in the Arab business setting are late adopters of IT applications (Sabri, 2004; Yaseen; 2005; Yaseen; 2008; Sukkar and Hasan; 2005; Abu shanab et al; 2010). Despite the increased usage of mobile and Internet applications, recent studies indicated that Arab people are still reluctant to use and accept Internet applications technology for various economic and cultural reasons (Al Sukkar and Hasan; 2005; Akour et al; 2006). Thus, this research concentrates on providing rich understanding and insight into the influence of the major determinates on the behavioral intention to adopt and use mobile crowdsourcing technology in such cultural environment on Arab World. Based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) (Venkatesh et al, 2012), the proposed extended model incorporates five constructs: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, subjective norms, hedonic motivation, and cultural values.Recent years have seen and explosion of online social networking as a cyberspace to bring crowdsourcing into a mobile context. Furthermore, advanced social cloud computing and crowdsourcing technologies were utilized in the emergency management. Mobile social networking technology is a powerful platform for leveraging the crowdsourcing in large-scale events or in a crisis management. It provides opportunities for empowering collaborative social concerns. The explosive growth of using social networking in such historical events as Arab spring uprising has provided enabling platform for conducting mobile crowdsourcing in crises management. Despite the increased usage of mobile and Internet applications recent studies indicated that Arab people are still reluctant to use and accept Internet applications technology for various reasons. Thus, the present research has extended the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) to study the major determinants of the behavioral intention to accept or adopt crowdsourcing technology in such cultural environment on Arab World. The proposed extended model incorporated five constructs, including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, subjective norms, hedonic motivation, and cultural values.
    Keywords: Crowdsourcing,IT Adoption.Crisis Management
    JEL: A12
    Date: 2014–06
  44. By: Nurcan Turan (Anadolu University); Nuri Calik (Anadolu University)
    Abstract: This survey intends to find out the attitudes of the consumers towards health products such as organic food, healthy foodstuffs and their information seeking behavior on wholesome nutrition. A survey is applied to 480 respondents selected via stratified sampling from EskiÅŸehir, a city of Turkey with 700.000 inhabitants where 470 of the responses are found eligible... The respondents are required to answer 50 questions of which five are related to demographic characteristics of these respondents. The rest 45 are statements which are designed to reflect the behavior of these people. The study consists of five parts. The first part is an introduction where the scope and the purpose of the study are concisely stated. The second part relates to the theoretical background of the subject matter and the prior researches carried out so far. The third part deals with research methodology, basic premises and hypotheses attached to these premises. Research model and analyses take place in this section. Theoretical framework is built and a variable name is assigned to each of the question asked or proposition forwarded to the respondents of this survey. 42 statements or propositions given to the respondents are placed on a five-point Likert scale. Three questions are on an ordinal scale reflecting the most-used information sources of the respondents. The remaining five questions about demographic traits as age, gender, occupation, educational level and monthly income are placed either on a nominal or ratio scale with respect to the nature of the trait. Ten research hypotheses are formulated in this section. The fourth part mainly deals with the results of the hypothesis tests and a factor analysis is applied to the data on hand. Here exploratory factor analysis reduces 42 variables to eight basic components as: " Nutritional knowledge, nutritional labels and health claims; care for health products; consumer positive and negative attitudes toward organic foods; fast-food involvement; prior product knowledge; e-health information search; information search behavior; and system beaters". In addition non-parametric bivariate analysis in terms of Chi-Square is applied to test the hypotheses formulated in this respect. The fifth part is the conclusion where findings of this survey is listed.
    Keywords: Nutritional knowledge, health claims, health products, organic foods, fast-food involvement, prior product knowledge, e-health and health related information , information search behavior,
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014–10
  45. By: Emek Bayrak (Kocaeli University); Makbule Åžiriner Önver (Kocaeli University)
    Abstract: Capitalism has emerged along with cities, and cities constitute the agent of its development. The design, construction, formation and usage of urban spaces are very important for capitalist production. In that sense, the struggle for space is a struggle between the ruler and the ruled. Squares are one of the places where this struggle becomes concrete and visible. This fight transforms the squares continuously.The government which applies neoliberal policies and the public emerge as the agents of this transformation. Neoliberal policies and the authoritarian tendencies which are attached to it may be the dynamics of the struggle. The dynamics of people’s struggles for the squares contain different demands that range from reforms to total transformation of the system.Squares are one of the places where this struggle occurs in Turkey, just like other countries. Therefore, the government endeavors to keep urban squares under control at all times. İstanbul Taksim Square is an example of this. In this study, the struggles which take place in relation to squares, particularly the Taksim Square, is discussed. 1st of May and Taksim Gezi Park protests which occurred in 2013 are examined in this perspective.
    Keywords: Political power, square, Taksim Square, struggle
    JEL: Y80 Y90
    Date: 2014–10
  46. By: Hacer Tugba Eroglu (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Hayriye Sagir (SELCUK UNIVERSITY);
    Abstract: Today, the use of information is gradually increasing in private sector and public sector. Besides that the importance of information increases, keeping and storing it in a safe way also appeared as an important need. Also, transferring it from one place to another place became inevitable need. This dependency to information made a current issue the need of keeping information. The attacks to information, its destroying, its cleaning, and being damaging of its confidentiality causes informational infrastructure to fall into decay and this, together with it, also leads the things to go wrong. Thus, the safety of information system gradually becomes more important. However, in information age, taking information under control gradually becomes difficult. Making the information flow more safe, from now on, has become a policy of governments. On this purpose, Information Safety Management System was developed. Informational Safety Management System is a systematic approach adopted for being able to manage the sensitive information of institute. The main purpose of this system is to keep the sensitive information. The works on this system includes work systems and information technology (IT) processes. Lack of information flow actualizing thanks to various environments in internet threatens the future safety of information. Information is easily obtained without permission. Performing the information circulation through open networks increases the risk. Information Safety Management System includes what kind of actions should be taken toward keeping the easily obtained information and how a policy should be followed. In this study, in related to information management safety, SWOT Analysis toward what kind of strategy public institutes in Turkey follow will be carried out. Thus, emphasizing strengths and weaknesses on information safety, what the institutes will be able to do will be suggested so that they eliminate their weaknesses. In addition, how the institutes prevented the possible threats and evaluated the opportunities will be included in the study.
    Keywords: Information safety, information safety management system, information technologies.
    Date: 2014–10
  47. By: yasmine Gharieb (Faculty of Economics and Political sciences- Cairo University); Zeinab Ibrahim (Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences- Cairo University)
    Abstract: Bioenergy is considered an important source of energy in modern era that ensures the preservation of environment and achieves sustainable development. Moreover, it preserves the triple bottom line which cares about all aspects of environmental and social as well as economic aspects of development. Bioenergy is considered a wide field of generating energy from different treated material using different types of technology, while Egypt is now going for a National Program to sustain energy through the treatment of animal, agriculture and even human waste. This is initiated through the Bioenergy for Sustainable Rural Development Project which works on several levels, the first level includes household units which depend on the anaerobic fermentation from the waste of animal, in which methane gas is produced to replace butane gas; used in homes. The second level includes the production of gas from poultry farm units aiming to solve the diesel crisis in which both large poultry farms and those small ones, relaying on the cylinders, need the diesel. And finally, the third level which includes generation of electricity from rice straw. So, the goal of the study is to present an analysis of the Egyptian experience in the production of Bioenergy in addition to achieving sustainable development and ways for overcoming the obstacles that hindered the application of this experience previously.
    Keywords: Egypt- Renewables- biomass- biogas- Sustainable Rural Development- Bioenergy Technology(BET)
    JEL: Q16 Q42 Q50
    Date: 2014–05
  48. By: Parinaz Ezzati (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: With world economies facing increasing financial liberalization and financial crisis, the question raised is whether and how monetary authorities in various economies have responded to foreign financial shocks? In this paper, the focus of the question is directed at Iran, which will be examined through a modified open-economy Taylor Rule that considers foreign financial shocks from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, representing the Middle East, and the U.S., Germany, and Japan, representing the rest of the world. Results suggest that although Iran’s monetary policy does not fit the Taylor Rule, it has responded to some foreign financial level and volatility shocks over the period of study, 1997-2013. Findings in this paper, following earlier findings in Ezzati (2013a) and (2013b), indicate that Iran’s monetary policy has not been completely based on economic changes and macroeconomic influences, but has been based more on controversial political concerns.
    Date: 2014
  49. By: Abdulmohsen Alrashed (Glasgow Caledonian University); Ibrahim Alrashed (University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea)
    Abstract: The construction market of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is significantly huge in the Middle East, which is currently estimates to be >$122 Billion per year (in recent times) and this is anticipated to reach >$610 Billion in next five years. Construction projects in residential sector is too positive than commercial sector. However, data on the actual percentage of success rate and vital risk factors in aforementioned projects are still limited. Accordingly, this study estimates risk evaluation of recent construction projects in the KSA. Consequently, this paper presents a new risk evaluation method for recent construction projects: this analysis constructed on new liner decisionâ€making model. Whilst, this study also investigates the practical applications of risk management in the trade of construction projects of both national and international companies.
    Keywords: Risk Appraisal, Liner decision- making model, KSA, Construction Projects.
    JEL: D79 A10 A12
    Date: 2014–06
  50. By: Emine Kılıçaslan (Trakya University); Hale Bozkurt (Adnan Menderes University)
    Abstract: The developments in the field of internet and computers have paved the way for the formation of social media and a new media was born. Also, these developments created new platforms for communication. Rapid changes have occurred especially in the last decade. These changes have led social media to develop and pervade into every aspect of our life. In this respect the web 2-based internet has offered people new social environments where they can share theid ideas, feelings and knowledge and even their creativity. Particularly, these developments in social media were seen for politicians as a new field of propaganda and political communication. For this reason, social media platforms are used as an important means for political advertising in election campaigns. This situation arising as a result of technologcial developments has given rise to the widespread appearance of political communication in social media platforms. The use of social media becomes highly important for politicians in political campaigns. Therefore, the notion of ‘digital politics’ and ‘online politics’ have found a place in the political and academic literature. This study is an examination of the working of campaigns taking place in social media during the 30 March 2014 local elections in Turkey. The use of Facebook in political campaigns as a means of political communication is analyzed using the content analysis method. In this way, the political discourses of AKP and CHP are compared on the basis of their campaigns in the last local elections.
    Keywords: Political Communication, Social Media, Local Elections
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: Due to rapid population growth and industrialization environmental problems has increased. So, businesses have social responsibility with regard to protection of the environment. Besides social responsibility, due to some legal regulations businesses use environment like an production input and there is also that take protective measures about it. For environmental protection, businesses have to both manufacture environmentally friendly products and to the reduce of hazardous waste and environmental costs information is required for the recycling. Traditional accounting system shows the environmental costs as overhead costs so environmental decision making processes constitute deficiency in the provision of the necessary information. Expressing an economic value of natural resources, bear to cost for prevention and reduction of environmental problems has revealed the concept of environmental accounting.Environmental Accounting, as a result of business activities, can be measured with money, occurring increases and decreases in environmental resources, records, reports, analysises. Environmental Accounting describes the businesses about status of environmentally in environmental information system.In this study, Ready Mixed Concrete Production Plant and Cement Production Plant which are operating in Turkey were conducted comparative analysis in terms of environmental costs, environmental accounting records in order, laws and social responsibilities about how do they reduce environmental impact.
    Keywords: Enviromental Accounting, Enviromental Cost, Environmental Protection Activities
    JEL: M41 M40 M49
    Date: 2014–07
  52. By: Ramazan Çeken (Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Education)
    Abstract: Misconception about mass and weight is a well-known concern in science education. Receiently cerried out researches point out that pupils use mass instead of weight or vice versa. The real reason of such use is based on various roots. Both related concepts are needed to be constructed without misuse or misunderstanding in memory. Mass and weight concepts have a large use among the public. Therefore teachers and students can make relations between concepts and real life. Linguistic approach has some difficulties since different culture and society. Since it is a widely well-known misconception among different societies, such use is a critical misunderstanding in Turkish and English as well. Therefore this study mainly based on the lingiustic backgroud of misconceptions on mass and weight. Semi-structured items were used to collect the data to understand the linguistic misuse in this topic. Written data was collected from the primary school teacher education students (PSTES) and subjected to content analysis to point out the linguistic roots of such misconception use. Additonally, Turkish and English dictionaries were subjected to document analysis to carry out the meaning of mass and weight and their adjectives and adverbal use.It is understood from this study that Turkish language does not have enough adjectives or adverbs to identify the objects at part of mass and weight. It has not got opposite word of massy in Turkish. In English, light or weightless is used as an opposite meaning of massy. In Turkish, both massy and heavy have a similar meaning to define the objects. This misuse is located in Turkish language dictionaries as well. Similarly in English dictionaries, the synonymous word of massy is written which is known as heavy. This complexity of misconception on mass and weight is based on language learning at childhood years. The habits of using both words in the same meaning is an important problem in learning process in science courses. Eventhough reseacrhes focused on instructional design to correct the misconceptions on mass and weight, the documentary findings and content analysis of PSTES’ wievpoint on the real reason of such misconception in this study point out that it is not only a pedagogical sutiation but also a linguistic problem as well.
    Keywords: Misconception on Mass and Weight, Lingustic Bacground of Misconception
    JEL: I29 I29 I29
    Date: 2014–10
  53. By: Abdullah Kocak (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: It has been observed that publications on health in Turkey increased in recent times, also the number in criticism of this content has been increased. With the increase in publications, analysis and evaluation of the contents of these publications have become important.From this perspective, this study aims to determine which themes are presented in health news and programs on television and how they are broadcasted. Content analysis method has been used in order to reach the purpose determined above. The scope the study was constituted of the contents which were broadcasted in 2010. 51.291 video shoots were gained from TV’s with approximately 50 keywords of health field in 2010. Sample was taken every forth day of the year from 365 days media content as a universe by systematic random sampling method. Thus sample framework, which will represent the whole year in different terms at regular intervals, was contituted and 10408 shoots was taken into consideration. Content analysis coding guide was developed in order to gather the data for realizing the purpose of the study. In this guide 41 primary theme and 452 seperate sub category were coded. The distribution of 10408 shootings about health according to 4 different categories. It was determined that the content about health was broadcasted in the first three months of the year (28.3%); namely January, February and March. The 34,7% of the shootings were broadcasted in the morning whereas the percent of shotings in the afternoon was 21,5%. The percent of the evening broadcasts was 20,7%. Approximately half of the shootings (49,8%) were determined as news. This percent was followed by the health content broadcasts (27,9%). Almost all of the broadcasts were determined as informative type (99,3%). Over half of the broadcasts were found as recommendation (n=5.326; 51,2%).When the themes in the broadcasts were elaborated, the most elaborative subjects were nutrition (15,5%) and internal medicine / general surgery (14%). The follow-up subjects were beauty, care, losing weight and healthy life (9,8%), oncology and cancer (8,6%) and Ministry of Health (7,2%). When the sub categories of these primary themes were observed, it was determined that the general information was given (over 50%) in these informative expressions.
    Keywords: health communication, health news, content analysis
    JEL: I10
    Date: 2014–10
  54. By: Emine Ogut (Selcuk University); Ali Sukru Cetinkaya (Selcuk University); Adem Ogut (Selcuk University)
    Abstract: Organizational culture is defined as the values and behaviours that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization, includes an organization's expectations, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations. It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid. Can organizational culture be a source of stress on the employees? This research paper aims to answer that main research question. To that end an empirical study has been conducted in service industry, operating in Konya, in Turkey, in which the opinions of 144 employees have been analysed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and linear regression. The results show that “tolerance†component of the structure of the organizational culture has direct relationship with “success-driven stress†component of the structure of the stress (R=0,17, R2 =0,03). The relationship between tolerance and success-driven stress is significant (t = 2,03, p =0,044). Organizations providing higher level of tolerance to employees results in higher employees motivation for being more successful at their works (F = 4,135, p=044).
    Keywords: Organizational culture, individual stress, stress for success, tolerance
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2014–10
  55. By: Alpaslan YARAR (Selcuk University); Mustafa ONÜÇYILDIZ (Selcuk University); Nuri PEKÇETİN (Metropolitan Municipility of Adana)
    Abstract: To development and management of the water resources, fluctuations over the amount of water resources should be determined. Fluctuations depend on the rainfall, runoff, geological, meteorological properties of the area and many others. Scientist studied to determine this process using physical models. But, in recent years Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) has being widely used. Even absence of some data to determine these hydrological processes, ANFIS model can be used efficiently. Many data-driven models, including linear, nonparametric or nonlinear approaches, are developed for hydrologic discharge time series prediction in the past decades (Marques et al., 2006). Generally, the prediction techniques for a dynamic system can be roughly divided into two approaches: local and global. Local approach uses only nearby states to make predictions whereas global approach involves all the states. K-Nearest-Neighbors (KNN) algorithm, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vectors Machine (SVM) are some typical forecast methods for dynamic systems (Sivapragasam et al., 2001; Laio et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2006). Kazeminezhad et al. (2005) used an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) model, which is a fuzzy inference system, whose rules parameters are tuned by ANNs, in prediction of wave parameters in fetch-limited condition. Zanganeh et al. (2006) combined GAs and ANFIS models in the problem of prediction of wave parameters.In this study, 5 Flow Observation Station (FOS) in the West Mediterranean Basin in Turkey was modeled to forecast the monthly flow data using ANFIS. It was seen that ANFIS model can be used to forecast the monthly flow efficiently.
    Keywords: Forecasting ,Runoff, ANFIS
    JEL: C53 C45 C67
    Date: 2014–06
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the antecedents of knowledge sharing among employees. Tacit and explicit knowledge sharing is of vital importance to organizations, enabling them to create value and sustain competitive advantage. This paper focuses on knowledge sharing as a reciprocal process of knowledge exchange and examines the factors that potentially have an impact on knowledge sharing. In this context, the effects of attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norm, organizational culture and organizational justice on ‘intention to share knowledge’ are examined. ‘Attitude toward knowledge sharing’ refers to an employee’s general assessment on knowledge sharing in organizational context. ‘Organizational culture’ consists of assumptions, perspectives, norms and values shared by employees and it contributes to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. The term ‘organizational justice’ is characterized as the extent to which employees perceive workplace procedures, interactions and outcomes to be fair in nature. The ‘subjective norm’ is defined as perceived social pressure to perform or not perform a behavior. Based on these conceptualizations, a survey was conducted on a sample of 281 employees working for 2 service industry businesses in a province of Turkey. The data were gathered by structured question forms. Attitude toward knowledge sharing and intention to share knowledge were measured with 5 items each, while subjective norm was measured with 3 items. Organizational culture and organizational justice were measured with 6 items each. All scales were 5-point Likert-type scales whose reliability and validity were supported by previous researches by various scholars. In addition to the aforementioned variables, gender, age, managerial role, education and workplace tenure were considered as control variables that might have influence on intention to share knowledge. The data were analyzed with LISREL 8.7 software. First, confirmatory factor analyses were applied and the underlying factor structures of the variables were determined. Second, the research model was tested with path analysis and the proposed relationships between variables were examined. Last, the results are reported and theoretical and practical implications of the study were discussed.
    Keywords: attitude toward knowledge sharing, intention to share knowledge, subjective norm, organizational culture, organizational justice, service employees, survey, Turkey.
    JEL: M10
    Date: 2014–10
  57. By: Mehmet Nuri SALUR (Necmettin Erbakan University Faculty of Social and Humanities Sciences)
    Abstract: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) concept is a concept used in almost all countries. Concept stated size; economy, industrialization level, market size, industry and the varied used production methods between, depending on countries. Today, all the major companies, many risky ventures, innovation and patents are behind the small medium sized enterprises. These functions play an important role in the economy, they have a relatively weak structure and low possibilities when combined with supporting small medium sized enterprises in all economies is an issue that still preserves the validity and in this context, various programs are being implemented in many countries. In this context, the creation of securities exchanges catering to small medium sized enterprises and encourage small medium sized enterprises to benefit from these capital markets is of great importance. In cases where the current financing methods are insufficient initial public offerings as an alternative source of financing of small medium sized enterprises, not only financial but also organizational aspects of the chronic shortage has the potential to eliminate. On public offerings small medium sized enterprises by strengthening their institutional structures to ensure the transition to corporate governance as well as corporate governance principles that have internalized the biggest obstacle to growth rates that will overcome the problem of access to finance. As a result of the public offerings, small medium sized enterprises are more resistant to crises Whilst the closure of the company through the front of a stable socio-economic development will contribute significantly. In our study, all this digression in the direction of some of the EU and other developed/developing countries small medium sized enterprises in exchange for the implementation of Turkey's small medium sized enterprises Stock Exchange application is discussed and examined and small medium sized enterprises ring-opening of the financial performance of the positive effect that has been found.
    Keywords: SMEs, Stock Exchange, Public Offering
    JEL: D51 D51 D51
    Date: 2014–06
  58. By: Dalgic, Basak; Fazlioglu, Burcu; Gasiorek, Michael
    Abstract: This paper focuses on self-selection into trade by exporting and importing firms, and on the presence of differential variable and sunk costs between exporters and importers across different categories of imports. In addition the authors consider the role of intensive and extensive margins with respect to products or countries. They use a rich and recent dataset for Turkish manufacturing firms for the period 2003-2010. This allows them to provide a comprehensive analysis of firm heterogeneity and the connection between firm-level performance and international trade. They provide evidence on the remarkable heterogeneity across firms where only-importers (importers) perform better than only-exporters (exporters). They detect a self-selection effect for both importing and exporting firms with a stronger effect for importers. The results suggest that the nature of sunk costs varies between importing and exporting activities with importers facing higher sunk costs. Tariffs represent a potentially important source of variation in the variable costs of trading. When taking the tariffs faced by firms into account, the authors find that the self-selection effect associated with sunk costs is still present but greatly reduced with a smaller reduction for importers compared to exporters.
    Keywords: firm heterogeneity,self-selection,sunk costs,exports,imports
    JEL: D24 F10 M20 L10
    Date: 2015
  59. By: S. Öznur Sakinc (Hitit University)
    Abstract: Banking sector has a considerable impact on the development and growth of the national economy. Increase in the performance of this sector having an important place in the financial system of country, means to positive effects on the general economy. Today, importance of globalization and private capitalis increasing. But State-owned banks in Turkish Banking Sector have an important share of 30%. The main goal of private banks is profitability, so they don’t support the activities with low return, even though the people need. For these reasons state-owned banks were selected, in this study for measuring their performance. Performance measurement involves the process of assessing and reporting of the business activities in terms of success, effectiveness and timing. Sustainability in Performance Measurement provides a significant instrument for feedback of business for the planning in the next period. Business might develop their own service and product quality and they progress strategies to increase the performances of employees, revise their goals and make some revisions in the budget if it needs.Thus, an increase will be supplied in the efficiency and effectiveness of business. In this study, The Performances of State-owned banks in Turkish Banking Sector are analyzed with grey relational analysis method.In the analysis, four years of financial data is used related with banks between 2010-213 years. These data were analyzed by 15 ration which determine; capital adequacy, liquidity, asset quality and profitability criteria.
    Keywords: Banking Sector, Performance In Banks, Performance Measurement, Grey Relational Analyze Method, State-Owned Banks
    JEL: C67 G21 G29
    Date: 2014–10
  60. By: Mehmet YORULMAZ (Selcuk University Faculty of Health Science);
    Abstract: Investigating the significance of the application of the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system in hospitals in terms of the hospital management system was aimed.: The evaluation of the reflections of the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system in hospital practices render it significant in terms of concerned literature. The study is a descriptive study and was conducted through literature review. Ensuring quality in the presentation of services, work satisfaction and motivation of employees, modernization of management and organization methods, rationality in decision-making mechanisms, documentation of information systems, and the functionality of communication mechanisms are expected with the implementation of total quality management systems in hospitals. Thus, the existence of a strong management model and organization and knowing by who, when, where, by which instruments and methods the work is performed is of importance in order to be able to mention of quality in health services. One of the most important conditions is the belief and support of top management in quality. For the purpose of constantly improving quality in the Turkish healthcare system, planning quality, and demonstrating a systematic approach, there is a need to be aware of and address many prerequisites. Some of these prerequisites are the measurement of the current quality system, constant improvement of the level of quality, a dynamic process, integration of existing basic health services, regional differences, series of activities flowing from the field to the center, full support from the center to the field, sharing of responsibilities and activities, satisfaction of patients/society, and health personnel, increasing the awareness of society, and cooperation.
    Keywords: Psychological Contract, Health Sector, Alienation, Organizational Trust
    JEL: M12
    Date: 2014–06
  61. By: Saleh Ghavidel (Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh, Iran); Mahmoud Mahmoudzadeh (Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh, Iran); Hamideh Radfar (Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh, Iran)
    Abstract: Deviations from purchasing power parity because a deviation of productivity is Balassa–Samuelson effect. The Balassa–Samuelson effect depends on inter-country differences in the relative productivity of the tradable and non-tradable sectors. According to this hypothesis, Imai (2010) make a model and measurement Balassa–Samuelson effect in Japan during 1970-1955 when exchange rate in Japan is fixed. In this paper we measurement Balassa–Samuelson effect in Iran economic. The result shows that Balassa–Samuelson effect in Iran is -2.1. Then devaluation of the national currency in Iran according to Balassa–Samuelson effect would be equal to 2.1 in annual, while devaluation of the national currency in Iran 13% in a year.
    Keywords: Balassa–Samuelson effect; purchasing power parity; productivity gap; tradable and non-tradable sectors
    JEL: D24 E31 F31
    Date: 2014–10
  62. By: Sabiha Isci (Eskisehir Osmangazi University); Engin KaradaÄŸ (Eskisehir Osmangazi University)
    Abstract: Examining the history of studies on leadership indicates that most of the them are about understanding the good and effective leadership (Shaw, Erickson & Harvey, 2011). Leadership styles such as transformational, ethical or authentic leadership which have been gained importance lastly, focuse on the effects and behaviors of constructive leadership (Schyns & Schilling, 2013). In accordance with the studies conducted on constructive leadership behaviors, it is seen that studies focused on the darker sides of leadership have been raised in the last decade. Although destructive leadership is an attention grabbing issue in all over the world, there is no comprehensive research on destructive leadership in Turkey. This kind of leadership has an important effect on employers from different perspectives. Hence, it is seen that understanding and preventing destructive leadership is also important for organizations and members as much as constructive leadership (Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007). In this context, the purpose of this study is to test theoretical model that destructive leadership behaviors of primary school principals affect teachers’ psychological capital and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study is constructed with causal research design. The research sample is selected through stratified sampling from teachers in Eskişehir. For testing theoretically constructed structural equation models, path analysis is used. Within this model destructive leadership is independent, organizational citizenship behavior is dependent and psychological capital is moderator variable. Data are collected through Destructive Leadership Questionnaire, Psychological Capital Questionnaire and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire. The findings obtained from this study indicate that destructive leadership affect psychological capital and organizational citizenship behavior negatively, on the other hand psychological capital affect organizational citizenship behavior positively. ReferencesEinarsen, S., Aasland, M. S., & Skogstad, A. (2007). Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 207-216.Schyns, B., & Schilling, J. (2013). How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 24, 138-158.Shaw, J. B., Erickson, A., & Harvey, M. (2011). A method for measuring destructive leadership and identifying types of destructive leaders in organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 22, 575-590.
    Keywords: Destructive leadership, psychological capital, organizational citizenship behavior.
    JEL: C30 I29 C20
    Date: 2014–10
  63. By: Zeki Ayag (Kadir Has University)
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to analyze automotive industry, and to identify the important auto parts logistics requirements, and supply chain management (SCM) strategies. For product or service development, quality function deployment (QFD) is a useful approach to maximize customer satisfaction. The determination of the customer and logistics requirements, and supply chain management strategies are important issues during QFD processes for product or service design. For this reason, a QFD methodology is proposed in this study to determine these aspects and to improve the level of customer satisfaction. Qualitative information is converted firstly into quantitative parameters, and then this data is combined with other quantitative data to parameterize to determine appropriate supply chain management strategies.
    Keywords: Quality function deployments, logistics requirements, supply chain management strategies.
    JEL: C44
    Date: 2014–12
    Abstract: Food waste has been recognized all over the world and in Saudi Arabia too as one the prime factors limiting food security. The food is wasted through the entire food chain: by farmers, food industries, retailers, caterers and by consumers. The factors responsible and reasons causing such losses include: lack of awareness, lack of shopping planning, left-overs, and losses in households, restaurants, parties and occasions. Roughly about 40-50 % of all food ready for harvest never reaches to the consumers. According to the US environmental protection agency, food leftovers are the single-largest component of the waste stream. Food waste includes uneaten food and food preparation leftovers from residences or households, restaurants, schools, cafeterias etc. By 2075, the United Nation's mid-range projection for global population growth predicts that human numbers will peak at about 9.5 billion people. This means that there could be an extra three billion mouths to feed by the end of the century. The situation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is more crucial and difficult for several reasons; firstly the country imports almost all of its food needs. Secondly since 1990, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been among the countries suffering from severe water shortage. Despite the country is facing an acute scarcity of water resources and witnesses over growing population yet has successfully managed to achieve the self-sufficiency levels in several food commodities. The kingdom spends a significant portion of its budget on importing huge volumes of food commodities and makes them available to its citizens at the highly subsidized rates. Above all, the Saudis as a nation are very hospitable and food lovers. Also the culture in the KSA is based on festivals and huge quantities of food are being served. All these factors lead to a lot of food waste. At the moment, the wastefulness has reached to a level where food is thought to be the number one contributor to the waste in landfills. There is a great need to reduce the food waste in the KSA by adopting different ways, means and strategies. Although complete prevention seems difficult yet food waste can be reduced significantly by increasing public awareness on the food and water situation in the Kingdom through a national comprehensive campaign and vibrant extension education programs.
    Keywords: food waste, imports, subsidies, dietary behaviors, awareness, extension education,
    JEL: A13 A00 A13
    Date: 2014–06
  65. By: Selda TASDEMIR AFSAR (Hacettepe University)
    Abstract: There are 3 aims of this study. These are 1) to determine whether there is a significant difference between affective, normative and continuance commitment of the academicians in foundation and state universities against the universities where they work or not, 2) to determine whether the affective, normative and continuance commitment of the academicians at foundation and state universities differs or not according to the perception of age, gender, marital status, academic title, wage, total working year in the organization, type of assignment, quality of work life and perception of protectiveness of the organization, 3) to present which variable and/or variables are more effective on the affective, normative and continuance commitment of the academicians working at foundation and state universities. The sample of the study is consisted of 570 academicians who work at foundation and state universities and are selected by using random sampling method. The data of the study was collected by using questionnaire form and Organizational Commitment Scale revised by Meyer, Allen and Smith (1993). The ‘t’ test was applied in order to test the relationship between the type of university and organizational commitment level and the ‘correlation analysis’ was made in order to determine the relationship between the type of university, social-demographic characteristics, working conditions, perception of protectiveness of the organization, quality of work life and affective, normative and continuance commitment. The ‘Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis’ was made in order to determine the effect of quality of work life, working conditions, perception of protectiveness of the organization and socio-demographic characteristics on the affective, normative and continuance commitment and the level of this effect. It was revealed that there is not any difference between academicians working at both types of university in terms of affective, normative and continuance commitment and the affective, normative and continuance commitment of the academicians working at both foundation and state universities differs according to the age, gender, marital status, academic title, wage, total working year in the organization, type of assignment, quality of work life and perception of protectiveness of the organization. On the other hand, it was also determined that the quality of work life is the most effective variable on the affective, normative and continuance commitment of the academicians working at both foundation and state universities and there is a low but negative relationship between quality of work life and continuance commitment of the academicians working at both foundation and state universities
    Keywords: Affective Commitment, Normative Commitment, Continuance Commitment, Qualit of Work Life
    Date: 2014–10
  66. By: Mohammed Aldagheiri (Qassim University);
    Abstract: The increase of population growth rate witnessed in Buraidah city in particular and the accompanying urban development have generated a great need for educational services offered to society. These services, however, have not responded to the increasing demands of the population due to the lack of early planning and preparation. There is an urgent need for planners, decision makers, and concerned development authorities to take the necessary measures that ensure even distribution of educational services. This paper aims at studying the spatial characteristics of public high schools for girls in Buraidah city in terms of the available spatial distribution models used district wise , the distance between these high schools, and the number of schools in each district.
    Keywords: Services Geography, Spatial Distribution, Saudi Arabia.
    Date: 2014–07
  67. By: Alhasan Allamnakarah (Program of educational studies- King Abdulaziz university)
    Abstract: Within the context of the national education reform, the King Abdullah Education Development Project (Tatweer Project) of 2007 -2013 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia mandated the most important unprecedented leading comprehensive public educational development reform with four main components of (i) enhancing high school teachers’ teaching methods and strategies; (ii) improving high school curriculum; (iii) developing high school activities; and (iv) improving high school facilities and infrastructure. The first two former components – the two intended outcomes of the project, are directly related to Saudi higher school teachers who carry out the teaching activities in Saudi classrooms all over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study, following Fullan (2006, 2010)’s theory of actions for whole system improvement in education, investigated the grassroots implementation level of Saudi high school education reforms, particularly Saudi high school teachers’ perspectives on the Tatweer project’s first two intended outcomes of enhancing high school teachers’ teaching methods and strategies and improving high school curriculum. Using a quantitative research method, the study surveys 210 Maths and Science high school teachers in 7 Saudi educational departments where the Tatweer project has been targeting at. The study reveals that an effective education reform that enhances teachers’ skills and improves curriculum need to be based on teachers’ engagement by their being both change agents and active partners, rather than being passive recipients in the education reform. The study’s findings provides both theoretical and practical insights for policy makers and decision makers on how improvements in implementations might be made for a more effective system wide and transformational education reform in Saudi Arabia. Going forward, the study highlights the need for revising the Tatweer’s project aim as well as its implementation practice for the reform’s Kingdom-wide success. The study’s findings have significant implications for similar countries that are striving for more effective education reform/change.
    Keywords: education reform, teachers' perceptions
    Date: 2014–06
  68. By: Zsuzsanna Mikecz Munday (American University of Sharjah)
    Abstract: Intercultural communication has become an integral component of business communication teaching. For many years, simplistic cultural stereotypes have dominated much of the literature of international business communication and textbooks. In recent years however, key researchers in the field of professional communication have emphasized the importance of the common principles of communication (Goby, 1999; Morrison, Weldy and Icenogle, 1997; Beamer, 2000; Hunsinger, 2005). As Scollon and Scollon point out, “cultures do not talk to each other; individuals do†(1995:125). Thus, business communication teaching should not be dominated by an ethnocentric perspective that examines cultural differences. Instead, it needs to move towards unifying rather than diversifying approaches, and in order to achieve better understanding of cross-cultural communication, we cannot focus on cultural differences but find our similarities. Despite the importance of cultural diversity, a nucleus of similar business communication activities exists alongside culturally determined differences. Although intercultural communication is an essential part of international business, most research in the field has been done in the West. In spite of the rapid economic development in the United Arab Emirates and other countries in the region, there is insignificant amount of research conducted to identify graduates’ business communication needs. This investigation took place in multicultural organizations that employ business alumni from the American University of Sharjah in the UAE. In recent years, AUS has become a highly preferred destination for students from the Arabian Gulf, the Indian Subcontinent, Far East, Europe and Africa: a total of 85 nationalities. There are also 47 nationalities represented among the faculty, making AUS a truly multicultural university. This multicultural setting does not only promote cross-cultural interest among students, it also provides an authentic learning environment where our students experience cross-cultural communication challenges they will face in their workplaces. The investigation revealed that respondents gained much of their communicative competence as a result of years of studying at a multicultural university campus. Although they might not have gained these skills from their textbooks in communication courses, they nevertheless became inter-culturally competent, and such competence is essential in today’s business organizations.The presenter will demonstrate how faculty can make use of the possibilities that a multicultural campus environment offers to our students in order to enhance their intercultural communication abilities.
    Keywords: intercultural communication, higher education, UAE
    Date: 2014–07
  69. By: İbrahim Karagöl (Ege University); Sinan Bekmezci (Celal Bayar University)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to gender, field of the study, income level of parents, type of high school. The population consists of the teacher candidates at the Department of Primary School Teaching, Social Scinece Teaching, Turkish Teaching and Science Teaching at Ege University and Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education. The study group is determined by convenience sampling method. Scores of teacher candidates obtained through “Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory†developed by Akbıyık (2002) and students’ overall grade point avarage are used in the study. SPSS 17.00 program is used for analysis of the data. Research design is survey and correlational model.
    Keywords: academic achievement, critical thinking disposition, teacher candidates
    Date: 2014–10
  70. By: Mustafa ER (Turkish Air Force Academy); Ünal ARI (Turkish Air Force Academy)
    Abstract: Education is one of the most effective tools to shape the world and solve its problems. Furthermore the earth and its well-being is heavily dependent upon the education and the number of educated inhabitants who are well aware of the fact that the resources are limited and the environmental protection is essential for the future of the human race. Taking this fact into consideration, the focal point of this paper will be environmental education and sustainable development. Admitting the fact that curricula of educational institutions and educational approaches cannot be the only cure to the environmental problems, they can be used as invaluable tools to develop environmental awareness and help sustainable development. By the help of instructors and educational administrators, educational programs could be developed in such a way that they not only include traditional school subjects like mathematics, science, and reading but also involve courses and/or projects aiming at developing environmental competence of the learners. Designing the programs interdisciplinary approaches rather than traditional ones would be of great contribution to provide the society with citizens respecting the natural resources as social assets. In this respect teachers play an important role and teacher education programs are expected to raise environmental awareness of the prospective teachers. Under the light of those facts, this paper will analyze both some of the teacher education programs of Turkish universities and some of the educational practices in Turkish secondary schools’ programs with a critical approach to set the elements pertaining to environmental education. Furthermore some of the environmental education practices in various countries will also be discussed to illustrate good examples. Recommendations on curricular issues to improve environmental education and sustainable development will also be provided.
    Keywords: Environmental education, sustainable development, curriculum, teacher education
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2014–05
  71. By: Khalid Alsharif (King Saud University)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to report on an ongoing study designed to use a Quality Teaching Framework (NSW, 2003) as a standard framework for teachers in order to examine the gap between mathematics teachers’ practices in Saudi mathematics classrooms and the framework. QT framework identifies three key dimensions of quality teaching that: is prompting high levels of intellectual quality, is promoting a quality learning environment, and is valuing and significant to student’s life. Interestingly, in the last decade in Saudi Arabia, there has been a surge in the amount of education research conducted in the field of teaching and learning mathematics. Notable areas of research focused on improving teachers' pedagogies. Hence, improving mathematics teaching practices in schools has become an important issue in Saudi Arabia. In this study, a questionnaire was developed based on the QT framework and designed to measure the use of the Quality Teaching framework across the three dimensions of the scheme. The survey has eighteen items covering the QT framework. Items were rated on a six point Likert-type scale ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. Altogether 200 males and females primary mathematics teachers in Riyadh participated in the survey. Additionally, semi-structured interviews with selected teachers have been conducted. This paper shows some results of the study and also provides some advice for improving teacher education programs in general.
    Keywords: Mathematics Education, Teacher Education, Professional Development, The Quality Teaching Framework
    JEL: I29 I20
    Date: 2014–06
  72. By: Volkan Cicek (Zirve University); Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hidayet Tok (Zirve University)
    Abstract: In this study, first lesson plans as they are practiced in U.S. educational system are reviewed followed by the Turkish case, and then areas where the two overlap and differ are explained afterwards. Therefore, first daily, overall yearly, and substitute teacher lesson plans are reviewed as they are implemented in the U.S. system. Commonly implemented lesson plan practices include the concept or objectives to be taught, time block, procedures to be used, required materials, questions, independent practice, and evaluation. Ways of writing and implementing lesson plans are reviewed taking into account effective use of class time and classroom management by having positive expectations for student by administering routines about beginning and ending the class and about possible transitions and interruptions that might occur during the class, e.g. taking attendance, addressing the students who missed the work, dealing with students who are tardy, etc by taking into account extracurricular academic activities such as daily starter or warm-up or bell-work extra credit work such as puzzles, brain treasurers, reading assignments, e.g. within Accelerated Reader (A/R) program, etc. for students who finish class assignments early. More effective use of lesson plans via incorporation of C-Scope program into Kindergarten thru 12th grade United States public schools’ academic program is examined. C-Scope is a curriculum support system that is fully aligned to the state mandated curricula designed to provide a common language, process and structure for curriculum development. In Turkish case, There are mainly two types of plans. One of them is unit -based yearly plan and the other one is lesson plan. Unit-based yearly plans are designed by Branch Teachers' Council at beginning of academic year and it is delivered to school administration. Lesson plan is a plan of subject matter that can be studied in a class period or in a few classes period. The teacher is responsible for planning it. Guidebooks prepared by Ministry of Education can be also used instead of lesson plans.
    Keywords: Administrivia, audio-visuals, bell-work, extracurricular, treasurers
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2014–05
  73. By: Emine Özel (Dumlupinar University)
    Abstract: Turkish history that expands over very broad lands and long periods of time is explained in the history topics in elementary grade six and seven in the social studies curriculum. To handle educational difficulties caused by this situation, educational technologies possessing many teaching strategies and concurrently addressing many sensory organs should be used. The aim of this research is to determine, aligned the views of students, grade six and seven social studies teachers’ circumstances of the usage of educational technologies during the instruction of history topics in the scope of subject of social studies. For this purpose, 452 grade six and seven students attending the schools in Kutahya city center in the educational year of 2011-2012 were surveyed. In thıs research, it has been found that grade six and seven social studies teachers make no distinction between grade six and seven when using technological tools that, as compared to public schools, various technology is used more often in private schools, that the majority of the students find the use of technology in education beneficial, that an important portion of the teachers use technological tools occasionally in the teaching of history and that projectors, printers and photocopy machines are the most desired tools that students want to be used the most.
    Keywords: Social Studies, History Chapters, Teaching Technologies, Teaching Technologies of Social Studies.
    Date: 2014–07
  74. By: Yousra Mekdad (University of Jijel); Aziz Dahmani (University of bechar); Monir Louadj (University of jijel)
    Abstract: In this article, we seek to study the relationship between education and economic growth.For this purpose, we studied multipleentrances(dimension ) information relating education and Economic Growth on theoretical and empirical background in the first, as the second part of study to analysis and examine the effect of Public spendingon education on economic growth in Algeria over the period 1974-2012. with the use of endogenous growth model. In this model, gross domestic product(GDP) is based on the Cobb Douglas form which is the function was adoptedwith five variables: Real Gross National Product (GDP), Capital (K), Labor (L), Expenditure on Education (SEDU). Two unit root tests (Philips-Perron Test) have been employed to test the integration order of the uses Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Johansen Co-integration test and Causality Test is as analytical techniques for this purpose. The empirical results support the main hypothesis of this study that Public spending on education affects positively economic growth in Algeria. Even though that the most important effect on economic growth is for education, the other three explanatory variables affect also, positively, the economic growth; yet their effect is relatively less important than the effect of education.
    Keywords: Economic Growth; Public spending on education; Co-integration Analysis; Causality Tests.
    JEL: A10 A20 C59
    Date: 2014–05
  75. By: Boran Toker (Akdeniz University Alanya Faculty of Business); Sedat Çelik (Şırnak University School of Tourism and Hotel Management)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the hotel employees’ job embeddedness and to determine its relationship with links to community, links to organization, and demographic variables. As first introduced by Mitchell et al. (2001), job embeddedness theory suggests a new perspective of exploring why people leave or stay in an organization, and in this theory, it is considered in three factors namely, fit, links and sacrifice. The study, in which the questionnaire survey method was used, was applied on 210 employees that work at the five-star hotels in Alanya. The Job Embeddedness Inventory developed by Mitchell et al. was used in this study. As a result of the factor analysis used on data, there came out three dimensions towards job embeddedness under the names of “organization related sacrificeâ€, “fit to community†and “fit to organizationâ€. As a result of Anova and t-test analyses, however, it is determined that employees, who own their homes, live close to the family roots, that have someone of a family member and close friends near them fit into the organization much more. Besides that, employees, who are married, have a working spouse, live close to the family roots, have someone of a family member and close friends near them showed higher fit into the community. Furthermore, it is determined that mid-level employees had higher levels of organization related sacrifice. It is also determined that the participants, who work in the same position for 6 years or above, are mid-level employees, work in the same organization for 1-3 years and do not participate in any work group at workplace had higher fit into the community. In this case, it can be said that the longer the employees work in an organization, the more positive their fit into the community will be. Moreover, participants that work in the tourism sector for 11 years or above showed high fit into the organization and participants that work in the sector for long years have better fit into the community. It is seen that, as the age increase higher among the employees, their fit into the society increase higher as well.
    Keywords: Job embeddedness, Tourism, Hospitality, Turkey
    JEL: M12 J24 D23
    Date: 2014–06
  76. By: Ali Nazemi (University of Economic Sciences); Anahita Farsaee (University of Economic Sciences)
    Abstract: The electricity markets worldwide have distinctive particularities due to some political and historical reasons. However, principal guidelines of market design remain very similar. The Iranian electricity market has been inaugurated as a pay-as-bid market in 2004. Although the Iranian electricity market has had positive consequences, the economic discussion about proper market design and architecture is in its infancy. The main goal of this paper is analyzing market power and efficiency in the Iranian electricity market.Generally, in spite of the fact that Iranian electricity market is not a high concentrated market, it has potential for non-competitive results. Analyzing results and other facts of the market shows that the most important reason for this is the urgent shortage of supply threshold in this market, rather than the extent of concentration in the industry.
    Keywords: market power, efficiency, Iranian Electricity Market
    JEL: D49
    Date: 2014–07
  77. By: Zühal Çubukçu (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); AyÅŸe Dönmez (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Elif Aydoğdu-Özoğlu (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Zeynep Akın-Demircan (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University)
    Abstract: Some of knowledge, skills, competences are tried to transfer to students in schools with the education and training programs; students' physical, mental, spiritual growth are provided as a holistic perspective. The function of the school is not only to transfer information; is to provide the development of students in many ways. In this respect, the community service implementations are intended to develop student confidence and a sense of responsibility, to create new interests, to improve some skills. Community service implementation contained in Primary and Secondary Schools Social Activities Regulation that was published in 2005 by Ministry of National Education is a reflection of this idea. When examining the related literature, there wasn’t sufficient number of academic studies about community service activities applied in primary and secondary schools in Turkey. The studies were conducted mostly within the scope of "Community Service Implementations" course in universities. In this context, this study can be seen as a guide or sample for activities about community service will be practice in secondary schools involved in the stage of primary education.The purpose of this study is to develop activities about acquisition B which is one of the 14 acquisitions included in relevant legislation and to determine the opinions of students and teachers about these activities. Acquisition B included in relevant legislation is about "making activities about beautify, maintenance and repair of school and ıts environment " In line with this acquisition, three activities were planned and implemented. This study was designed with a qualitative approach. The typical case sampling was used. In this context, students and teachers who study in the classes that activity is done at a secondary school located in the center of Eskisehir are included to study. Data to determine students' opinions were collected by questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers. In addition, researchers took field notes about the implementation process as a participant observer in the classroom. The analysis of the data obtained three key themes has emerged as cognitive, affective and psychomotor qualifications gained by students. In addition, participants were offered some suggestions for the activities. All teachers who participate in activities have stated that community service implementations are important and useful and raise awareness of the students about the related issues.
    Keywords: community service implementations, social awareness, social responsibility, sensitivity
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2014–10
  78. By: Abdelaziz Mahrez (Sohar univeristy); Sami Said Al Wahibi (Sohar University)
    Abstract: The transport sector is having a great attention from governments around the world, especially because of the increasing population, its importance and its necessity for community life. Recently, many countries in the Middle East have turned their attention towards developing and improving their public transport systems, as problems such as traffic congestions in cities, low mobility and high individual costs of transport. This study aims to assess and understand the public’s perception about the situation of the existing transport services in the Sultanate of Oman and indentifies the reasons or ways to boost this sector. The findings of this study showed a positive response from the citizens about public transport and its use. The unavailability of suitable modes of public transport options, their inadequacy in terms of numbers and frequency, and the low level of people’s exposure and awareness of different transport modes have constrained people to use personal vehicles. There is a growing need to introduce newer public transport services in Oman and bolster these services as well as the existing infrastructure to stimulate economic development, increase road safety, and to combat environmental problems. It is recommended to develop innovative solutions and awareness programs to increase individual and collective consciousness about public transport and to encourage people to adopt and use public transport.
    Keywords: Public transport,Public Perception, Oman transport
    Date: 2014–05
  79. By: Shekar Shetty (Gulf University for Science & Technology); Dhari AlAbdulhadi (Gulf university for Science & Technology); Mansour AlShamali (Kuwait Public Authority for Education)
    Abstract: The Saudi stock market is analyzed, using rescaled range analysis to estimate the fractal dimension of price returns and to test the Efficient Market Hypothesis. In order to determine the predictability of a time series, Hurst Exponent for each time series is measured and we find that Saudi market is not totally random during the time period under study. There exists long range dependene in Saudi stock market returns. For most instances, it is determined that the Saudi stock market returns comply with neither the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis nor the random walk assumption. Additionally, for completeness and as part of literature review we bring out Bachelier-Einstein’s absolute Brownian dynamics, and Samuelson-Merton models of Martingale with geometric Brownian dynamic structure of equations.
    Keywords: Fractal analysis, Hurst exponent, Efficient Market Hypothesis, Saudi stock market
    Date: 2014–12
  80. By: Tariq Elyas (King Abdulaziz University)
    Abstract: This article reports on a mixed-method research into cultural representation of Islam in an English language textbook series being used at a Saudi Arabian university. The current study utilized Ideology Critique Methodology and was framed within the Critical Research Paradigm. The research used a structured questionnaire, followed by open-ended questions administered to 30 purposefully chosen language teachers. The study attempted to ascertain, in the light of Muslim teachers’ perceptions, the representation of Islamic (and Saudi) culture, the extent of an international cultural outlook, and presence of any culturally inappropriate or offensive material in the contents of a most popular English language textbook series. The study also evaluated the pedagogical benefits of employing learners’ culture (source culture) in the light of Schema Theory of learning. The study endorsed the idea of appropriation of English according to variable contexts and opposed predominance of western culture in TEIL at the expense of local cultures.
    Keywords: EIL; Intercultural communication; Islamic culture; Saudi Culture; Schema theory; TESOL
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2014–12
  81. By: Fahad Alamr (Dammam University)
    Abstract: Saudi Technical Colleges provide programs in accounting. I summoned all accounting mentors from tow colleges, to discuss their current training strategies. 10 Trainers -out of 12- indicated that they use lecturing most of the time. Accordingly, I proposed a four weeks workshop on strategies for developing worksheets and administering group discussions. A four-weeks workshop was administered during the spring quarter 2013; the first two weeks designated for skill drills and training. The second two weeks the mentors practiced their acquired skills on real live situations. All 12 trainers attended the workshop. Six of them were training one group of students each during this quarter, and the other six were training two groups each. Therefore, our data collection process focused on the results collected from trainers with two groups; we used one group as an experimental group, and the other as a control group.Statistical analyses indicate there is statistically significant deference between the groups, to the benefit of the experimental groups.Some recommendations were suggested.
    Keywords: Saudi, Accounting, Technical,
    JEL: A00 A20
    Date: 2014–07
  82. By: Amer Alsaleh (Kuwait University)
    Abstract: The study has revealed the pattern and trends of motor traffic accidents in Kuwait City from 2010 to 2011. It shows that the accident occurrence was increasing every year, passengers and pedestrians are always at highest risk of being injured or killed on the road, young males are highly prone to motor traffic accidents. The study has also identified qualitatively (by interviews) that the technical element of the highway construction, irresponsibility, poor management, cell phones, alcohol and drugs, age of the victims and poor condition of services as the important risk factors associating to the cause of traffic accidents in Kuwait. In order to reduce traffic accidents in Kuwait City, it is recommended that the government should review legislation regarding employment of drivers. Working conditions of police force should be improved, public road safety campaigns should be conducted, and new driving license system should be imposed. The use of cell phones while driving should be restricted. The hospital and police record keeping should be strengthened, the hospital staff, traffic police and ambulance personnel should be considered for intensive training on emergency and preparedness, and regular vehicle inspection should be introduced in Kuwait City.
    Keywords: Traffic accidents-Risk theory-System theory-Triangulation method
    Date: 2014–05
  83. By: Serdar Ornek (Kocaeli University);
    Abstract: The nature of armed conflict changed dramatically in the 1990s. Interstate wars were replaced by violent intrastate conflicts, which caused the casualties and death of many civilians. Due to the proliferation of internal conflicts which resulted in humanitarian crises, the international community has increasingly recognized the significance of international negotiation or intervention for crisis prevention and response. United Nations peace keeping and humanitarian missions are the major tools used for coping with these kinds of problems. International intervention that involves military action, has increased concerns about violations of the sovereignty of states. The responsibility to protect (R2P) was implemented in order to emphasize the relationship between the terms of state sovereignty and individual human rights. It has not been decided yet whether human rights and humanitarian issues are the subjects of security problems or not. However, some international organizations have been trying to develop new rulesof protection to prevent atrocities and genocides like those in Rwanda and Bosnia.The responsibility to protect the set of principles which defines sovereignty as a responsbility indicates that a state has the responsibility to protect its population from the “four R2P crimesâ€: genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. It generated some controversies when the United Nations Security Council authorized the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to use military intervention in Libya in 2011, an intervention based on R2P. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the development of the concept of the R2P and try to explain the limitations and controversies related to the notions and practices of the R2P. Second, the possibility of applying R2P both internationally endorsed R2P crimes and “non-R2P†crimes will be examined in cases concerning Libya and Syria.
    Keywords: The Responsibility to Protect, Humanitarian Intervention, Libya, Syria, United Nations,
    JEL: K33 F53 H56
    Date: 2014–12
  84. By: Munira Al-Siyabi (Rustaq College of Applied Sciences); Dalal Al-Shekaili (Rustaq College of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: "Phillipson (1996) considers NNESTs to be potentially the ideal ESL teachers because they have gone through the process of acquiring English as an additional language." Even though the above quotation indicates that nonnative English second language teachers are in better stand than native teachers, Omani community is complaining of the inadequate level of new graduates Omani teachers. Al-Mutawa and Kailani (1989) mention that if the teachers lack the "practical command of the target language", they will not be able to teach communicatively (cited in Al-Issa, 2001, p. 7). This paper aims to study the causes of the inadequate level of English student teachers in Omani context. It discusses various ideologies on which the educational system in CAS-Rustaq is based. These ideologies make a fixed framework implemented in training students as teachers, but which in itself looks problematic. One of the main ideologies is methodology knowledge that outweighs language knowledge. The study focuses on both student teachers' and inspectors' perceptions on ELT programme delivered in CAS- Rustaq in order to provide competent NNLT for the Omani schools."Interrelated questionnaire and interview" were employed in ordered to gather the data needed to answer the two main questions of the study (Dornyei, 2007, p. 24). These questions are 1) What are the ideologies of ELT programme delivered in CAS- Rustaq? 2) What are the student teachers' and inspectors' perceptions on ELT programme delivered in CAS- Rustaq? The initial findings of this study reveal a gap between what the student teachers should be equipped with and what they are provided with in ELT programme. The study recommends reviewing ELT programme to meet the needs of competent non-native English teacher.
    Keywords: NNESTSs - ideologies - methodology - language content
    Date: 2014–06
  85. By: Samah SOULEH (University of Biskra -Algeria)
    Abstract: Nowadays, we are moving towards a knowledge economy where the competitiveness of firms is mainly based on their capacity of innovation, and on the management of their intellectual capital. Moreover, it is widely accepted that firm’s innovation capabilities are more closely linked to their intellectual capital than to their fixed assets. The importance of intellectual capital for innovation has attracted researchers interested in determining its elements and the process by which enhances the innovative capabilities and performance of firms (Carmen Cabello-Medina et al, 2011).There is a multi-faceted description of intellectual capital as proposed by intellectual capital theorists. A study by Sveiby (1987), for example, proposed that knowledge-based assets could be found in three places: the competencies of organization members, its internal structure; such as: patents, models, computer and administrative assets, and external structure such as brands, reputation and relationships with customers (Rosmah et al, 2008). As a general perception, intellectual capital has three components: human capital, structural capital and relational capital (Suciu, 2000).The human capital has been emphasized as one of the key success factors of a company. It can be assumed that most successful companies have organized or at least they should have organized their management of the human capital systematically. The management of human capital can be put into practice by applying competence management and knowledge management practices. Numerous studies of competence and knowledge management have been carried out but the practices of this area are still not very well known (Hannula et al, 2003). Moreover, Subramaniam and Youndt (2005) found that the combination of human and social capital positively affected firms’ innovative capabilities (T.T. Selvarajan et al, 2007). This research aims at examining the impact of human capital management on the innovativeness of Scientific Research Centers through competencies and knowledge management approach. The study was applied to the case of Scientific Research Centers in Algeria; such as: (CREAD, CRSTRA, CDTA, CDER, CERIST, CRBt, CRAPC, CSC, CRSTDLA, and CRASC). The data of the study was collected through interviews and a questionnaire during 2011-2013, and it was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 to determine the interaction between the various factors. The findings broadly support the hypothesis and suggest a number of insights about future studies.
    Keywords: Human Capital Management, Knowledge Management , Competencies Management , innovativeness, Scientific Research Centers in Algeria.
    JEL: O15 M10 O15
    Date: 2014–05
  86. By: Neslihan Demirtas Milz (University of Economics Sociology Department)
    Abstract: Everyday conditions of economic hardship and social exclusion produce strong feelings of isolation from city space for low-level construction/service workers in Dubai. On the other hand, the professional upper-middle classes seem to transcend their expatriate/outsider (migrant) position as they embrace advantages of fully integrating with consumer spaces of the city and their participation in broader civic life. In-between these two polar migrant experiences with integration, is situated is situated a third one, which has not been elaborated in detail in the literature: The conditions of young Asian migrants who are university/college graduates and who have strong international communicational skills. This paper draws upon a research that was conducted in 2011 on young migrants (between ages 20-30) from Philippines with such qualities who are working in the shopping malls of Dubai as sales personnel. Within the framework of the research, I conducted 30 in-depth interviews that last 60 minutes each on average. The main quest of this paper is to understand the factors that define the nature of Filipino transnationalism in Dubai. The socio-economic differences among these young Filipino migrants not only define their perception of the city and possibilities of integration with Dubai's social space but also define the nature of their transnational relations back with Philippines.
    Keywords: Transnationalism. Filipino migrants, Dubai, migration policy, socio-spatial integration.
    Date: 2014–05
  87. By: Ali Karabacak (High Graduate School of Karapinar Aydoganlar, University of Selcuk); Ugur Zulkadir (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, University of Selcuk)
    Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate the relevance of lamb sex, birth type and birth rate on birth distribution within the 24-hour daily cycle in Anatolian Merino Sheep. The aim is to find solutions to any problem that could arise in this subject. In this research, birth records obtained from 981 ewes and their 1175 lambs in the private sector in Konya province in the years 2010–2011 were used as a data set. According to the results, the twin birth rate observed was 19.78% and the sex distribution was as follows; 54.54% were females and 45.46% were males. Examining the time of birth revealed the percentage of lambs born between 22:01 and 04:00 was 25.99%, while the percentage was 29.36% between 04:01 and 10:00, 25.57% between 10:01 and 16:00 and 20.08% between 16:01 and 22:00. For sheep giving birth for the first time, the highest birth rate (27.18%) was between 04:01 and 10:00, while for sheep giving birth for the second, third or fourth time the percentages were 28.88%, 31.78% and 29.26%, respectively, and the births occurred at the same time. In the business examined, 53.93% of births took place during daylight hours while 46.07% of births took place at night. The percentage of births between 22:00 and 04:00 was 25.99%.
    Keywords: Anatolian Merino, birth behavior, twin rate, time of birth
    Date: 2014–10
  88. By: Mohammad Taleghani (Department of Industrial Management, College of Management & Accounting, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Guilan)
    Abstract: Today, the services industry is changing in the world. The new technologies have changed the method of service representation to customer in many of service organizations. Bank services have been changed basically because communication and information technology. In this study, it has been identified the electronic Banking acceptance components in branches of keshavarzi bank of Guilan province. The stoical community of this research includes all customers of various branches of keshavarzi bank of Guilan province. The current study statistical sample includes 375 individuals (person) of male and female customers with high education and various jobs that are randomly choose of slightly statistical community, and the obtained data are analyzed using of factorial analysis test.
    Keywords: Electronic Banking, Technology Acceptance, Keshavarzi Bank, Factorial Analysis.
    JEL: M15 M10 M31
    Date: 2014–10
  89. By: Cherroun Reguia (University)
    Abstract: Companies face a strong competitiveness that characterizes the economic environment; however, the shape of this competitiveness has been changed due to many factors to shift from pure competitiveness, where each company works in isolation for its own benefits, to a new sort of competitiveness under a kind of cooperation between many companies and other economic actors, sharing local resources, using similar technologies, abecause they need to be near from the required financial and human resources, as well as the innovation resources, for obtaining the raw materials in high quality and low prices, meanwhile to find near markets to distribute their outputs. This can be only if they work in a region that contains all that through clustering and networking. These linkages and alliances may be between big companies from both private and public sector, as well as small businesses that have been extended worldwide in an accelerated pace. This new type of companies “SMEs†with their specific characteristics need, such kind of cooperation to face the strong competitiveness and to benefit from the external economies, then to maintain a significant market part. In this context Algerian authorities work to implement effecient strategies to encourage clusters in the interest of SMEs in many fields.This paper is divided into three parts; the first one aims to give a theoretical base about the notion of “clustersâ€, the advantages of clusters, types of clusters, and the second part is about SMEs and how can they get benefits from clustering. The last part discusses the Algerian experience in adopting clusters strategies.
    Keywords: Clusters, SME's, Networks.
    Date: 2014–05
  90. By: Gilad Malach (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: This research examines the manners in which policy makers address deep rifts between various segments of a population. At the same time, it analyzes the policy shaped for Israel's Ultra-Orthodox population from the late 1990s. The study offers two primary contributions: first, it presents a theoretical model of "new consociationalism," explaining the ways in which policy makers tackle crises between various social segments; second, the study offers case studies of policies shaped for Israel's Ultra-Orthodox population, according to the mentioned theoretical model and the efforts made by the policy makers to include it in the "triangle" of military service, education and employment.Arend Lijphart, and numerous scholars who followed in his footsteps, established the consociationalism model, arguing that political elites succeed in handling social rifts through four different manners: mutual veto, autonomy, wide coalition and proportional allocation of resources (Jarstad, 2001; Lijphart, 1969; 1977; O’Leary & McGarry, 2004). Primary political science researchers defined religion and state relationship in Israel as consociational (Don-yehiya, 1997; Sharkaski, 1996). Others have shown a crisis in these relations since the 1990's (Barak-Erez, 2010; Cohen & Susser, 2003, Etzioni-Halevi, 2000).My research, based on more than 60 interviews with prominent policy makers, shows that in Israel, governmental bureaucrats succeeded in developing new tools in order to integrate the Ultra-Orthodox society in the aforementioned triangle.In the lecture, I intend to focus on the establishment of an "integrating enclave" for the advancement of the Ultra-Orthodox sector's integration, even at the cost of creating separate frameworks. In all the examined frameworks (i.e., military service, higher education, employment), the designated programs were outlined particularly for the Ultra-Orthodox sector, and activated by Ultra-Orthodox themselves, separately from the general population. Thus, all programs were successful in preserving the Ultra-Orthodox enclave. However, the contents offered were professional/secular and the very exposure to them could shake the walls of the Ultra-Orthodox enclave. Furthermore, the programs aimed to advance the participants' success on the general labor market, and indeed, they did so. Thus, they were also successful in integrating this sector in the general society.Integrative enclave, therefore, is a powerful policy tool. Its use by Israel's policy makers regarding the Ultra-Orthodox society can shed light on further endeavors to deal with majority-minority conflictual relationship in other countries.
    Keywords: Public Policy, Israel, Consociationalism, Rifts, Integration, Conflict Resolution, Minorities
    JEL: D74 J15 L38
    Date: 2014–10
  91. By: Nassr Saleh Mohamad Ahmad (Libya Academy); Abdulghani Leftesi (Libyan Academy)
    Abstract: Traditional MAPs such as standard costing and variance analysis, traditional budgeting and cost volume profit analysis have been under attack for some time now as being out of date and not suitable for today's new manufacturing and business environment. Thus, to keep pace with such new manufacturing and business environment, it becomes imperative for organisations, including Libyan organisation to adopt advanced MAPs such as ABC, JIT, TQM, life cycle assessment and target cost. Purpose: This study seeks to examine the extent to which traditional and advanced MAPs are being used in Libyan manufacturing companies, and investigating the stages of management accounting evolution in the country. Design/Methodology/approach: Data have been collected by utilising eighty-one postal questionnaires with the senior financial staff, such as financial directors, financial managers, the senior management accountant of large and medium size Libyan manufacturing companies from different industrial sectors. Then, an IFAC-based model was applied to analysis the stage of evolution of the management accounting practices in Libya. Finally, the reasons behind this low adoption rate of advanced MAPs were explained. Findings: The results of this study indicate that Libyan manufacturing companies rely heavily on traditional management accounting techniques, while the adoption rates of recently developed or advanced tools were rather low, slow and similar than those presented in other developing countries. Moreover, the analysis revealed that MAPs in Libya were still between stage one and two in IFAC-based model. Thus, almost all of Libyan manufacturing companies are implementing MAPs which provided information for cost determination and financial control and information for management planning and control. Finally, the reasons underlying an apparent low adoption rate of advanced MAPs were explained. These reasons are related to institutional factors, the attributes of adopter and the attributes of advanced MAPs. Limitation: The study is restricted to manufacturing companies, service sector companies raise their own particular issues and require separate in-depth studies. Value: It is envisaged that this initial study will add to the limited literature on MAPs in developing countries and provide a useful framework for further studies, especially those in the Arabic region. Moreover, it provides some insight into the barriers of applying the advanced MAPs, which if they are solved, will pave the way for Libyan organisations to compete globally in the future.
    Keywords: Traditional MAPs, Advanced MAPs, Libyan Manufacturing companies, Libya, Developing countries, Arabic region, IFAC-based Model and Barriers, Institutional factors, The attributes of adopter, The attributes of advanced MAPs.
    Date: 2014–05

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