nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2015‒01‒03
nineteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Economic effects of the Syrian war and the spread of the Islamic state on the Levant By Ianchovichina, Elena; Ivanic, Maros
  2. Wage Inequality and Wage Mobility in Turkey By Tansel, Aysit; Dalgic, Basak; Güven, Aytekin
  3. Measuring Top Incomes and lnequality in the Middle East: Data Limitations and Illustration with the Case of Egypt By Alvaredo, Facundo; Piketty, Thomas
  4. Booze and women: Gendering labor market outcomes of secular consumption patterns in a Muslim society By KIZILCA, F. Kemal
  5. The importance of endogenous capacities and government support in the resilience of regions By Ayda Eraydin
  6. Regional Economic Development and Competitiveness: A Study of Leading and Competitive Sectors of Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa Region, Turkey By Zühal Çelebi Deniz
  7. The Power of the Street: Evidence from Egypt's Arab Spring By Acemoglu, Daron; Hassan, Tarek; Tahoun, Ahmed
  8. Arab Development Symposium I : Food and Water Security in the Arab World By Mustapha Rouis; Imed Limam
  9. Recent Sprawl and Shrinkage Policies Deployed in The Sphere of Urban Management in Turkey: The Case of Ankara By Ahmet Tanju Gültekin
  10. Social Change and Entrepreneurship in Turkey: A Review of National Development Policies By Mehmet Akif Sag; Sami Guven Bilsel
  11. Education attainment in the Middle East and North Africa : success at a cost By Iqbal, Farrukh; Kiendrebeogo, Youssouf
  12. Why MENA Needs a Finance and Private Sector Marshall Plan By Stefanie Ridenour
  13. Response of the Arab Donors to the Global Financial Crisis and the Arab Spring By Mustapha Rouis
  14. Ten Years After Morocco's Family Code Reforms : Are Gender Gaps Closing? By Paul Prettitore
  15. All in the Family : State Capture in Tunisia By Bob Rijkers; Caroline Freund; Antonio Nucifora
  16. MENA Monitor : Economic Pressures Mount By Elena Ianchovichina
  17. Weapons of Choice By Dreher, Axel; Kreibaum, Merle
  18. Gender and Justice in Jordan : Women, Demand, and Access By Paul Scott Prettitore
  19. L'ECODEVELOPPEMENT dans le cadre du Partenariat Euro-Méditerranéen : cas du territoire littoral d'ALGERIE et du MAROC By Khaoua, Nadji; Boumghar, Mohamed Yazid; Kerrouk, Mohamed Said

  1. By: Ianchovichina, Elena; Ivanic, Maros
    Abstract: This paper uses a global computable general-equilibrium framework with new detail on six Levant countries -- the Arab Republic of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, and Turkey -- to quantify the direct and indirect economic effects of the Syrian war and the advance of the Islamic State on the Levant. Syria and Iraq bear the brunt of the direct economic costs, while the other Levant countries lose in per capita but not in aggregate terms. The fact that the Islamic State's spread has undermined regional trade adds to varying degrees to the direct costs in all Levant economies and in the case of Syria and Iraq doubles the welfare losses. All these countries are foregoing opportunities to expand intra-Levant trade and the associated gains in economic efficiency and diversification. The average welfare effects are not indicative of within-country incidence, which varies among workers, landowners, and capitalists.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Insurance&Risk Mitigation,Trade and Services,Free Trade,Trade Policy
    Date: 2014–12–01
  2. By: Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University); Dalgic, Basak (Hacettepe University); Güven, Aytekin (Abant Izzet Baysal University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates wage inequality and wage mobility in Turkey using the Surveys on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). This is the first paper that explores wage mobility for Turkey. It differs from the existing literature by providing analyses of wage inequality and wage mobility over various socioeconomic groups such as gender, age, education and sector of economic activity. We first present an overview of the evolution of wages and wage inequality over the period 2005-2011. Next, we compute several measures of wage mobility and explore the link between wage inequality and wage mobility. Further, we compute the transition matrices which show movements of individuals across the wage distribution from one period to another and investigate the determinants of transition probabilities using a multinomial logit model. The results show that overall the real wages increased over the study period and wage inequality exhibits a slight increase. Wage inequality is one of the highest among the European Union (EU) countries. The wage mobility in Turkey is lower than what is observed in the European Union countries although it increases as time horizon expands. Wage mobility has an equalizing impact on the wage distribution, however; this impact is not substantial enough to overcome the high and persistent wage inequality in Turkey.
    Keywords: wage inequality, wage mobility, heterogeneity, Turkey
    JEL: D31 D63 J31 J60
    Date: 2014–11
  3. By: Alvaredo, Facundo; Piketty, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper discusses the data limitations associated with the measurement of top incomes and inequality in the Middle East, with special emphasis to the case of Egypt. It has been noted that high inequality might have contributed to the Arab spring revolt movement. Some studies have argued however that measured inequality in Middle East countries is not particularly large by international standards, and that popular discontent mostly reflects the perceived level of inequality, and the perceived (un)fairness of the distribution. In this paper we review the evidence and present new estimates. We come with two main conclusions. First, data sources at the national level are insufficient to derive reliable estimates of top income shares in a country like Egypt(or in other Middle East countries). One would need reliable fiscal sources in order to make a precise comparison with other emerging or developed countries. Unfortunately, such sources are lacking in most of the region. Next, and irrespective of these uncertainties on within-country inequalities, there is no doubt that income inequality is extremely large at the level of the Middle East taken as whole-simply because regional inequality in per capita GNP is particularly large. According to our benchmark estimates, the share of total Middle East income accruing to the top 10% income receivers is currently 55% (vs.48% in the United States,36% in Western Europe, and 54% in South Africa). Under plausible assumptions, the top 10% income share could be well over 60%, and the top 1% share might exceed 25% (vs. 20% in the United States,11% in Western Europe, and 17% in South Africa). Popular discontent might reflect the fact that perceptions about inequality and the (un)fairness of the distribution are determined by regional (and/or global) inequality, and not only on national inequality.
    Keywords: Egypt; inequality; Middle East; top incomes
    JEL: D3
    Date: 2014–07
  4. By: KIZILCA, F. Kemal
    Abstract: Using information in the household consumption data as a signal of secularity, this study explores the effect of religion on female labor force participation (FLFP) in a Muslim-dominated country, Turkey. A household is categorized as secular if its members report that they consume goods that contradict the conservative interpretations of Islam. This information is then used in FLFP estimations. The analysis is carried out for married and single women, separately. The results show that living in a secular household has a positive and highly significant effect on the probability of labor market participation of married women in urban areas. Secularity is also associated with a reduced probability of unpaid work, which is the most widespread form of female employment in rural areas in Turkey. For single women, most of whom are in the school age, the estimations provide some weaker evidence regarding the positive effect of secularity on the probability of educational participation and paid work.
    Keywords: Consumption, female labor force participation, religion
    JEL: J16 Z12
    Date: 2013–12–01
  5. By: Ayda Eraydin
    Abstract: The importance of endogenous capacities and government support in the resilience of regions The paper aims to discuss the major determinants that make a region more resilient than the other regions and the role of government policies in building resilient regions. It aims to explore both the endogenous factors and government policies and support for regional resilience that enable regions to respond and recover from economic crisis conditions. Therefore, the paper focuses three major questions: How do different regions react to economic crises? Why do some regions manage to overcome the negative conditions created by the economic volatilities and adapt to new conditions, recover or even make use of the new conditions for innovative restructuring, while the others do not? What is the importance of government policies that enables regions to cope with and recover from economic crisis? The paper presents theoretical argumentation on these questions and the case study that identifies the different levels of resilience of Turkish regions and the compares the importance of endogenous capacities and government support both in recession and recovery periods of the economic crisis in Turkey.
    Keywords: resilience; adaptive capacity; government policies
    Date: 2014–11
  6. By: Zühal Çelebi Deniz
    Abstract: Disparities across regions and provinces are on the agenda of both developed and developing countries. Differences in terms of development and income between regions are becoming more important policy challenge particularly in developing countries. As a developing country, inter-regional disparities are seen intensively at east-west direction in Turkey. In recent years with the process of harmonization with the European Union policies, inter-regional disparities problem and regional development policy issues came to the fore in Turkey. In this paper, Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa region, located in Southeast Anatolia, the largest region with respect to population identified as regional growth poles by Ministry of Development, is discussed in the framework of regional economic development and competitiveness. Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa Region is the seventh largest region in Turkey according to population, but socio-economic development rank of the region is 23 between 26 NUTS 2 regions in Turkey. According to economic base model, local economy shapes regions' size and welfare level. "Information about an area's future population is incomplete without a parallel understanding of the local economy that largely shapes its future.' (Klosterman, 1990) In this context, the aim of this paper is two-fold. First is to analyze the regional economy of Diyarbakir-Sanliurfa using the economic base approach to identify main sources of regional economic growth and the driving forces of the local economy. Second is to identify competitiveness of the region by comparing the regional economy with the national economic growth. As method of the study; in order to determine the basic and leading sectors of regional economy, location quotient technique was used. Then shift-share analysis was used to examine competitiveness of the region and to see economic projection of region. Finally findings and results of the two analyses were compared. The findings showed that the region has a rapidly growing economy depend on "agriculture", "construction", "mining", "transportation and storage" and "human health" sectors and also for manufacturing industry "food products", "textiles", "non-metallic products" and "wood products" are basic sub-manufacturing sectors. But results of shift-share analysis showed that regional economy offers competitive advantages especially in "agriculture", "transportation and storage", "trade and wholesale" and sub-service sectors related to "urbanization economies" and "tourism" sector. Although the region has some basic/exporter manufacturing sectors increasing their concentration, the regional economy have low competitiveness for attracting investment in manufacturing. Therefore, in this period many of the manufacturing industry investments have shifted to other more competitive regions.
    Keywords: Regional development; economic growth; competitiveness; economic base; shift-share analysis
    Date: 2014–11
  7. By: Acemoglu, Daron; Hassan, Tarek; Tahoun, Ahmed
    Abstract: During Egypt's Arab Spring, unprecedented popular mobilization and protests brought down Hosni Mubarak's government and ushered in an era of competition between three groups: elites associated with Mubarak's National Democratic Party (NDP), the military, and the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood. Street protests continued to play an important role during this power struggle. We show that these protests are associated with differential stock market returns for firms connected to the three groups. Using daily variation in the number of protesters, we document that more intense protests in Tahrir Square are associated with lower stock market valuations for firms connected to the group currently in power relative to non-connected firms, but have no impact on the relative valuations of firms connected to other powerful groups. We further show that activity on social media may have played an important role in mobilizing protesters, but had no direct effect on relative valuations. According to our preferred interpretation, these events provide evidence that, under weak institutions, popular mobilization and protests have a role in restricting the ability of connected firms to capture excess rents.
    Keywords: corruption; de facto political power; institutions; mobilization; protests; rents; value of connections
    JEL: E02 G12 G3 O11 O43 O53
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: Mustapha Rouis; Imed Limam
    Keywords: Agriculture - Food Security Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Food and Beverage Industry Industry
    Date: 2014–03
  9. By: Ahmet Tanju Gültekin
    Abstract: In today's cities of Turkey, central as well as local urban administrations cannot succeed in attaining the power for planning the developmental trends and/or controlling the future along with bringing solutions to socio-cultural and economic problems. The root cause for this issue lies in the political and economic policies that support the urban expansion which is focused on the ultimate target of increasing urban value. Specifically, massive, secure residential compounds and shopping-centers built during the last couple of decades, private educational facility complexes and business centers constructed during the last two years - all of which are located in areas at the farthest edges of the city - coupled with the urban regeneration implementations initiated on the basis of the arguments foreseeing to increase the quality of life in the areas which promise high profitability, indicate the disownment of the integrated and sustainable planning concept. This situation is kept on-going, through taking refuge in the described objectives of attaining success in urban competitions during the process of globalization, ascension to the European Union, democratization. Such objectives, enforced by laws as of the year 2004, are simultaneously put into implementation partially through the mediation of the existing public bodies and partially through the mediation of new investors in the form of urban sprawl and shrinkage that mostly remain inert and unproductive. This, eventually, is an extension of the deindustrialization trends of neo-liberalism movements dating back to the 1980s. The persistent attitudes of the new political and economic power, backed up by legal, of the subject matter, legitimize the disintegrated planning system that slides over to the vision of increasing the urban value rather than public benefit and the concept of imperative management style, or, in other words, urban management is being handed over to the prioritized profitability concerns. This paper will evaluate this circumstance which the urban management in Turkey has been undergoing and which shapes urban development (or-non-development) through implementation examples realized in Ankara, the Capital city of the country.
    Keywords: urban management; urban sprawl and urban shrinkage; Ankara-Turkey
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Mehmet Akif Sag; Sami Guven Bilsel
    Abstract: The importance of entrepreneurship in a social structure results from the characteristics of entrepreneurs in determining the needs of a society and making investments in that area. Therefore, entrepreneurship is one of the most important factors of the progress for any social structure. On the entrepreneurship, the economics gives increasing importance to the characteristics of social structure. This situation has similar importance on the requirements of entrepreneurship. Two points should be considered in this context while analyzing entrepreneur behaviors. The first one is that entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs works with which social perception. The second one is that whether entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs use social environment they are in with different social groups. Beginning the transitional period from the industrial society to knowledge society in the world, the view of small enterprises can ensure competition efficiency and harmonization in especially social production area has become common. Therefore, ?small and medium enterprises' (SME) are started to be seen as enterprises that can accommodate changing conditions and fill demand gaps in the society quickly because of their dynamic structures. The importance of SMEs that involve great flexibility and productivity together at the international scale increases gradually. Thus, every country creates its own SME. Accordingly, this subject should be considered in terms of social culture since the SME-society relation involves originality for every society. Existing SME literature deals with SMEs independently from cultural structures of societies and considers them under the dominant economic theory. Thus, a standard SME and entrepreneur model approaching to all SMEs in all societies of the world with the same point of view occurs. Within the scope of the study, Turkey's process of social change was separated into mainly three terms starting from 1960 when the industrialization and urbanization rate increased. The effects of social structure characteristics of the terms on entrepreneurship are discussed. The discussion analyzes the policies of 9 different national development plans prepared by the governments and tried to be implemented in the terms between the years of 1963-2013 called as planned period and started at the same years in Turkey. This presentation is aimed at described the reflection of these policies, which are tried to be evaluated with social, economic, and spatial dimensions, on the local entrepreneur and local production spaces.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; SME; development; policy analysis; Turkey
    Date: 2014–11
  11. By: Iqbal, Farrukh; Kiendrebeogo, Youssouf
    Abstract: This paper reviews the experience of the Middle East and North Africa region in education attainment over the past four decades (1970-2010). It documents the following main findings: (a) all countries in the region experienced significant improvements in educational attainment over this period; (b) most countries in the region did better in this regard than comparators that had roughly the same education stocks in 1970; (c) collectively, the region achieved a greater percentage increase in education than other regions; (d) the region's better performance was in part because of higher rates of public spending on education, better food sufficiency status, and a lower initial stock of education in 1970 in comparison with most other developing country regions; and (e) the region had among the lowest payoffs to public spending in terms of increments in education stock; the impressive advance in education was achieved at high cost.
    Keywords: Access&Equity in Basic Education,Education For All,Primary Education,Teaching and Learning,Disability
    Date: 2014–12–01
  12. By: Stefanie Ridenour
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets
    Date: 2014–03
  13. By: Mustapha Rouis
    Keywords: Country Strategy and Performance Conflict and Development - Post Conflict Reconstruction Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Date: 2013–12
  14. By: Paul Prettitore
    Keywords: Social Inclusion and Institutions Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Law Culture and Development - Anthropology Population and Development Social Development Health, Nutrition and Population
    Date: 2014–04
  15. By: Bob Rijkers; Caroline Freund; Antonio Nucifora
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Microfinance Small Scale Enterprise Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Private Sector Development - E-Business Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Industry
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Elena Ianchovichina
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Currencies and Exchange Rates Poverty Reduction - Achieving Shared Growth Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Finance and Financial Sector Development - Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets
    Date: 2013–05
  17. By: Dreher, Axel; Kreibaum, Merle
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of natural resources on whether ethno-political groups choose to pursue their goals with peaceful as compared to violent means, distinguishing terrorism from insurgencies. We hypothesize that organizations are more likely to resort to terrorism rather than rebellion in richer countries where population mobilization is more difficult. We use data from the Minorities at Risk Organizational Behavior (MAROB) project, covering 118 organizations in 13 countries of the Middle East and North Africa over the 1980-2004 period. Our multinomial logit models combine group- and country-specific information and show that ethno-political groups are more likely to resort to rebellion rather than using peaceful means or becoming terrorists when representing regions rich in oil. Groups that participate in exerting power over their region are less likely to turn to large-scale violence.
    Keywords: oil; rebellion; resource curse; terrorism
    JEL: F51 Q34
    Date: 2014–07
  18. By: Paul Scott Prettitore
    Keywords: Law and Development - Human Rights Gender - Gender and Development Gender - Gender and Health Gender - Gender and Law Population and Development Health, Nutrition and Population
    Date: 2013–09
  19. By: Khaoua, Nadji; Boumghar, Mohamed Yazid; Kerrouk, Mohamed Said
    Abstract: Abstract This research, entitled “Eco-development in the light of the euro mediterranean partnership: application to the coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco” wants to focus on the economic and policy causes which conduct to move to the alternative of eco-development as a new growth policy for these southern countries, to preserve their natural resources and enhance a sustainable way for growth. Both Algeria and Morocco, despite their human, material and natural resources, have failed during the last years to attain significant results in their fight against underdevelopment and poverty. More than that, development policies applied by each of these countries are based on, in a major part, the exploitation of their coastal territories and natural resources, which are both limited. The growth level yearly attained during the last decade, have not been more than 3% to 3.5% for each of them, less than estimated growth level of 7%, considered by many researchers as necessary to stabilize poverty and satisfy job demands. The intensive exploitation of natural resources added to the growing pressures on coastal territories has conduct to the rise of environmental damages, which enhance the costs of growth. We can observe that claimed objectives to help these South Mediterranean countries to push growth level, fixed previously by the partnership agreements with E.U., are not in their way to be realized at the level where it have been announced. How can be thinked a global economic model, to enhance growth, preserve environment and coastal territories, in a renewed and more equitable partnership agreement with E.U.? Is it possible to clear such model, which tries to embrace all aspects of this problematic, which is not only economic, but also social, environmental and including also spatial planning? To analyze these aspects, common to the cited growth policy experiences, this work have been conducted simultaneously, in spite of different levels of intensity in research works, at three cities (Annaba, Algiers and Casablanca), and two countries, Algeria and Morocco. It is structured by three main parts: The first addresses a synthesis of major theoretical questions with participate to the comprehension of the “eco development”, as an alternative economic policy based on some chosen indicators like green G.D.P. and green saving supported by a new ecological fiscal policy. Our efforts have begun to deep analysis of these points, trying to find a way to adapt it to cases from coastal territories of Algeria and Morocco, without neglecting some important questions, in economic analysis, about the theoretical status of the concept of “territory”. At what level it can be adopted as concept by this economic and environmental analysis? The second part tries to present coastal territories of each country, underlining main characteristics, which demonstrate their weaknesses: 1, the concentration of the major part of population in each, as indicated by chosen data; 2, the concentration of economic activities, which is underlined by institutional and constructed data, and some indicators, like “regional G.D.P”. The third part is focusing on eco-development as an alternative way of growth for each of the two. It tries to underline, as results obtained by this research, some key elements to draw an alternative global model based on eco-development for the cases cited. The aim is not to focus on the global economic and environmental purpose, like for example climate change. More specifically, we try here to underline a socio-economic and environmental question, facing coastal territories of two neighbors’ South Mediterranean countries. The target is to demonstrate that current growth policies conducted, have not only failed to realize any significant economic change in these countries, but more than that, enhance environmental damages and natural resources loses, especially in the coastal territories, by intensifying exploitations of these weak territories. To attain a significant step of growth and most largely, development, it’s indicated to search a new alternative model for growth, based on conservation of natural resources and environment, especially in these fragile territories. Each of these countries have the possibility, taking into account the actual limits of the agreements signed with E.U., to try renewing mobilization of these agreements to turn their economic system to eco-development, in a renewed “Win - Win” strategy with E.U. Résumé Cette recherche a pour thème « L’Ecodéveloppement dans le cadre du Partenariat Euro-méditerranéen : Application au Littoral d’Algérie et du Maroc ». Elle s’appuie sur l’observation de la réalité économique et environnementale : d’une part les politiques économiques en cours ne réalisent que peu leurs objectifs proclamés de croissance et de développement. Depuis 2000, le taux de croissance économique pour chacun de ces pays, n’a pas dépassé les 3 à 3,5 %. Il n’atteint qu’incidemment 4 % certaines rares années exceptionnelles, alors que plusieurs chercheurs avancent un taux moyen de 7% par an sur une période d’au moins cinq années successives, pour espérer stabiliser la pauvreté et créer suffisamment d’emplois. Cependant, les impacts des échecs de la croissance ne sont pas seulement économiques. Ils sont aussi environnementaux, car les systèmes économiques en place, avec leurs crises et leurs limites et les spécificités propres à chaque pays, n’accordent qu’une faible attention à la préservation de l’environnement et des ressources naturelles. Les dommages environnementaux s’accumulent et se poursuivent, menaçant l’existence même d’une part de ces ressources, sous leurs diverses formes, comme en témoigne la situation de leurs territoires littoraux. De l’autre, ces politiques se sont insérées dans des accords de partenariat avec l’Union Européenne, depuis 2000 pour le Maroc et 2005 pour l’Algérie, sans que les retombées de leurs applications, en termes de croissance économique, ne se vérifient de manière significative, au contraire des objectifs attendus. Comment repenser une autre politique économique, impulsant la croissance interne en préservant l’environnement, dans le cadre d’accords de partenariat plus équitable avec l’U.E. ? Cette autre politique, alternative au modèle économique en cours, peut-elle être tracée dans ses grandes lignes macro-économiques, en vue d’orienter les systèmes économiques en place vers l’écodéveloppement ? Cette alternative doit selon nous, s’élargir aux aspects non strictement économiques (tels que les aspects liés à la localisation territoriale des concentrations urbaines et des activités économiques). Ces aspects relevant de l’intégration de la notion de « territoire » et de la définition d’une politique d’aménagement de ce dernier, surdéterminent les résultats de la croissance, en particulier en matière d’impacts environnementaux et des coûts qu’ils induisent. Ce rapport est le résultat d’une recherche multiple qui a nécessité plusieurs mois de travail, mobilisant différents chercheurs, bien qu’avec des intensités différentes en termes d’efforts. Cette mobilisation a eu lieu en trois sites (Annaba, Alger, Casablanca) et deux pays différents (Algérie et Maroc), nonobstant les difficultés de tous ordres auxquelles ce travail a dû faire face, et dont celles relevant des contacts avec diverses parties, et celles concernant les collectes de données, ne sont pas des moindres. Nous précisons en premier lieu le cadre théorique ainsi que les principales questions auxquelles nous essayons de trouver des réponses objectives. Nous présentons ensuite les territoires littoraux des deux pays, en adéquation avec le thème principal de ce travail. Cette présentation éclaire les champs de l’analyse sur l’opportunité d’un modèle d’écodéveloppement pour ces territoires, dans le cadre du partenariat qui lie ces pays avec l’Union Européenne. Nous tentons enfin de nous interroger sur les résultats économiques et sociaux de leurs accords respectifs avec l’Union Européenne, en vue de pouvoir souligner l’impulsion que produira un modèle d’écodéveloppement négocié jusqu’ici entre chacun de ces pays et l’U.E. Ce thème de recherche ne vise pas à soulever une problématique globale des dommages environnementaux qui touchent le monde dans son ensemble, comme le montre l’exemple du changement climatique et de ses effets. Il s’agit plus modestement de s’intéresser à une problématique spécifique de ces dommages, impactant les territoires littoraux de deux économies en développement partageant une frontière terrestre commune. Cette recherche, la première à notre connaissance sur ce thème appliqué aux territoires littoraux des pays Sud Méditerranéens, vise à montrer par une analyse économique et environnementale, la pertinence de l’opportunité économique, environnementale et sociale d’une alternative visant la transition vers l’écodéveloppement pour ces territoires vulnérables et les deux pays étudiés.
    Keywords: Algérie, Maroc, Territoire littoral, Croissance, Ecodéveloppement
    JEL: Q3 Q5 Q56 Q57 R1 R11 R12
    Date: 2014–10

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