nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2014‒10‒03
eight papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Female labor participation in the Arab world : some evidence from panel data in Morocco By Verme, Paolo; Barry, Abdoul Gadiry; Guennouni, Jamal
  2. Nominal Rigidities in the Market for Housing Rentals in Turkey By Timur Hulagu; Cihan Yalcin; Cihan Yalcin
  3. Turkey Assessment Report 2013 By OECD
  4. Turkey Priorities Report 2013 By OECD
  5. Defining And Measuring Informality In The Turkish Labor Market By Elif Öznur ACAR; Aysit Tansel
  6. The reduction of child mortality in the Middle East and North Africa : a success story By Iqbal, Farrukh; Kiendrebeogo, Youssouf
  7. Tunisia Urban Development and Local Governance Program : Technical Assessment Report By World Bank
  8. قياس أثر المتغيرات النقدية على سعر صرف الدينار الجزائري مقابل الدولار الأمريكي 74-2012 By Abd El Lattif Messitfa; Mohamed Zergoune; Abd El Kader Meerad

  1. By: Verme, Paolo; Barry, Abdoul Gadiry; Guennouni, Jamal
    Abstract: Female labor participation in the Arab world is low compared with the level of economic development of Arab countries. Beyond anecdotal evidence and cross-country studies, there is little evidence on what could explain this phenomenon. This paper uses the richest set of panel data available for any Arab country to date to model female labor participation in Morocco. The paper finds marriage, household inactivity rates, secondary education, and gross domestic product per capita to lower female labor participation rates. It also finds that the category urban educated women with secondary education explains better than others the low level of female labor participation. These surprising findings are robust to different estimators, endogeneity tests, different specifications of the female labor participation equations, and different sources of data. The findings are also consistent with previous studies on the Middle East and North Africa region and on Morocco. The explanation seems to reside in the nature of economic growth and gender norms. Economic growth has not been labor intensive, has generated few jobs, and has not been in female-friendly sectors, resulting in weak demand for women, especially urban educated women with secondary education. And when men and women compete for scarce jobs, men may have priority access because of employers'and households'preferences.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Primary Education,Housing&Human Habitats,Labor Markets,Teaching and Learning
    Date: 2014–09–01
  2. By: Timur Hulagu; Cihan Yalcin; Cihan Yalcin
    Abstract: [EN] Non-financial companies in Turkey have a significant amount of foreign currency (FX) denominated debt on aggregate. Macro figures suggest that corporate sector is in substantial short position in terms of FX debt, implying a significant currency risk. This note tends to explore this risk within a micro perspective by using a firm level dataset. We find that firms in the dataset, which account for a significant amount of economic activity, adopt some internal mechanisms to avoid the currency risk. First of all, firms with small size and high currency risk have reduced their liability dollarization ratios and extended the maturity of FX debt in recent years. In addition, findings suggest that firms with limited export revenues and having high FX denominated debt obtain higher FX profits which compensate a significant amount of their FX financial expenditures. Meanwhile, widespread FX pricing of domestic sales, which are not classified under export revenues, implies a lower currency risk of firms than perceived. [TR] Turkiye’de finansal olmayan firmalarin, makro duzeyde bakildiginda, yuksek miktarda net doviz borcu tasidiklari ve bunun da ozellikle bilanco kanaliyla yuksek doviz kuru riski anlamina geldigi gorulmektedir. Bu notta, TCMB Sektor Bilancosu ve TBB Risk Merkezi verileri kullanilarak firmalarin YP cinsi borclarindan dolayi tasidiklari doviz kuru riskliligi mikro duzeyde degerlendirilmistir. Veri setinde yer alan ve ekonomik faaliyetler icinde onemli bir yere sahip firmalarin kur riskinden kacinmak uzere cesitli mekanizmalara basvurduklari tespit edilmistir. Oncelikle, kucuk olcekli ve yuksek kur riski tasiyan firmalarin giderek borc dolarizasyon oranlarini dusurdugu ve daha uzun vadeli borclandiklari gorulmektedir. Ayrica, ihracat geliri sinirli olup da yuksek duzeyde YP cinsi borcu olan firmalarin daha yuksek net kambiyo kari elde ettikleri ve bunun YP cinsi finansal giderlerin önemli bir kismini karsiladigi belirlenmistir. Bununla birlikte, gelirleri mali tablolarda ihracat olarak siniflandirilamayan ve fiyatlamasi doviz cinsinden yapilan bircok sektordeki yurt ici faaliyetin yayginligi kur riskinin gorunenden daha sinirli olabilecegini ima etmektedir.
    Date: 2014
  3. By: OECD
    Abstract: Each year SIGMA produces assessment reports as a contribution to the EC’s annual reports on EU candidate countries and potential candidates, as well as to its programming of technical assistance. These reports assess progress made in public administration reform by our beneficiary countries. The report for Turkey analyses and takes stock of progress achieved by this country in 2013, with an aim to also provide inputs into its reform agenda. It focuses on external audit.
    Date: 2013–10–31
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: As a continuation of the 2013 SIGMA assessments and as part of a longer-term programme of work, SIGMA has identified country priorities for public administration reform (PAR) for Turkey. Priorities cover the overall PAR needs of the country, including areas which were not covered by the assessments. Priorities in areas outside the scope of SIGMA assessments are based on other analytical sources and SIGMA’s practical experience of working with the country. SIGMA proposes priority 2020 targets for the countries, sub-targets when needed, and sequenced priority activities in 1-2, 3-5 and 5+ year time perspectives.
    Date: 2013–10–31
  5. By: Elif Öznur ACAR (Department of Banking and Finance, Cankaya University, Turkey); Aysit Tansel (Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how informality can be defined and measured in the Turkish labor market. Two alternative definitions of informality are used to explore their relevance and implications for the Turkish labor market using descriptive statistics. They are the enterprise definition and the social security definition. Further, contributions of individual and job characteristics to the likelihood of informality are investigated using multivariate probit analysis under the two definitions. The social security registration criterion is found to be a better measure of informality in the Turkish labor market given its ability to capture the key relationships between several individual and employment characteristics and the likelihood of informality.The study suggests that preference should be given to social security definition of labor informality for a more accurate depiction of the Turkish labor market. The suitability of the two alternative definitions of informality in the Turkish labor market and its implications have not been investigated before.
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Iqbal, Farrukh; Kiendrebeogo, Youssouf
    Abstract: Although child mortality rates have declined all across the developing world over the past 40 years, they have declined the most in the Middle East and North Africa region. This paper documents this remarkable experience and shows that it is broad based in the sense that all countries in the Middle East and North Africa experienced significant declines in child mortality over this period and each country did better than most of its comparators. In looking for the sources of the region’s performance edge, the paper confirms the importance of such determinants of child mortality as income growth, education stock, public spending on health, urbanization, and food sufficiency. In addition, the paper establishes that the initial level of mortality has a substantial influence on the pace of subsequent child mortality decline. Of these factors, food sufficiency status is found to contribute to the region’s performance edge over all developing regions, while the other factors are found to matter to varying degrees in selected pairwise regional comparisons.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Regional Economic Development,Early Child and Children's Health,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Adolescent Health
    Date: 2014–09–01
  7. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Banks and Banking Reform Urban Development - Municipal Financial Management Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Governance - National Governance
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Abd El Lattif Messitfa (LAQSEF, Univ-Ouargla, Alger - Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla (ALGERIA)); Mohamed Zergoune (LAQSEF, Univ-Ouargla, Algeria - Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla (ALGERIA)); Abd El Kader Meerad (LAQSEF, Univ-Ouargla, Algeria - Université Kasdi Merbah Ouargla (ALGERIA))
    Abstract: يهدف هذا البحث إلى تحليل اثر كل من: المستوى العام للأسعار(CPI)، الأرصدة النقدية الحقيقية (RM) وسعر الخصم (DR)على سعر صرف الدينار الجزائري مقابل الدولار الأمريكي(ER) خلال الفترة الممتدة من سنة 1970 إلى غاية 2012، وذلك باستخدام نموذج التعديل الجزئي. النتائج أظهرت بأن المتغير الوحيد الذي يؤثر على سعر صرف الدينار هو المستوى العام للأسعار، وان مرونة سعر الصرف طويلة الأجل بالنسبة لهذا المتغير أكبر من المرونة قصيرة الأجل، إضافة إلى ذلك فان المسار الزمني لسعر الصرف يستوفي شرط استقرار التوازن.
    Keywords: متغيرات نقدية، سعر الصرف، نموذج التعديل الجزئي.
    Date: 2014–06–01

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