nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2014‒03‒22
twelve papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
University of Ottawa

  1. Concvergence or Divergence? Analysis of Human Resource Practices in SME Turkey By Karartı, Tuncay
  2. Crafting symbolic geographies in modern Turkey By Çakir, B.
  3. Does Secular Education Impact Religiosity, Electoral Participation and the Propensity to Vote for Islamic Parties? Evidence from an Education Reform in a Muslim Country By Cesur, Resul; Mocan, Naci
  4. Creative accounting practices and measurement methods: Evidence from Turkey By Ozkaya, Ata
  5. Impact Of Short Selling Activity On Market Dynamics: Evidence From An Emerging Market By Cihat Sobaci; Ahmet Sensoy; Mutahhar Erturk
  6. The Use of Guerilla Marketing In SMEs By Yüksekbilgili, Zeki
  7. Market Power and Collusion on Interconnection Phone Market in Tunisia : What Lessons from International Experiences By Sami Debbichi; Walid Hichri
  8. Explaining the Tunisian Real Exchange: Long Memory versus Structural Breaks By Slim Chaouachi; Zied Ftiti; Frederic Teulon
  9. The impact of vocational training for the unemployed : experimental evidence from Turkey By Hirshleifer, Sarojini; McKenzie, David; Almeida, Rita; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
  10. US Aid for Israel – A Historical Overview By Konstantin Yanovskiy
  11. اشكالية البطالة فى دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي By Elasrag, Hussein
  12. دور رأس المال الفكري في تنمية المشروعات الصغيرة والمتوسطة في الدول الخليجية By Elasrag, Hussein

  1. By: Karartı, Tuncay
    Abstract: This study investigates human resource management (HRM) practices in SME sector Turkey vis-à-vis economic system, history and culture. It attributes to discussion on convergence and divergence by appraising traditional values’ impact on shaping HR practices. The study has been conducted under certain journals, articles, and thesis and conference proceedings addressing major human resource functions, specifically training, job analysis, performance-management, recruitment and selection in Turkey. The paper suggests directional convergence’s presence, which means corporations in Turkey follow constant trends prevailing in the USA or Europe; however the presence patterns take issue with relevance Turkish firms’ understanding and implementation of these trends. Collectivism, mental attitude, and uncertainty turning away appear to deeply impact HRM practices in Turkey, decreasing the likelihood of full convergence. HR practices and literature is dominated by U.S. and European-oriented analysis. As this study provides a close, tho' not comprehensive literature review regarding HR practices in Turkey, its conclusions additionally could also be cypher to countries with the same socio-cultural dynamic, more to suggesting avenues for future analysis.
    Keywords: Convergence, Divergence, HR Practices, SME, Traditional and Modern HR Application
    JEL: M12 M19
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Çakir, B.
    Abstract: Place is a social site of meaning and memory. The critical appreciation of place and its link to power in toponymic studies involve the identity politics of place naming. This paper discusses the relationship between the naming of places and identity construction in Turkey. First, conceptualized as a hegemonic practice, the Turkification of toponyms in the Kurdish region of the country is argued to be part of a broader system of assimilation. Supported by the imposition of particular ethno- nationalist narratives on the past, and conducted with concomitant processes of linguistic and demographic design, top-down and centralized engineering of the country’s toponymic order has two sides; the construction of symbolic Turkish spaces and the cultural erosion of Kurdishness. Later, the research examines the act of naming places as a Kurdish strategy of resistance and a cultural right. As an attempt to remove spatial and linguistic injustice, Kurdish toponymic practices aim at re-asserting the ‘self’ and reclaiming memory, space and identity through the re-introduction of former place names or new alternatives that are conducive to the reparation of the Kurdish identity. The discursive and material struggle over space and the clash between the Turkish and Kurdish discourses on naming places reflect the overall structure of social and political power relations in Turkey.
    Keywords: critical human geography, toponymy, Kurdish assimilation in Turkey, identity politics
    Date: 2014–02–01
  3. By: Cesur, Resul (University of Connecticut); Mocan, Naci (Louisiana State University)
    Abstract: Using a unique survey of adults in Turkey, we find that an increase in educational attainment, due to an exogenous secular education reform, decreases women's propensity to identify themselves as religious, lowers their tendency to wear a religious head cover (head scarf, turban or burka) and increases the tendency for modernity. Education reduces women's propensity to vote for Islamic parties. There is no statistically significant impact of education on men's religiosity or their tendency to vote for Islamic parties and education does not influence the propensity to cast a vote in national elections for men or women. The impact of education on religiosity and voting preference is not working through migration, residential location or labor force participation.
    Keywords: education, religion, Islam, Muslim, voting, modernity, head scarf, burka, Islamic party
    JEL: I2 Z12 D72
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Ozkaya, Ata
    Abstract: A fiscal rule imposed when the budget is not transparent yields more creative accounting to circumvent it and less fiscal adjustment, generating hidden deficits/debts in public sector. This study focuses on creative accounting practices of governments and adds to the literature by measuring hidden debts of the Turkish public sector ranging from the period 1989 to 2010. Accordingly, the author shows that the IMF has been misinformed, indeed has been misled by the Turkish authorities regarding the magnitude of public debt stock at the late 90'. The lacking information deteriorated the IMF' forecasts, which might be one of the main reasons for the failure of the IMF' planned fiscal consolidation at the outset of 2000-2001 crisis. The author' methodology can easily be adapted to any other country in order to identify the different margins on which governments can cheat and manipulate the Government Finance Statistics. --
    Keywords: fiscal rules,creative accounting,contingent liabilities,hidden public debt,IMF policies
    JEL: E62 H61 H63 H83
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Cihat Sobaci; Ahmet Sensoy; Mutahhar Erturk
    Abstract: With unique daily short sale data of Borsa Istanbul (stock exchange of Turkey), we investigate the dynamic relationship between short selling activity, volatil- ity, liquidity and market returns from January 2005 to December 2012 using a VAR(p)-cDCC-FIEGARCH(1,d,1) approach. Our findings suggest that short sellers are contrarian traders and contribute to ecient stock market in Turkey. We also show that increased short selling activity is associated with higher liquidity and decreased volatility. However this relation weakens during the financial turmoil of 2008. Our results indicate that any ban on short sales maybe detrimental for financial stability and market quality of Turkey.
    Keywords: short selling, contrarian trading, nancial stability, market quality, dynamic conditional correlation
    JEL: C51 G11 G14 G18
    Date: 2014–02
  6. By: Yüksekbilgili, Zeki
    Abstract: Guerrilla marketing is defined as an advertising strategy, in which low-cost unconventional means are used, employs various techniques which keep costs at a minimum, and is often adopted by small companies. In this research, 100 SME’s that are working on different sectors in Istanbul have been reviewed to understand if these companies are aware of this marketing strategy and if they have ever used these tactics in their marketing. Although in former studies guerilla marketing is said to be adopted by small companies, this research shows that most of the Turkish SME’s had never used or willing to use guerilla marketing in their past or future marketing plans.
    Keywords: guerilla marketing, turkish SME guerilla marketers, SME
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Sami Debbichi (AEDD - Analyse Economique et Développement Durable - Université de Tunis El Manar); Walid Hichri (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I)
    Abstract: We try in this paper to characterize the state of mobile phone market in Tunisia. Our study is based on a survey of foreign experience (Europe) in detecting collusive behavior and a comparison of the critical threshold of collusion between operators in developing countries like Tunisia. The market power is estimated based on the work of Parker Roller (1997) and the assumption of "Balanced Calling Pattern". We use then the model of Friedman (1971) to compare the critical threshold of collusion. We show that the "conduct parameter" measuring the intensity of competition is not null during the period 1993-2011. Results show also that collusion is easier on the Tunisian market that on the Algerian, Jordanian, or Moroccan one.
    Keywords: Termination rate; Market power; Competition; Mobile phone Market
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Slim Chaouachi; Zied Ftiti; Frederic Teulon
    Abstract: This paper investigates the dilemma of long memory versus a switching regime for the Tunisian real exchange rate (TRER). Empirically, three long memory tests are implemented to examine the long-range dependence in the processes of Tunisian REER. All long memory tests that we used are based on the frequency approach (log- periodogram estimation). While, we apply the Bai Perron (1998, 2003) test in order to detect structural changes in the studied series. In order to discriminate between true long memory or spurious long memory on presence of structural change, we adopt a recent test developed by Perron and Qu (2010). The empirical results show strong evidence in favour of a short memory process with level shifts and not a true long memory process. The presence of structural break traduces that policymakers in Tunisia are unable to react on the exchange rate system through central bank interventions. Therefore, we recommend to Tunisian policymakers to follow a strategy of the market-orientation to make the relevance reforms, such as revisit the weight of dinar with euro, in order to ensure a better managing of the foreign exchange risk and fluctuations.
    Keywords: Real Exchange Rate, Long Memory, Structural Breaks, Spurious, and Tunisia.
    JEL: C22 F31
    Date: 2014–02–25
  9. By: Hirshleifer, Sarojini; McKenzie, David; Almeida, Rita; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
    Abstract: A randomized experiment is used to evaluate a large-scale, active labor market policy: Turkey's vocational training programs for the unemployed. A detailed follow-up survey of a large sample with low attrition enables precise estimation of treatment impacts and their heterogeneity. The average impact of training on employment is positive, but close to zero and statistically insignificant, which is much lower than either program officials or applicants expected. Over the first year after training, the paper finds that training had statistically significant effects on the quality of employment and that the positive impacts are stronger when training is offered by private providers. However, longer-term administrative data show that after three years these effects have also dissipated.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Access&Equity in Basic Education,Primary Education,Education For All
    Date: 2014–03–01
  10. By: Konstantin Yanovskiy (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Historical data on US aid to Israel illustrates incentives of political leaders and special interests, first and foremost in Israel. As on the early stages of Alliance Israel military capabilities could provide valuable services to USA, undermining USSR influence in the Middle East, the current relations are hard to explain by mutual national interests. The paper focus on the political actors' personal incentives, provides explanation for growing exploitation of US Aid by the special interests in Israel, while significance of the aid is approaching to insignificant level and contributes negatively to the country Defense capacity because of political conditionality imposed. The data presented could support a new vision of US-Israel alliance: ceasing of the US Aid programs for Middle East could contribute both countries Defense needs.
    Keywords: Political conditionality; Special interests; political leverage
    JEL: D74 D78 D72 F35
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Elasrag, Hussein
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to study unemployment and job creation in the GCC countries. Population growth rates in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states are at 3% or more, with large numbers of expatriates – in some states, such as the UAE and Qatar, outnumbering locals – creating a disproportionately young population across the GCC. Unaddressed, unemployment could reach 40% for youths aged between 20 and 24, and higher for women. Creating appropriate job opportunities for nationals, and reducing current unemployment, is a critical focus of GCC governments.
    Keywords: unemployment , job creation , GCC countries, Population growth rates
    JEL: E0 J0 J64 J65
    Date: 2014–01
  12. By: Elasrag, Hussein
    Abstract: This study aims to study the role of intellectual capital in developing SME`S in GCC countries. Intellectual capital is being viewed as the real representative concerning the ability of any company to compete or to make success especially after the gradual economic change to the economy based on knowledge. So Intellectual capital becomes the new basis and the most modern production’s factor which regard it as the essential resource to the erection of fortune even more important than the traditional factor of production such as : work, capital and raw materials. Intellectual capital plays important role to support sustained competitive advantage and developing SME`S in GCC countries.
    Keywords: intellectual, SME`S , GCC countries
    JEL: L0 L00 L5 L9 O1 O2 O23
    Date: 2014–01–01

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