nep-ara New Economics Papers
on Arab World
Issue of 2013‒09‒26
eleven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
University of Ottawa

  1. Private Tutoring and the Question of Equitable Opportunities in Turkey By Aysýt Tansel
  2. The Minsky Perspective on Macroprudential Policy By Oğuz Esen; Ayla Oğuş Binatlı
  3. Harnessing Trade Opportunities in the Middle East and North Africa By Jean-Pierre Chauffour; Bernard M.
  4. Wage Compensation for Risk: The Case of Turkey By Polat, Sezgin
  5. Morocco: 2012 Article IV Consultation and First Review Under the Two-Year Precautionary and Liquidity Line—Staff Report; Public Information Notice and Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Morocco By International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
  6. Does Public-Sector Employment Fully Crowd Out Private-Sector Employment? By Alberto Behar; Junghwan Mok
  7. Economic Cooperation Despite of Political Conflict: The Role of Social Embeddedness in Israeli-Palestinian Food Trade By Merkle, Geesche Marie; Ihle, Rico; Liebe, Ulf
  8. Saudi Arabia: Financial Sector Assessment Program Update—Detailed Assessment of Observance of the IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation By International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
  9. Jordan: First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement, Request for Waivers of Nonobservance of Performance Criteria, Modification of Performance Criteria, and Rephasing of Access—Staff Report; Press Release on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Jordan By International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
  10. Türkiye Ekonomik Politika Belirsizliği Endeksi By ERMİŞOĞLU, ERGUN; KANIK, BİROL
  11. Turkiye’de Asgari Ucret–UFE Enflasyonu Iliskisi Uzerine Ampirik Bir Analiz By Yusuf Soner Baskaya; M. Utku Ozmen

  1. By: Aysýt Tansel (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the implications of private tutoring in Turkey for questions of equity regarding the provision of public education, based on an analysis of previously published research. The nature of the private tutoring and its relation to the two national selection examinations in Turkey are also discussed.
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Oğuz Esen; Ayla Oğuş Binatlı
    Abstract: � The recent global financial crisis has underlined the need to go beyond the microprudential perspective to financial instability and move in a macroprudential direction. There is a growing consensus among policymakers and academics that macroprudential policy should be adopted. Through these changes, policymakers appear to be moving in a direction broadly consistent with Minsky’s view. The theoretical framework of macroprudential policy can be found in Minsky’s financial instability theory. Emerging economies, including Turkey, have adopted macroprudential tools to prevent and mitigate system wide risks. This paper offers a Minsky perspective on macroprudential policy and evaluates macroprudential tools through an examination of the Turkish experience as a case study. �
    Keywords: Macroprudential policy, Minsky
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Jean-Pierre Chauffour; Bernard M.
    Abstract: Greater integration into the international economy is a key means through which countries in the Middle East and North Africa can reap the benefits of already existing market opportunities to accelerate economic growth and job creation. An effective economic integration strategy requires complementing reductions in trade barriers with policy reforms to ensure that markets become more competitive (contestable for new entrants) and that operating and transactions costs for firms fall. This paper argues that there are two overarching priority areas for trade-related reforms in many Arab countries: reducing formal trade barriers further, and lowering trade costs through trade facilitation measures and improving “connectivity†for firms, including deeper regional economic integration.
    Keywords: Trade and development, Arab economies, economic integration
    Date: 2013–06
  4. By: Polat, Sezgin (Galatasaray University Economic Research Center)
    Abstract: In this article, I estimate the premium associated with fatal and non-fatal risk within broad industry categories, using official figures provided by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and wage data from the 2010 and 2011 Household Labor Force Surveys. The results show only positive and significant fatal risk premiums in the manufacturing sector, whereas injury risk premiums exist in both the manufacturing and industry-wide samples. When wage heterogeneity is allowed, fatal risk compensation increases along the distribution, while that of injury risk follows an inverse-u pattern. Compared to similar country cases, the VSL and VSI estimates are relatively small and not significant for low wage earners. Industry averages show that longer working hours are correlated with accidents rates which implies the importance of firm heterogeneity and institutional factors on the high level and variance, particularly for Turkey.
    Keywords: Value of a statistical life; Value of a statistical injury; Hedonic wages; Quantile regression
    JEL: J17 J28
    Date: 2013–09–18
  5. By: International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
    Keywords: Article IV consultation reports;External shocks;Fiscal policy;Fiscal consolidation;Fiscal reforms;Financial sector;Banks;Monetary policy;Economic indicators;Staff Reports;Public information notices;Press releases;Precautionary and Liquidity Line;Morocco;
    Date: 2013–04–05
  6. By: Alberto Behar; Junghwan Mok
    Abstract: We quantify the extent to which public-sector employment crowds out private-sector employment using specially assembled datasets for a large cross-section of developing and advanced countries, and discuss the implications for countries in the Middle East, North Africa, Caucasus and Central Asia. These countries simultaneously display high unemployment rates, low private-sector employment rates and high proportions of government-sector employment. Regressions of either private-sector employment rates or unemployment rates on two measures of public-sector employment point to full crowding out. This means that high rates of public employment, which incur substantial fiscal costs, have a large negative impact on private employment rates and do not reduce overall unemployment rates.
    Keywords: Employment;Middle East;Central Asia;North Africa;Public sector;Private sector;Developing countries;Developed countries;Employment, Crowding out, Middle East and Central Asia
    Date: 2013–06–12
  7. By: Merkle, Geesche Marie; Ihle, Rico; Liebe, Ulf
    Abstract: Against the background of the Middle East conflict we study the role of social embeddedness of economic actors belonging to both conflicting parties for their perceptions of transaction problems and capabilities to solve them. Our analysis is based on a quantitative survey among Israeli food wholesalers. We find vivid economic relationships between Israeli and Palestinian traders, no particular problems occur. Continuity of business relations points to a strong role of social embeddedness. Arabic is frequently used in communication referring to an important role of institutional embeddedness. Various trade impediments due to the conflict do not impact Israeli but Palestinian traders.
    Keywords: Food trade, violent conflict, Social embeddedness, quantitative survey, Israel, Palestinian territories, Cooperation, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013
  8. By: International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
    Keywords: Securities regulations;Securities markets;Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes;Financial Sector Assessment Program;Saudi Arabia;
    Date: 2013–07–19
  9. By: International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
    Keywords: Stand-by arrangement reviews;Transition economies;Unemployment;Fiscal policy;Fiscal consolidation;Energy sector;Monetary policy;Economic indicators;Debt sustainability analysis;Staff Reports;Press releases;Performance criteria waivers;Performance criteria modifications;Jordan;
    Date: 2013–05–23
    Abstract: Economic policy uncertainty is now widely accepted as one of the leading factors responsible for the global sluggish recovery. Measurement of these uncertainties is a crucial task for recent disccussions on the effects of policy uncertainty on the economic and financial variables. While indices to measure these economic policy uncertainies for several countries have been constructed, there does not exist one for Turkey. This note reviews the concept of economic policy uncertainty index as an economic policy uncertainty measure by presenting US and Europe indices, introduces a similar index for Turkey, and shows that the constructed index can be used as an uncertainty measure.
    Keywords: Ekonomik Politika Belirsizliği, Türkiye
    JEL: E60 E61 E63
    Date: 2013–09
  11. By: Yusuf Soner Baskaya; M. Utku Ozmen
    Abstract: Bu notta, asgari ucret ile UFE (Uretici Fiyatlari Endeksi) enflasyonu arasindaki iliski incelenmektedir. Sektorlerin teknolojik ozelliklerinin bir sonucu olan kalifiye olmayan is gucu paylarindaki sektorel farkliliklar ve asgari ucretin isveren maliyetlerinde gozlenen degisimler kullanilarak yapilan ampirik analizler, asgari ucretin isverene maliyetindeki artisin kalifiye olmayan isci istihdamina daha fazla yer veren sektorlerde uretici fiyatlarini daha fazla artirdigini gostermektedir. Bu sonuclarin net asgari ucret artislari veriyken de gecerli oldugu gozlenmektedir. Dolayisiyla, kamu maliyesine ek bir yukun ortaya cikmayacagi bir senaryo altinda, net asgari ucret artislari veri iken, asgari ucretin isveren maliyetindeki dususlerin enflasyon gorunumunu olumlu etkileyebilecegi dusunulmektedir. [EN] In this note, the link between minimum wages and PPI inflation is analyzed. The empirical analysis, which exploits the heterogeneity in the unskilled labor ratio across industries and the changes in the employer’s cost of minimum wage, indicates that an increase in the employer’s cost of minimum wage yields a higher producer price increase in the sectors with a higher unskilled labor ratio. This result is robust when the change in the net minimum wage is also controlled for. Hence, the results suggest that for a given net minimum wage increase, a lower employer’s cost of minimum wage can be associated with lower producer price inflation under such a scenario that no additional pressure is asserted on the fiscal balance.
    Date: 2013

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