nep-ara New Economics Papers
on Arab World
Issue of 2012‒01‒03
thirteen papers chosen by
Quentin Wodon
World Bank

  1. Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey By M. Teoman Pamukçu; Erkan Erdil
  2. Nanotechnology research in Turkey: A university-driven achievement By Berna Beyhan; M. Teoman Pamukçu
  3. Individual and Organizational Aspects of University-Industry Relations in Nanotechnology: The Turkish Case By Berna Beyhan; M. Teoman Pamukçu; Erkan Erdil
  4. Quasi-experimental impact estimates of immigrant labor supply shocks: the role of treatment and comparison group matching and relative skill composition By Aydemir, Abdurrahman; Kirdar, Murat G.
  5. Impact of SME policies on innovation capabilities: The Turkish case By Elif Bascavusoglu-Moreau; Mustafa Colakoglu
  6. Riba in La-riba contracts: where to turn in Islamic home financing? By Hasan, Zubair
  7. Technology Transfer in the Global Automotive Value Chain. Lessons from the Turkish Automotive Industry By M. Teoman Pamukçu
  8. Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers in the Turkish Manufacturing Industry By Alper Sönmez; M. Teoman Pamukçu
  9. The role of Islamic finance in enhancing financial inclusion in organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC) countries By Mohieldin, Mahmoud; Iqbal, Zamir; Rostom, Ahmed; Fu, Xiaochen
  10. Good Governance and Bad Neighbors? The Limits of the Transformative Power of Europe By Tanja A. Börzel; Vera van Hüllen
  11. Remittances and Return Migration By Matloob Piracha; Teresa Randazzo
  12. Military spending and economic growth: the case of Iran By Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza
  13. Economic voting and economic revolutionizing? The economics of incumbency changes in European democracies and revolutionary events in the Arab World By Möller, Marie

  1. By: M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Erkan Erdil (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)
    Date: 2011–04
  2. By: Berna Beyhan (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: We deal with nanotechnology research activities in Turkey. Based on publication data retrieved from ISI Web of SSCI database, the main actors and the main characteristics of nanotechnology research in Turkey are identified. Following a brief introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology research, it goes on with a discussion on nanotechnology related science and technology policy efforts in developing countries and particularly in Turkey. Then using bibliometric methods and social network analysis techniques, this paper aims to understand the main actors of the nanoscale research in Turkey and how they collaborate across institutes and disciplines. The research indicates that there has been an exponential growth in the number of research articles published by Turkish nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) scholars for the last ten years. However, the analysis of the main characteristics of nanotechnology research carried out at Turkish universities indicates some drawbacks and barriers to the future development of nanotechnology research in Turkey. These barriers are (i) a high concentration of nanoscale research at certain universities; (ii) low level of interdisciplinarity; (iii) a large number of universities which are not well connected to other universities in the field, and finally (iv) low level of international collaborations. Finally, science and technology policy implications of this research are discussed in the conclusion.
    Keywords: Emerging technologies nanotechnology, nanoscience, scientific publications, SSCI, bibliometric data, social network analysis, collaborations, interdisciplinarity, science and technology policies, emerging economies, Turkey.
    Date: 2011–07
  3. By: Berna Beyhan (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Erkan Erdil (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Emerging nanotechnologies bring a new challenge for developing countries to improve knowledge and technology transfer between universities and firms. In developing countries, weaker ties between academia and the industry seem to be one of the main barriers to the dissemination of nanotechnology innovations. This study aims to understand individual and organizational factors affecting university-industry interactions in emerging nanotechnologies in a developing country context, namely Turkey. For this study, 181 questionnaires were collected from a sample of nano-science and nanotechnology academics who are currently employed by Turkish universities. The results provide that informal / interpersonal and research-related interactions are the most common forms of relationship between academics and firms. On the other hand, the study provides a useful insight to understand how human and social capitals of university-scientists as well as organizational resources/ capabilities influence the formation of links between universities and the industry.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanoscience, emerging technologies, technology transfer, university-industry relations, science and technology policies, probit model, disproportionate stratified sampling, emerging economies, Turkey.
    Date: 2011–06
  4. By: Aydemir, Abdurrahman; Kirdar, Murat G.
    Abstract: This paper examines the employment effects of an increase in labor supply using the politically-driven exodus of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria into Turkey in 1989. The strong involvement of the Turkish state in the settlement of earlier waves of repatriates provides us a strong source of exogenous variation in the 1989 immigrant shock across locations. Using a potential sample of 613 cities and towns in Turkey with variable treatment intensity—in some locations the change in the labor force is almost 10 percent—this analysis places much attention on constructing a matched sample that is well balanced in terms of covariate distributions of the treatment and comparison groups, including matching based on an estimated propensity score. We find a positive effect of repatriates on the unemployment of non-repatriates. In fact, in certain regions, a 10-percentage-point increase in the share of repatriates in the labor force increases the unemployment rate of natives by 4 percentage points. When the analysis is done according to skill groups, we find that the impact is the strongest on the young and on non-repatriates with similar educational attainment.
    Keywords: Labor Force and Employment; Immigrant Workers; Quasi experiments
    JEL: J21 J61
    Date: 2011–12
  5. By: Elif Bascavusoglu-Moreau (Centre for Business Research, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge); Mustafa Colakoglu (TTGV Turkey Technology Development Foundation)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of innovative capabilities in an emerging country context. We focus more particularly on the impact of recent changes in SME policies in Turkey. Using a unique firm-level survey conducted on 45.000 SMEs, innovative capabilities of firms are assessed at three different levels; their innovation efforts, innovation decision and innovative intensity. We analyze and compare the impact of two different incentive schemes; one a purely financial support, and the second, consultancy and technological assistance coupled with financial facilities. Whereas all firms seem to benefit from financial support, only less innovative firms take full advantage of the advisory services. Overall, the determinants of innovative capabilities depend considerably on the type of firms, suggesting the need for differentiated policy measures.
    Keywords: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), technological capability building, innovation, SME policies
    Date: 2011–05
  6. By: Hasan, Zubair
    Abstract: The Musharakah Mutanaqisah Partnership model or the MMP is fast gaining popularity in Islamic home financing, for jurists and the bankers both validate it as a totally interest free structure. We have exploded the myth of thatvalidation in our earlier writings and reinforce our argument here . But on a more important side, we shall show that the construct, which some now refer to as the Zubair Diminishing Balance Model or the ZDBM, is cheaper for the customer without reducing in any way the profit margin for the bankers; Instead, it provides them with a competitive edge over their mainstream rivals at zero cost. The model is more efficient: it uses fewer resources, the rate of return on investment remaining unchanged. Liquidity in the system is improved and social cause is served as the price of a basic human need is lowered. In contrast, the MMP is complicated, implies compound interest in practice, and is prune to Shari’ah frowns. ZDBM is especially fairer in the treatment of default related issues. It also does not invite the tensions which rental determination/revision or property valuation creates in the MMP programs. In this context the paper refers as illustrations to actual cases from some countries where MMP is gaining ground. The innovation of charging on diminishing balance may usher in revolution in finance.
    Keywords: Islam; home finance; La-riba; implicit interest; MMP model; pricing; profit margins; efficiency ZDBM
    JEL: D61 G21
    Date: 2011–12–12
  7. By: M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical UniversityAuthor-Name:Alper Sönmez; Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)
    Date: 2011–11
  8. By: Alper Sönmez (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University); M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Technology spillovers from foreign to domestic firms in emerging economies are considered to be the most important channel through which Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) influence the host economy. Empirical evidence about the existence, magnitude and direction of FDI-related spillovers in these countries is contradictory pointing to the necessity of conducting more econometric studies using firm-level data. We conduct an econometric analysis to assess the impact of FDI-related horizontal technology spillovers on output growth of domestic firms in the Turkish manufacturing industry over 2003-2006. When a broad definition of foreign ownership is adopted, our findings suggest that horizontal spillovers occur from foreign to local firms in the sector of activity. Export-oriented firms do not benefit from these spillovers in contrast to firms producing mainly for the domestic market. However, when foreign ownership is defined according to whether the minority or majority of capital is detained by the foreign partner, horizontal spillovers seem to originate from foreign firms with majority or full foreign ownership while no such effect is associated with minority-owned foreign firms.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), multinational corporations, foreign ownership, productivity, technology spillovers, knowledge spillovers, horizontal spillovers, Turkey.
    Date: 2011–03
  9. By: Mohieldin, Mahmoud; Iqbal, Zamir; Rostom, Ahmed; Fu, Xiaochen
    Abstract: The core principles of Islam lay great emphasis on social justice, inclusion, and sharing of resources between the haves and the have nots. Islamic finance addresses the issue of"financial inclusion"or"access to finance"from two directions -- one through promoting risk-sharing contracts that provide a viable alternative to conventional debt-based financing, and the other through specific instruments of redistribution of the wealth among the society. Use of risk-sharing financing instruments can offer Shariah-compliant microfinance, financing for small and medium enterprises, and micro-insurance to enhance access to finance. And redistributive instruments such as Zakah, Sadaqat, Waqf, and Qard-al-hassan complement risk-sharing instruments to target the poor sector of society to offer a comprehensive approach to eradicating poverty and to build a healthy and vibrant economy. Instruments offered by Islam have strong historical roots and have been applied throughout history in various Muslim communities. The paper identifies gaps currently existing in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) countries on each front, that is, Shariah-compliant micro-finance and financing for small and medium enterprises and the state of traditional redistributive instruments. The paper concludes that Islam offers a rich set of instruments and unconventional approaches, which, if implemented in true spirit, can lead to reduced poverty and inequality in Muslim countries plagued by massive poverty. Therefore, policy makers in Muslim countries who are serious about enhancing access to finance or"financial inclusion"should exploit the potential of Islamic instruments to achieve this goal and focus on improving the regulatory and financial infrastructure to promote an enabling environment.
    Keywords: Access to Finance,Debt Markets,Banks&Banking Reform,Emerging Markets,Islamic Finance
    Date: 2011–12–01
  10. By: Tanja A. Börzel; Vera van Hüllen
    Abstract: The EU’s Eastern Enlargement is considered to be one of the (few) successful experiments of promoting good – both effective and legitimate – governance. By contrast, the EU’s transformative power appears to be weak or non-existent vis-à-vis its (old) neighbors in the South and its (new) neighbors in the East. Both are not only marked by ‘bad governance’ but also lack a (credible) membership perspective. While the Western Balkans and Turkey have made significant progress towards good governance, both with regard to government effectiveness and democratic legitimacy, the European Neighborhood Countries (ENCs) appear to be stuck in transition or never got that far in the first place. Even when the effectiveness of their governance institutions has improved, they remain well behind the other regions and especially their democratic legitimacy is still wanting or even in decline. The paper shows that there is a correlation between an EU membership perspective and the successful transformation of neighboring countries. Therefore, it has been argued that the ineffectiveness of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is due to the lack of this ‘golden carrot’. However, we argue that the prospects of EU membership stabilizes rather than drives the move towards effective and legitimate governance in candidate countries. Thus, a membership perspective is unlikely to either turn around negative or speed up positive developments in the EU’s neighborhood. Even if the ENCs received a membership perspective, it would be unlikely to push them significantly towards democratic and effective governance as long as there is no endogenously driven process of change. Given the EU’s preference for stability and state-building, the ENP does not provide an alternative for promoting good governance either. The ENP clearly lacks transformative power and where it might have some domestic impact, it risks consolidating rather than undermining authoritarian regimes by helping to strengthen their capacities for effective governance.
    Keywords: East-Central Europe; East-Central Europe; EU-South-Eastern Europe; EU-South-Eastern Europe; Turkey; neighbourhood policy; governance
    Date: 2011–12–20
  11. By: Matloob Piracha; Teresa Randazzo
    Abstract: This paper utilises survey data of return migrants to analyse the determinants of remittances sent while the migrants were abroad. We approach our research question from the perspective of three sending countries in the Maghreb, namely Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. We investigate the remittance behaviour using the migrants' conditions before migration as well as during the migration experience. Using a two-part model, we show that the decision to remit and the amount remitted depend on a combination of different migrant characteristics as well as the duration and form of migration. We also consider if the remittance behaviour is dependent on the type of return: decided or compelled. We show that those who decided to return have a higher probability to remit for investment purposes and remit more as the time spent abroad increases.
    Keywords: remittances; return migration; Maghreb countries
    JEL: F22 F24
    Date: 2011–11
  12. By: Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza
    Abstract: Iranian government budget on military over the last decade has been higher than the average of the world. The current increasing international sanctions aim to reduce the military capabilities and capacities of the Iranian government. In this study, we analyze the response of the Iranian economy to shocks in its military budget from 1959-2007, using Impulse Response Functions (IRF) and Variance Decomposition Analysis (VDA) techniques. The Granger causality results show that there is unidirectional causality from military spending to the economic growth. The response of income growth to increasing shocks in the military budget is positive and statistically significant.
    Keywords: Military spending; Economic growth; VAR model; Impulse Response; Sanctions; Iran
    JEL: H50 H56 C22
    Date: 2011–12–20
  13. By: Möller, Marie
    Abstract: While people in democracies can vote their government out when they are discontent with its policies, those in dictatorships cannot do so. They can only attempt to expel the dictator via mass protests or revolutions. Based on a general cause-and-effect mechanism, the author analyzes whether such mass protests are more likely when the economic situation is poor and vote outs are more likely under bad economic conditions. The empirical analysis provides evidence of economic voting in the European democracies. On the other hand, the results for the Arab World show that economic revolutionizing does not occur there. For this reason, the economics of the Arab Spring are analyzed in greater detail. It can be concluded that bad policy is punished in democracies only. Therefore, by using positive analysis, the investigation demonstrates the malfunctioning of the political market in dictatorships. -- In diesem Aufsatz wird der Zusammenhang von Abwahl- bzw. Revolutionswahrscheinlichkeit und der ökonomischen Performance untersucht. Basierend auf einem allgemeinen Ursache-Wirkungs-Mechanismus werden die Thesen abgeleitet, dass eine schlechte ökonomische Performance zwar die Abwahlwahrscheinlichkeit erhöht, nicht jedoch die Revolutionswahrscheinlichkeit, da das Zustandekommen einer Revolution davon abhängt, ob das Kollektivgutproblem gelöst werden kann. Die empirische Analyse der europäischen Demokratien zeigt, dass eine schlechte ökonomische Performance vor einem Wahltermin häufiger mit einer Abwahl als mit einer Wiederwahl einhergeht. Die Untersuchung für Revolutionen und Aufstände in der arabischen Welt dagegen zeigt, dass dort kein solcher Zusammen-hang besteht, weshalb eine genauere Betrachtung der potentiellen ökonomischen Ursachen des arabischen Frühlings erfolgt. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass die ökonomische Performance auch ein Maß für die Qualität der Regierungsarbeit ist, liefert die Analyse ein weiteres, nicht normatives Argument für die Überlegenheit von demokratischen Systemen gegenüber nicht-demokratischen, da schlechte Regierungsführung in letzeren nicht unmittelbar bestraft wird.
    Keywords: economic voting,revolutionary events,Arab Spring,political economy,political protest,degree of democracy,dictatorship,Revolution,Abwahl,Arabischer Frühling,Demokratie,Diktatur,Neue politische Ökonomie
    JEL: D72 H11 P0
    Date: 2011

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